the muscular system

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1

Antagonists

are muscles that oppose or reverse a particular movement.
They serve as primary movers

2

Synergists

help prime movers (agonists) by adding a little extra force to the movement.

3

When synergists act as stabilizers by immobilizing a bone or a muscle's origin, they are called

fixators

4

Sphincters have a __________ arrangement of fascicles.

circular.

5

A convergent arrangement of fascicles will generate

a fan-shaped muscle.

6

In pennate arrangements, the fascicles are

short and they attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of the muscle.

7

Muscles that have a parallel fascicle arrangement can

have a strap-like shape or a spindle shape.

8

Muscle power depends more on the

length, type, and number of muscle fibers than on the degree of shortening upon contraction.

9

Muscles with parallel fascicle arrangement

shorten a great deal upon contracting, [ these types of muscles do not tend to be powerful]

10

the stocky bipennate and multipennate muscles

shorten only a little upon contraction, yet these muscles are powerful.

11

Standing on your toes is an example of a

second-class lever

12

Second-class levers sacrifice

speed and range of motion in favor of strength.

13

Most skeletal muscles of the body act as

third-class levers.

applied force between the fulcrum and the resistance

14

Third-class lever systems allow

a muscle to be inserted close to the joint across which movement occurs.

15

Muscles that form the floor of the oral cavity.

The suprahyoid muscles (the digastric, stylohyoid, mylohyoid, and geniohyoid muscles)

16

Infrahyoid muscles are

straplike muscles that depress the hyoid bone and larynx during swallowing and speaking.

17

Infrahyoid muscles.

Sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, and omohyoid muscles

18

The prime movers of back extension are the

erector spinae muscles

19

The major head flexor muscles are the

sternocleidomastoid muscles.

20

The scalene muscles elevate

the first two ribs and flex and rotate the neck.

21

The latissimus dorsi is

the prime mover of arm extension.

22

The muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities is

the diaphragm

23

The diaphragm is the prime mover of

inspiration.
In its relaxed state, the diaphragm has a dome shape.

24

When the diaphragm contracts, it moves

inferiorly and flattens, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity.

25

As the volume of the thoracic cavity increases,

inhalation occurs and air is drawn into the lungs.

26

Voluntary control of urination is facilitated by the

external urethral sphincter

27

Form the pelvic floor (or pelvic diaphragm).

The levator ani and the coccygeus

28

The deep transverse perineal muscle

supports pelvic organs.

29

The external urethral sphincter surrounds

the urethra and allows for voluntary control of urination.

30

The prime mover of arm extension is the

latissimus dorsi

31

The styloglossus is involved in

retracting and elevating the tongue.

32

Muscles that are involved in chewing and biting movements

pterygoid
buccinator
masseter
temporalis

33

rectus

Straight

34

Transverse

Right angles

35

brevis

short

36

Deltoid

Triangle

37

Synergists are

muscles that help the prime mover by contracting at the same time to add more force or stabilize a part so the movement is more effective.

38

Costal

Rib

39

Carpi

Wrist

40

The hamstrings are fleshy muscles of

the posterior thigh.
They cross the hip joint and knee joint.

41

The hamstrings and the gluteus maximus are the

primary thigh extensors.

42

The iliopsoas is the

primary thigh flexor.

43

The sartorius is able to

flex, abduct, and laterally rotate the thigh.

44

the most powerful movement of the foot and ankle.

plantar flexion [lifts the entire weight of the body]

45

The suffix -glossus means

"tongue."

46

Damage to which muscle would hinder inspiration?

external intercostals

47

The eleven pairs of the external intercostals lie between

adjacent ribs on each side to elevate ribs and increase the volume of the thoracic cavity during inspiration.

48

Pollicis comes from the root pullex, which means

"thumb."

49

Rectus abdominis and external oblique are

two large muscles of the abdominal wall.

50

The deltoid

is a large, thick, triangular muscle forming a rounded mass over the shoulder and upper humerus that abducts the arm.

51

No muscle names indicate

the myofibril composition of a muscle.

52

The extensor digitorum muscle is an example of a

pennate muscle.

53

innervated by the facial nerve.

The zygomaticus

54

All of the extrinsic tongue muscles are innervated by the

hypoglossal nerve.

55

The ________ divides the neck into two triangles.

sternocleidomastoid

56

The ______ increases the intra-abdominal pressure

rectus abdominis

57

The ______ flexes and rotates the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

rectus abdominis

58

_______ adducts the wrist and fingers.

Flexor carpi ulnaris

59

The prime mover for flexion of the thigh is the ______ muscle.

iliopsoas

60

The _____ is a common site for injections in infants who have poorly formed buttocks.

vastus lateralis

61

The _____ is innervated by L5 and S1.

quadratus femoris

62

The __________ is the prime mover of dorsiflexion of the foot.

tibialis anterior

63

Shin splints are caused by __________.

inflammation of the tibialis anterior

64

Muscles that are innervated by the sciatic nerve

  • semimembranosus
  • biceps femoris
  • semitendinosus
65

The obturator nerve supplies what muscles

  • gracilis
  • adductor brevis
  • adductor magnus
66

rotator cuff muscles

-subscapularis
-infraspinatus
-teres minor

67

The __________ assists the triceps brachii in forearm extension.

anconeus

68

muscles of the facethat are innervated by the facial nerve

- zygomaticus
- orbicularis oculi
- mentalis


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