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Green algae called _________ are the closest relatives of land plants.



Land Plants share 4 key traits only with charophytes:

-Rose-shaped complexes for ________ ________.

cellulose synthesis


Land Plants share 4 key traits only with charophytes:

- _________ enzymes



Land Plants share 4 key traits only with charophytes:

-structure of ___________ sperm



Land Plants share 4 key traits only with charophytes:

-formation of a __________ during cell division.



5 key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are ABSENT in the charophytes:

- ___________ ___ _______ (with multicellular, dependent embryos - develop within female parent plant)

Alternation of generations


5 key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are ABSENT in the charophytes:

- _________ ______ produced in sporangia

walled spores


5 key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are ABSENT in the charophytes:

- multicellular ________



5 key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are ABSENT in the charophytes:

- Apical _______



5 key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are ABSENT in the charophytes:

- multicellular dependent ________



Nonvascular plants are commonly called ________.



___________ vascular plants can be divided into clades:

- Lycophytes (club mosses and their relatives)

- pterophytes (ferns and their relatives)



Seedless vascular plants are _________, and are of the same level of biological organization, or grade.



a ________ is an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat.



___________, the "naked seed" plants, and are a clade of seed plants, including the conifers.



A clade of seed plants _________, are the flowering plants.



The life cycles of mosses and other bryophytes are dominated by the ___________ stage.



a ________ germinates into a gametophyte.



________ anchor gametophytes to substrate.



_______ ________ grow out of archegonia, and are the smallest and simplest sporophytes of all extant plant groups.

Bryophyte sporophytes


a _________ consists of a foot, a seta (stalk), and a sporangium, also called a capsule, which discharges spores through a peristome.



Hornwort and moss sporophytes have ________ for gas exchange, liverworts do not



Ecological and Economic Importance of Mosses:

Sphagnum plays an important role in the Earth's ______ ______.

carbon cycle


__________ plants began to diversify during the Carboniferous period.

and they dominate most landscapes today.



Living Vascular plants are characterized by:

life cycles with ________ ________, which are larger than gametophyte.

dominant sporophytes


_________ are modified leaves with sporangia.



______ are clusters of sporangia on the undersides of sporophylls.



__________ are cone-like structures formed from groups of sporophylls.



Type of Vascular Tissue:

________ conducts most of the water and minerals and includes dead cells called tracheids.



Type of Vascular Tissue:

__________ consists of living cells and distributes sugars, amino acids, and other organic products.



________ are organs that anchor vascular plants, they enable vascular plants to absorb water and nutrients from the soil, and may have evolved from subterranean stems.



________ are organs that increase the surface area of vascular plants, thereby capturing more solar energy that is used for photosynthesis.



Leaves are categorized by two types:

-_________, leaves with a single vein, which evolved as outgrowths of stems.



Leaves are categorized by two types:

-________, leaves with a highly branched vascular system, may have evolved as webbing between flattened branches.



Most seedless vascular plants are _________, producing one type of spore that develops into a bisexual gametophyte.



All seed plants and some seedless vascular plants are _________.



Heterosporous species produce megaspores, which give rise to _______ gametophytes.



Heterosporous species also produce microspores, which give rise to ______ gametophytes.



2) All of the following are common to both charophytes and land plants except
A) sporopollenin.
B) lignin.
C) chlorophyll a.
D) cellulose.
E) chlorophyll b.

Answer: B


3) In animal cells and in the meristem cells of land plants, the nuclear envelope disintegrates during mitosis. This disintegration does not occur in the cells of most protists and fungi. According to our current knowledge of plant evolution, which group of organisms should feature mitosis most similar to that of land plants?
A) unicellular green algae
B) cyanobacteria
C) charophytes
D) red algae
E) multicellular green algae

Answer: C


5) Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alternation of generations. No charophytes exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular systematics, the correct interpretation of these observations is that
A) charophytes are not related to either green algae or land plants.
B) plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae.
C) alternation of generations cannot be beneficial to charophytes.
D) land plants evolved directly from the green algae that perform alternation of generations.
E) scientists have no evidence to indicate whether or not land plants evolved from any kind of alga.

Answer: B


Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"?
A) Viridiplantae
B) Plantae
C) Pterophyta
D) Bryophyta
E) Charophycea

Answer: B


What is true of charophytes?
A) They are the ancestors of green algae.
B) They are examples of seedless vascular plants.
C) They are the closest living algal relatives of land plants.
D) They share some features in common with land plants, namely spores surrounded by sporopollenin and alternation of generations.

Answer: C


If the kingdom Plantae is someday expanded to include the charophytes, then the shared derived characteristics of the kingdom will include

1. rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes.
2. chlorophylls a and b.
3. alternation of generations.
4. cell walls of cellulose.
5. ability to synthesize sporopollenin.

A) 1 and 5
B) 1, 2, and 3
C) 1, 3, and 5
D) 1, 4, and 5
E) 1, 2, 4, and 5

Answer: A


Which of the following were probably factors that permitted early plants to successfully colonize land?

1. the relative number of potential predators (herbivores)
2. the relative number of competitors
3. the relative availability of symbiotic partners
4. air's relative lack of support, compared to water's support

A) 1 and 2
B) 2 and 3
C) 3 and 4
D) 1, 2, and 3
E) 1, 2, and 4

Answer: D


Which of the following was not a challenge for survival of the first land plants?
A) sources of water
B) sperm transfer
C) desiccation
D) animal predation
E) absorbing enough light

Answer: D


The following are all adaptations to life on land except
A) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes.
B) cuticles.
C) tracheids.
D) reduced gametophyte generation.
E) seeds.

Answer: A


Which event during the evolution of land plants probably made the synthesis of secondary compounds most beneficial?
A) the greenhouse effect present throughout the Devonian period
B) the reverse-greenhouse effect during the Carboniferous period
C) the association of the roots of land plants with fungi
D) the rise of herbivory
E) the rise of wind pollination

Answer: D


Which of the following statements is true of archegonia?
A) They are the sites where male gametes are produced.
B) They may temporarily contain sporophyte embryos.
C) They are the same as sporangia.
D) They are the ancestral versions of animal gonads.
E) They are asexual reproductive structures.

Answer: B


Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction?
A) Embryophytes are small because they are in an early developmental stage.
B) Both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia.
C) Gametangia protect gametes from excess water.
D) Eggs and sperm of bryophytes swim toward one another.
E) Bryophytes are limited to asexual reproduction.

Answer: B


The leaflike appendages of moss gametophytes may be one to two cell layers thick. Consequently, which of the following is least likely to be found associated with such appendages?
A) cuticle
B) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes
C) stomata
D) peroxisomes
E) phenolics

Answer: C


Considering that the mature sporophytes of true mosses get their nutrition from the gametophytes on which they grow, and considering these generations as individual plants, what is true of the relationship between true moss sporophytes and gametophytes?
A) Sporophytes are endosymbionts of gametophytes.
B) Sporophytes are mutualists of gametophytes.
C) Sporophytes are commensalists of gametophytes.
D) Sporophytes are parasites of gametophytes.

Answer: D


s is true of the gametophytes of all land plants, the gametophytes of true mosses lack stomata. Yet, the feather moss Pleurozium harbors nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Which of the following is a feature of moss gametophytes that is most important for the continued survival of these cyanobacteria in the tissues of the feather moss gametophyte?
A) lack of cuticle
B) lack of vascular tissues
C) lack of true leaves or roots
D) lack of an independent sporophyte
E) lack of multiple cell layers in "leaves" of "buds"

Answer: E


Which of the following is true of the life cycle of mosses?
A) The haploid generation grows on the sporophyte generation.
B) Spores are primarily distributed by water currents.
C) Antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.
D) The sporophyte generation is dominant.
E) The growing embryo gives rise to the gametophyte.

Answer: C


If you are looking for structures that transfer water and nutrients from a bryophyte gametophyte to a bryophyte sporophyte, then on which part of the sporophyte should you focus your attention?
A) spores
B) seta
C) foot
D) sporangium
E) peristome

Answer: C


In which of the following taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition?
A) Pterophyta
B) Bryophyta
C) horsetail (Equisetum)
D) Pterophyta, Bryophyta, and horsetail (Equisetum)
E) Pterophyta and Bryophyta

Answer: B


Which of the following characteristics helped seedless plants better adapt to life on land?
A) a dominant gametophyte
B) photosystem II
C) a chitinous cuticle
D) stomata on leaves
E) an unbranched sporophyte

Answer: D


A botanist discovers a new species of plant in a tropical rain forest. After observing its anatomy and life cycle, he notes the following characteristics: flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant, and no seeds. This plant is probably most closely related to
A) mosses.
B) charophytes.
C) ferns.
D) gymnosperms.
E) flowering plants.

Answer: C


Sporophylls can be found in which of the following?
A) mosses
B) liverworts
C) hornworts
D) pterophytes
E) charophytes

Answer: D


If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite (that is, has both male and female gametangia on the same plant), then it
A) belongs to a species that is homosporous.
B) must be diploid.
C) has lost the need for a sporophyte generation.
D) has antheridia and archegonia combined into a single sex organ.
E) is actually not a fern, because fern gametophytes are always either male or female.

Answer: A


If humans had been present to build log structures during the Carboniferous period (they weren't), which plant types would have been suitable sources of logs?
A) whisk ferns and epiphytes
B) horsetails and bryophytes
C) lycophytes and bryophytes
D) ferns, horsetails, and lycophytes
E) charophytes, bryophytes, and gymnosperms

Answer: D


Which of the following is true of seedless vascular plants?
A) Extant seedless vascular plants are larger than the extinct varieties.
B) Whole forests were dominated by large, seedless vascular plants during the Carboniferous period.
C) They produce many spores, which are really the same as seeds.
D) The gametophyte is the dominant generation.
E) Sphagnum is an economically and ecologically important example.

Answer: B


Which of the following are land plants that use the same means of getting sperm to egg that algae use?
A) true mosses, hornworts, and liverworts
B) ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails
C) all land plants
D) A and B are correct.

Answer: D


Which of the following should have had gene sequences most similar to the charophyte that was the common ancestor of the land plants?
A) early angiosperms
B) early bryophytes
C) early gymnosperms
D) early lycophytes
E) early pterophytes

Answer: B


Of the following list, flagellated (swimming) sperm are generally present in which groups?

1. Lycophyta
2. Bryophyta
3. Angiosperms
4. Chlorophyta
5. Pterophyta

A) 1, 2, and 3
B) 1, 2, 4, and 5
C) 1, 3, 4, and 5
D) 2, 3, and 5
E) 2, 3, 4, and 5

Answer: B


Which of the following is not evidence that charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants?
A) similar sperm structure
B) the presence of chloroplasts
C) similarities in cell wall formation during cell division
D) genetic similarities in chloroplasts
E) similarities in proteins that synthesize cellulose

Answer: B


Which of the following characteristics of plants is absent in their closest relatives, the charophyte algae?
A) chlorophyll b
B) cellulose in cell walls
C) formation of a cell plate during cytokinesis
D) sexual reproduction
E) alternation of multicellular generations

Answer: E


In plants, which of the following are produced by meiosis?
A) haploid sporophytes
B) haploid gametes
C) diploid gametes
D) haploid spores
E) diploid spores

Answer: D


Which of the following is a land plant that has flagellated sperm and a sporophyte-dominated life cycle?
A) fern
B) moss
C) liverwort
D) charophyte
E) hornwort

Answer: A

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