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Endocrine System CHART and /Q&A

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created 2 years ago by Mcha
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updated 2 years ago by Mcha

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1

What are the two parts of the pituitary gland?

anterior and posterior

2

Tropic Hormones -activate other endocrine glands GH -stimulates growth of bones and muscles PRL -stimulates milk production

Major Hormones

Tropic Hormones -activate other endocrine glands GH -stimulates growth of bones and muscles PRL -stimulates milk production

3

Name the 8 major endocrine glands?

pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, thymus, pineal, gonads

4

What regulates the release of anterior pituitary hormones?

hypothalamus

5

Name the 6 major hormones produced by the pituitary gland?

  • GH (growth hormone), TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone), FSH, LH, Prolactin
6

What hormones are produced and released by the thyroid?

T3- (triiodothyronine), T4-(thyroxine), Thyrocalcitonin

7

What is the purpose of T3 and T4?

regulate metabolism

8

What role does the pituitary play in metabolism?.

production and release of TSH when stimulated by the hypothalamus.

9

What does thyrocalcitonon do?

lowers blood calcium by inhibiting bone resorption

10

What does the parathyroid do?

produce PTH (parathyroid hormone) which raises blood Ca levels

11

Where are the adrenal glands located?

on top of the kidneys

12

What are the two endocrine tissues within the adrenal glands?

adrenal medula and adrenal cortex

13

What stimulates the adrenal cortex?

  • ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
14

Glands: Thymus

Hormone: Thymosin

Function: establishes immune system

15

Name the two major hormones secreted by the adrenal medula and their functions?

  • The adrenal medula secretes two catecholamines: epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Epinephrine prepares the body for the fight or flight response by converting glycogen to glucose and increasing HR. Norepinephrine produces extensive vasoconstriction.
16

What does cortisol do and how?

  • increase blood glucose by stimulating gluconeogensis, decrease inflammatory response, decrease immune response
17

Name 3 types of cells in the pancreas/where are they located?

Alpha, Beta, Delta . . . islets of Langerhans

18

What does each cell type secrete and what is the purpose?

  • Alpha . . . glucagon . . . increase glucose via gluconeogensis
  • Beta . . . insulin . . . regulate protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism
  • Delta . . . somatostatin . . . inhibitory hormone
19

What hormones will be affected with anterior pituitary dysfunction?

  • ACTH, GH, LH, FSH, PRL, TSH
20

What assessment findings are common in anterior hypopituitarism?

  • mainly affects thyroid, adrenal, and gonadal function. Atrophy of all endocrine glands, hair loss, impotence, amenorrhea, hypoglycemia
21

Anterior hyperpituitarism often results in altered ACTH or GH secretion; what assessment findings will you see with hyper secretion of these hormones?

  • coarse features, thick heel pads, thick tongue, decreased libido, amenhorrhea, impotence, acromegaly
22

What hormone is undersecreted with Diabetes Insipidus? What gland is affected?

  • ADH (vasopressin) from the posterior pituitary
23

Why does diabetes insipidus result in excess urine production?

ADH promotes resorption of fluid in distal tubules. Without resorption massive amounts of urine are excreted.

24

With SIADH what is the result of over secretion of ADH?

excessive water conservation

25

SIADH and diabetes insipidus are the result of a malfunction of what endocrine gland?

posterior pituitary

26

Hyperthyroidism is also known as?

Graves Disease

27

What is the main function of the thyroid?

metabolism

28

What can cause thyroid storm?

uncontrolled hyperthyroid, surgery, infection

29

Name 2 immediate interventions for a client experiencing thyroid storm?

admin Tylenol, provide cooling blanket

30

Why should you NEVER admin aspirin to a client in thyroid storm?

in can increase thyroid hormone levels

31

What will be the effect of Ca levels with hyperthyroidism?

hypocalcemia

32

What will be the effect of Ca levels with hypothyroidism?

hypercalcemia due to a decrease in Thyrocalcitonin

33

What are the common assessment finding with hypothyroidism?

lethargy, weakness, muscle aches, CHF, dry skin, Brady, constipation, weight gain

34

What is the cause of myxedema coma?

persistently low thyroid production

35

What assessment findings would you see with myxedema coma?

hypotension, hypotermia, hypoglycemia, brady

36

Name the 3 types of corticosteroids?

  • mineralcorticoids: aldersteron (promotes Na+ retention & K+ secretion by kidneys)
  • glucocorticoids: cortisol (raises blood glucose)
  • adrenal sex hormones: androgens & estrogen
37

What will be the effect on serum Ca levels in hyperparathyroid?

increased Ca and bone demineralization

38

What are common assessment findings of hyperparathyroidism?

fatigue, wt loss, fractures, HTN, joint pain, polyuria, renal calculi . . . think increased Ca

39

What two tests will be positive with hypoparathyroidism?

chvotsek and Trousseaus

40

What is a KEY sign of hypoparathyroidism and why?

carpopedal spams indicate neuromuscular irritability – sign of decreased Ca levels

41

What are the classic signs of adrenal hyperfunction?

buffalo hump, moon face, fatigue, muscle weakness, hyperglycemia

42

What is the cause of hyperglycemia in adrenal hyperfunction?

adrenal cortex secrets cortisol which increases blood glucose by stimulating gluconeogensis

43

What is adrenal hyperfunction called?

Cushings Syndrome

44

What is adrenal hypofunction called?

Addisons Disease

45

Name the symptoms of Addisons disease?

hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, GI disturbances, hyperpigmentation due to decreased secretion of cortisol

46

Hypothalamus

Function-Regulate anterior pituitary hormones

Hormone-Hypothalmic-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones

47

What are the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism (Graves)?

  • responsiveness to catecholimes-any of a class of aromatic amines that includes a number of neurotransmitters such as epinephrine and dopamine.
  • increase metabolism
  • increased heat
  • weight change
  • increased appetite
  • insomnia
  • nervousness
  • bruit heard over thyroid
  • warm, sweaty skin
  • exopthalmus-abnormal protrusion of the eyeball or eyeballs.
  • goiter
  • increase systolic BP
  • tremor
48

Gland: Anterior pituitary

Function-Stimulates thyroid

Hormone-Thyroid-stimulating

49

Gland: Anterior pituitary

Function- Stimulates adrenal cortex

Hormone-Adrenocorticotropic

50

Gland: Anterior pituitary

Function-Stimulates gonads

Hormone-Gonadotropic

51

Gland: Posterior pituitary

Function: Promotes water reabsorption by kidney

Hormone: Antidiuretic

52

Gland: Thyroid

Function-Increases metabolic rate

Hormone-Thyroxin

53

Gland: Parathyroid

  • (raises blood calcium; stimulates bone reabsorption)

Function-Parathyroid

Hormone-Maintains blood calcium and phosphorus levels

54

Gland: Adrenal cortex

Function-Promotes gluconeogenesis

Hormone--Glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol)

55

Gland: Adrenal cortex

Function-Promotes sodium reabsorption by kidneys

Hormone-Mineralocorticoids (e.g., aldosterone)

56

Gland: Adrennal medulla

  • (enhances sympathetic effects)

Function-Stimulates fight or flight reaction

Hormone-Epinephrine and norepinephrine

57

Gland: Pancreas

  • (moves glucose into cells, lowers blood glucose)

Function-lowers blood sugar level

Hormone-Insulin

58

Gland: Pancreas

  • (raises blood glucose)

Function-Raises blood sugar level

Hormone-Glucagon

59

Gland: Gonads

  • (stimulates development and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics and other reproductive functions)

Function-Promotes secondary sex characteristics

Hormone-Androgens (male) Estrogens and progesterone (female)

60

Adrenal Cortex

Hormone: Gonadocorticoids

Function: reproductive functions

61

Adrenal Cortex

Hormone: Mineralocorticoids

Function: promotes Na+ retention & K+ secretion by kidneys

62

Gland: ANDRENAL CORTEX

Hormone: Glucocorticoids

Function: raises blood glucose

63

GLAND: Thyroid Gland

Function: stimulates bone formation; lowers blood calcium

Hormone: Calcitonin

64

Gland:Thyroid Gland

Hormone: T4, T3

Function: stimulates metabolism

65

Glands: Pineal

Hormone: Melatonin

Function: affects cyclic activities of the body


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