Medical Terminology Chapter 5

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Medical Vocabulary
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1

angi/o

blood or lymph vessel

2

aort/o

aorta

3

arteri/o

artery

4

ather/o

plaque, fatty substance

5

brady

slow

6

cardi/o

heart

7

crasia

a mixture or blending

8

emia

blood, blood condition

9

erythr/o

red

10

hem/o

hemat/o

blood, relating to the blood

11

leuk/o

white

12

phleb/o

vein

13

tachy

fast, rapid

14

throm/o

clot

15

ven/o

vein

16

heart

hollow muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity between the lungs.

17

pericardium

pericardial sac

the double walled membrane sac that surrounds the heart

18

membranous

pertaining to membrane

19

pericardial fluid

found between the two layers, acts as a lubricant to prevent friction as the heart beats

20

visceral pericardium

the inner layer of the pericardium that also forms the outer layer of the heart.

21

epicardium

the external layer of the heart and the inner layer of the pericardium

22

myocardium

myocardial muscle

is the middle and thickest of the hearts three layers

23

endocardium

consists of epithelial tissue, is the inner lining of the heart, the surface that comes into direct contact with blood

24

coronary arteries

supply oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium

25

atria

the two upper chambers of the heart

26

interatrial septum

the wall that separates two arterial chambers of the heart

27

ventricles

the two lower chambers of the heart

28

interventricular septum

the wall that separates the two ventricle chambers of the heart

29

tricuspid valve

controls the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle, has three cusps (points)

30

pulmonary semilunar valve

located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

31

pulmonary

pertaining to the lungs

32

semilunar

half moon

33

mitral valve

Bicuspid valve

located between the left atrium and left ventricle, two cusps (points)

34

aortic semilunar valve

located between the left ventricle and the aorta

35

oxygenated

oxygen rich or containing and adequate supply of oxygen

36

deoxygenated

oxygen poor, or not yet containing an adequate supply of oxygen

37

pulmonary circulation

the flow of blood only between the heart and lungs

38

pulmonary arteries

carry deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and into the lungs. This is the only place in the body where deoxygenated blood is carried by arteries instead of veins

39

arterial direction

away from the heart

40

veins

to the heart

41

pulmonary veins

carry oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium of the heart

42

systemic circulation

includes the flow of the blood to all the parts of the body except the lungs

43

heartbeat

the ability to pump blood effectively throughout the body, the contraction and relaxation of the heart must occur in exactly the correct sequence

44

electrical impulses

how the rate and regularity of the heartbeat is determined. nerves create the impulses that stimulate the myocardium of the chambers of the heart

45

conduction system

these elctrical impulses are controlled by the sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node and the bundle of His

46

sinoatrial node (SA)

establishes the basic rhythm and rate of the hearbeat. Known as the natural pacemaker

47

atrioventricular node (AV)

located on the floor of the right atrium near the interarterial septum, from here it transmits the electrical impulses onward to the bundle of His.

48

Bundle of His (HISS)

group of fibers located within the Interventricular septum. these fibers carry and electical impulse to ensure the sequence of the heart contractions

49

Purkinje fibers

specialized conductive fibers located within the walls of the ventricles. relay electrical impulses to the cells of the ventricles and stimulate the ventricles to contract.

50

P wave

depolarization - due to the stimulation of the atria

51

QRS complex

shows the stimulation (contraction) of the ventricles, the atria relax as the ventricles contract

52

T waves

repolarization - the recovery (relaxation) of the ventricles

53

arteries

large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all regions of the body

54

arterial blood

bright red in color because it is oxygen rich

55

aorta

the largest blood vessel in the body, begins from the left ventricle of the heart and forms the main trunk of the arterial system

56

carotid arteries

the major arteries that carry blood upward to the head

57

common carotid artery

located on each side of the neck

58

internal carotid artery

brings oxygen rich blood to the brain

59

external carotid artery

brings blood to the face

60

arterioles

are the smaller thinner branches of arteries that deliver blood to the capillaries

61

capillaries

one epithelial cell in thickness are the smallest blood vessels in the body

62

veins

form low pressure collecting system to return oxygen poor blood to the heart

63

venules

are the smallest veins that join to form larger veins

64

venous

pertaining to veins

65

superficial veins

located near the body surface

66

deep veins

located within the tissues and away from the body surface

67

venae cavae

the two largest veins in the body, these veins return blood into the heart.

68

superior vena cava

transports blood from the upper potion of the body to the heart

69

inferior vena cava

transport blood from the lower portion of the body to the heart

70

pulse

rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the contraction of the heart

71

blood pressure

the measurement of the amount of systolic and diastolic pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries.

72

systolic pressure

which occures when the ventricles contract in the highest pressure against the walls of the artery

73

systole

contraction of the heart

74

systolic

pertaining to this contraction phase.

75

diastolic pressure

which occurs when the ventricles are relaxed, is the lowest pressure against the walls of an artery

76

diastole

relaxation of the heart

77

diastolic

means pertaining to the relaxation phase

78

plasma

straw colored fluid that contains nutrients, hormones, and waste products.

91% water, 9% proteins

79

serum

plasma fluid after the blood cells and the clotting proteins have been removed

80

fibrinogen / prothrombin

are the clotting proteins found in plasma.

81

erythrocytes

mature red blood cells produced by red bone marrow

82

hemoglobin

oxygen-carring blood protein pigment of the erythrocytes

83

globin

protein

84

leukocytes

white blood cells (WBC) the blood cells involved in defending the body against infective organisms and foreign substances

immune cells

85

neutrophils

most common type of WBC. play a major role in the immune systems defense against pathogens

86

phagocytosis

the process of destroying pathogens by surrounding and swallowing them

87

basophils

responsible for causing the symptoms of allergies

88

eosinophils

cells that destroy parasitic organisms and play a major role in allergic reactions

89

lymphocytes

identify foreign substances and germs (bacteria and viruses) in the body and produce antibodies that specifically target them (t cells, b cells)

90

monocytes

through phagocytosis, these provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms

91

thrombocytes

play an important roll in the clotting of blood, they clump together to form a clot to stop the bleeding

92

blood types

classified according to the presence or absence of certain antigens

93

antigens

any substance that the body regards as being foreign

94

4 major blood types

A, B, AB, O

95

RH Factor

defines the presence or absence of the RH antigen on red blood cells

96

blood gases

gases that are normally dissolved in the liquid portion of blood,

Major are Oxygen (O2) Carbon dioxide (CO2) nigrogen (N2)

97

cardiologist

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases and disorders of the heart

98

hematologist

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases and disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues

99

vascular surgeon

physician who specializes in the diagnosis, medical management and surgical treatment of disorders of the blood vessels

100

congenital heart defects

structural abnormalities caused by the failure of the heart to develop normally before birth

101

congenital

present at birth

102

CAD coronary artery disease

atherosclerosis that reduce the blood supply to the heart muscle

103

angina

pain

104

atherosclerosis

hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of cholesterol plaque on the interior walls of the arteries

105

plaque

found within the lumen of an artery, fatty deposit

106

atheroma

deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall, characteristic of artherosclerosis

107

ischemic heart disease

group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart

108

ischemia

condition in which there is an insufficient supply of oxygen in the tissues due to restricted blood flow to a part of the body

109

cardiac ischemia

the lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle

110

Angina (angina pectoris)

a condition in which severe episodes of chest pain occur due to the inadequate flow to the myocardium

111

stable angina

occurs during exertion(exercise) and resolves with rest

112

unstable angina

a condition that may occur during exertion or rest and is a precursor to myocardial infarction

113

myocardial infarction

commonly known as a heart attack. occlusion of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup

114

occlusion

total blockage

115

infarction

sudden insufficiency of blood

116

heart failure / congestive heart failure

heart is unable to pump out all the blood that it receives. common among the elderly

117

congestion

fluid buildup

118

left sided heart failure

accumulation of fluid in the lung

119

right sided heart failure

fluid build up throughout the rest of the body

120

cardiomegaly

abnormal enlargement of the heart

121

carditis

inflammation of the heart

122

endocarditis

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

123

bacterial endocarditis

inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by the presence of bacteria in the blood stream.

124

pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium

125

myocarditis

inflammation of the myocardium, usually a complication of a viral infection

126

cardiomyopathy

all diseases of the heart muscle

127

heart murmur

an abnormal blowing or clicking sound heard when listening to the heart or a neighboring large blood vessels, caused by defective heart valves

128

valvulitis

inflammation of a heart valve

129

valvular prolapse

the abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely

130

prolapse

the falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part

131

valvular stenosis

the condition in which the narrowing, stiffening, thickening or blockage of one or more valves of the heart

132

arrhythmia

the loss of the normal rhythm of the heartbeat

133

asystole/flatline

the complete lack of electrical activity in the heart

134

cardiac arrest

an event in which the heart abruptly stops beating or develops an arrhythmia that prevents it from pumping blood effectively

135

sudden cardiac death

results when treatment of cardia arrest is not provided within 1 hour

136

bradycardia

an abnormally slow resting heart rate

137

tachycardia

an abnormally rapid resting heart rate

138

palpitation

pounding or racing heartbeat with or without irregularity of rhythm

139

fibrillation

describes a rapid or uncontrolled heartbeat

140

atrial fibrillation /a fib

occurs when the normal rhythmic contraction of the atria are replaced by rapid, irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall

141

paroxsymal

pertaining to sudden occurance

142

paroxysmal superventricular tachycardia PSVT

episode that begins and ends abruptly during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that originate in the atrium or the AV node.

143

ventricular fibrillation /v fib

rapid irregular and useless contractions of the ventricles, may cause sudden cardiac death

144

ventricular tachycardia / v tach

very rapid heartbeat that begins within the ventricles, often fatal, because the heart is unable to adequately pump blood

145

vasulitis

inflammation of a blood vessel

146

anglitis / arteritis

inflammation of the arteries

147

polyarteritis

form of vasculitis involving several medium and small arteries at the same time

148

temporal arteritis / giant cell arteritis

form of vasculitis that can cause headaches, visual impairment, jaw pain, and other symptoms

149

angiostenosis

abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel

150

hemangloma

a benign tumor made up of newly formed blood or lymph vessels

151

oma

tumor

152

hypoperfusion

deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part

153

perfusion

the flow of blood through the vessels of an organ

154

aneurysm

localized weak spot or ballon like enlargement of the wall of an artery

155

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries

156

arteriostenosis

the abnormal narrowing of an artery or arteries

157

chronic venous insufficiency

condition in which venous circulation is inadequate due to partial vein blockage or the leakage of venous valves

158

phlebitis

inflammation of vein

159

phleb

vein

160

thrombophlebitis

the walls of the vein are often infiltrated and a clot formed

161

varicose veins

abnormally swollen veins that usually occur in the superficial vein of the legs

162

thrombosis

abnormal condition of having a thrombus

163

thrombus

blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein

164

thrombotic occlusion

the blocking of an artery by a thrombus

165

coronary thrombosis

damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery

166

deep vein thrombosis DVT

condition of having a thrombus attached to the interior wall of a deep vein

167

embolism

the sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus

168

embolus

foreign object (i.e. blood clot) a quantitiy of air or gas, or tissue or tumor that is circulating in the blood

169

peripheral vascular disease

disorders of blood vessels that are located outside of the heart and the brain

170

peripheral arterial occlusive disease

is an example of a peripheral vascular disease that is caused by artherosclerosis

171

Raynauds disease

peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress

172

blood dyscrasia

pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood

173

Hemochronatosis

iron overload disease, genetic disorder where the intestines obsorbs too much iron

174

leukopenia

decrease in the number of disease fighting white blood cells circulating in the blood

175

polycythemia

abnormal increase in the number of red cells in the blood due to excess production of the cells from the bone matter

176

septicemia

bacterecemia

associated with severe infections caused by the presence of bacteria in the blood

177

thrombocytopenia

a condition in which rthere is an abnormally small number of plateletes circulating in the blood

178

thrombocytosis

an abnormal increase in the number of platelets in the circulating blood

179

henorrhage

the loss of a large amount of blood in a short time

180

transfusion reaction

a serious and potentially fatal complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match

181

cholesterol

a fatty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body

182

hyperlipidemia

elevated levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood

183

myelodysplastic syndrome

a group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow

184

anemia

lowerthan normal number of erythrocytes in the blood

185

aplastic anemia

an absence of all formed blood elements caused by the failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow

186

hemolytic anemia

an inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen

187

megloblastic anemia

blood disorder in which the red blood cells are larger than normal

188

pernicious anemia

a lack of the protein intrinsic factoer that helps the body absorb viamin b12, from the GI tract.

189

Thalassemia

inherited blood disorder that causes mild and severe anemia due to reduced hemoglobin and fewer red blood cells than normal

190

Hypertension

consistently elevated high blood pressure of unknown cause

191

Primary hypertension

idiopathic hypertension

essential hypertension

192

Secondary hypertension

caused by a different medical problem, such as kidney disorder or a tumor of the adreanal gland

193

Hypotension

lower than normal arterial blood pressure

194

Orthostatic Hypotension

low blood pressure that occurs upon standing up

195

orthostatic

relating to an upright or standing position

196

angiography

radio-graphic study of the blood vessels after the injection of a contrast medium

197

ACE inhibitor

blocks the action of the enzyme that causes blood vessels to contract, resulting in hypertension.

198

beta block

reduces the workload of the heart by slowing the heart beat

199

diuretic

administered to stimulate the kidneys to increase the secretion of urine to rid the body of excess sodium and water


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