Respiratory system

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1

Air moves into the lungs because

The gas pressure in the lungs becomes less than outside pressure as the diaphragm contracts

2

Alveolar ventilation rate is

the movement of air into and out of the alveoli during a particular time

3

hemoglobin has a tendency to release oxygen where

pH is more acidic

4

in the alveoli, the partial pressure of oxygen is

about 104 mmHg

5

tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume is equal to

inspiratory capacity

6

the elastic cartilage that shields the opening of the larynx during swallowing is the

epiglottis

7

the movement of air into and out of the lungs is called

pulmonary ventilation

8

type of tissue that lines the trachea

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

9

which respiratory measurement is normally the greatest

vital capactiy

10

which respirator structure has the smallest diameter

alveoli

11

involuntary hyperventilation during anxiety attack may cause the person to become faint due to

lowering CO2 levels in the blood and consequent constriction of cerebral blood vessels

12

the terms that describes the increase in depth and force of breathing that occurs during vigorous exercise

hyperventilation

13

about 20% of carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as

dissolved gas in the plasma

14

which of the following controls respiratory rate

medula oblongata

15

3 factors influencing external respiration

partial pressure gradients and gas solubility

thickness and surface area of the respiratory membrane

ventilation- perfusion coupling

16

the loudness of a person's voice depends on

the force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

17

the walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. the function of type II is

to secrete surfactant

18

intrapulmonary pressure is the

pressure withing the alveoli of the lungs

19

surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by

interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

20

with the bohr effect, more oxygen is released because

a decrease in pH weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

21

the most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a health person is

increase of carbon dioxide

22

Nerve impulses from___will result in inspiration

the ventral respiratory group

23

another name for the inflation reflex is

hering-Breuer

24

tidal volume is

normal breathing

25

the lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the

vital capacity

26

since the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange

respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta

27

respiratory control centers are located in the

medulla and pons

28

the amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called

inspiratory reserve air

29

Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH

true

30

more of CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs

false

31

Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation

true

32

CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood

true

33

oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by

diffusion

34

inspiratory capacity is

the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

IC = TV + IRV

35

total lung capacity is the sum of inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve volume

false

36

the functions of the larynx are

To provide a patent airway

to act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels

to function in voice production

37

Lung compliance is determined by distensibility of the lung tissue, resilience of surrounding thoracic cage and surface tension of the alveoli

true

38

the volume of air that stays in the respiratory tube that does not reach to alveoli with each breath is

anatomical dead space

39

transpulmonary pressure - difference between the intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressures (Ppul - Pip)

true

40

Which of the following is the most common complication of premature birth

infant respiratory distress syndrome

41

internal respiration is the gas exchange between pulmonary blood vessels and lung tissues

false

42

breathing air into and out of the lungs is called

external breathing

43

which respiratory measurement is normally about 1200ml?

expiratory reserve volume

44

alveolar type I cells permit exchange of gases by simple diffusion

true

45

which respiratory measurement is normally the smallest

tidal volume

46

surface tension of alveolar fluid draws alveoli to their smallest possible size

true

47

which of the following statement is incorrect

none of the above is incorrect

48

the point of tracheal division is called

carina

49

the elastic cartilage that shields the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the

epiglottis

50

to auscultate to aortic semilunar valve, you would place your stethoscope in the

second intercostal space to the left of the sternum

51

surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of the aveolar fluid

true

52

four processes that helps the respiratory system supply the body with oxygen and dispose carbon dioxide

Pulmonary ventilation - air moves in and out of lungs

external respiration - oxygen diffuses from lungs to blood and CO2 diffuses from blood to lungs

transport of respiratory gases- O2 from lungs to tissue cells, CO2 from tissue cells to lungs

Internal respiration - O2 from blood to tissue, O2 from tissue cells to blood

53

upper respiratory and lower respiratory

upper respiratory consist of structures from the nose to the larynx

lower respiratory consist of structures from the larynx and all structures below it

54

The nose and paranasal sinuses

provides airway for respiration

moistens and warms entering air

filters and cleans inspired air

serves as a resonating chamber for speech

houses the olfactory receptors

55

The pharynx

connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus. divided into three regions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

56

nasopharynx

it serves only as an air passageway. pseudostratified ciliated epithelium.

pharyngeal tonsil - traps and destroys pathogens entering the nasopharynx in air

57

oropharynx

swallowed food and inhaled air pass through it. stratified squamous epithelium

58

laryngopharynx

serves as a passageway for food and air. stratified squamous epithelium

59

respiratory zone

site of gas exchange

60

conducting zone

consist of respiratory passageways from nose to respiratory bronchioles

61

The larynx

provides a patent airway

act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels

voice productions

stratified squamous epithelium

62

arytenoid, cuneiform, corniculate catilages, and epiglottis

pairs of small cartilages. arytenoid anchors the vocal folds.

63

glottis

medial opening between the vocal folds which air passes through

64

vestibular folds

helps close the glottis when we swallow

65

The trachea

descends from larynx through the neck into mediastinum

consis of mucosa, submucosa, and adventitia

66

mucosa

its cilia continually propel debris-laden mucus toward the pharynx

67

submucosa

contains seromucous glands that helps produce mucus sheets within the trachea

68

adventitia

encases the hyaline cartilage

69

bronchi and subdivisions

trachea divides into right main bronchus and left main bronchus. each bronchus divides into lobar bronchi, 3 on the right and 2 on the left. the lobar divides into tertiary bronchi

70

respiratory zone structures

begins as the terminal bronchioles feed into respiratory bronchioles, which leads into alveolar ducts, then leads into alveolar sacs

71

respiratory membrane

formed by the capillary, alveolar walls, and their fused basement membranes

72

Type II aveolar cells

secretes surfactant that coats the gas exposed alveolar surfaces

73

bronchopulmonary segments

right lung has 10 bronchopulmonary segments. left lung consists of 8-10 segments. Each segment is served by its own artery and vein and receives air from an individual segmental bronchus

74

what does a negative respiratory pressure indicate

pressure in that region is lower than atmospheric pressure

75

positive respiratory

pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure and zero respiratory pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure

76

intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul)

pressure in the alveoli

rises and falls with phases of breathing

always equalizes with atmospheric pressure

77

intrapleural pressure (Pip)

pressure in the pleural cavity

Pip is always negative to intrapulmonary pressure

78

What causes negative intrapleural pressure

lungs natural tendency to collapse

surface tension of the alveolar fluid

79

transpulmonary pressure

intrapumonary pressure - intrapleural pressure

keeps lungs from collapsing

the size of transpulmonary pressure determines the size of lungs

80

what will happen if intrapleural pressure is equal to intrapulmonary pressure

the lungs will collapse

81

pulmonary ventilation

depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity

volumes change, pressure changes

pressure changes, flow of gases

82

Inspiration

diaphragm contracts

thoracic cavity volume increases

lungs are stretched, intrapulmonary volume increases

intrapulmonary pressure drops

air flows into lungs

83

expiration

intercostal muscles contracts

thoracic volume decreases

intrapulmonary volume decreaes

intrapulmonary pressure rises

air flows out of lungs

84

lung compliance

stretchy healthy lungs. the greater the lung compliance, the easier the lungs will expand.

determined by: disensibility of lung tissue and alveolar surface tension

85

tidal volume

500ml of air moves in and out of lungs with each breath

86

inspiratory reserve volume

amount of air that can be inspired forcibly beyond tidal volume (2100ml-3200ml)

87

expiratory reserve volume

amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs after normal tidal volume expiration (1000ml-1200ml)

88

residual volume

amount of air that remains int he lungs after expiration (1200ml)

89

inspiratory capacity

amount of air that can be inspired after normal tidal volume expiration

IC = TV + IRV

90

functional residual capacity

amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration

FRC = RV + ERV

91

vital capacity

total amount of exchangeable air

VC = TV + IRV + ERV

92

total lung capacity

sum of all lung volumes

93

dead space

some inspired air fills the conducting respiratory passageways and never contributes to gas exchange in the alveoli (150ml)

94

forced vital capacity

amount of gas expelled when you take a deep breath and forcefully exhale

95

forced expiratory volume

amount of air expelled during specific time intervals of FVC

96

obstuctive pulmonary disease

increased airway resistance

97

restrictive pulmonary disease

reduced total lung capacity

98

alveolar ventilation

AVR = frequency X (TV -dead space) m

99

minute ventilation

total amount of gas that flows in or out of the respiratory tract in a minute (6L/min)

100

3 factors influencing external respiration

partial pressure grandients and gas solubility

thickness and surface area of the respiratory membrane

ventilation- perfusion coupling

101

internal respiration

involves capillary gas exchange in body tissues

tissue cells use O2 for metabolic activities and produce CO2


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