Human Anatomy and Physiology II Final Exam

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Chapters 17-19 East Mississippi Community College
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College: Second year
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1

Gas and nutrient exchange occur in the:

capillaries.

2

The left side of the heart is considered the systemic circuit pump.

True

3

Aldosterone will ________.

promote an increase in blood pressure

4

The layers of the heart wall from superficial to deep are:

epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium

5

The velocity of blood flow is ________.

slowest in the capillaries because the total cross-sectional area is the greatest

6

During the cardiac cycle, heart valves open and close because of:

differences in blood pressure on their two sides.

7

In adults, red blood cell production occurs in__________.

red bone marrow

8

Platelets ________.

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

9

Arteriole blood pressure increases in response to all but which of the following?

falling blood volume

10

Choose the compatible transfusion.

Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood

11

The heart's pacemaker is the:

sinoatrial node.

12

If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ________.

decreased delivery of oxygen

13

A typical normal diastolic arterial blood pressure would be ____________________.

80 mm Hg.

14

A person who lacks agglutinogens A and B would have blood type:

O

15

Aging red blood cells are fragmented and trapped in the:

Spleen

16

Overproduction of white blood cells is called:

leukocytosis.

17

The terms biconcave and anucleated apply to:

red blood cells

18

As red blood cells age ________.

membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged

19

Choose the statement that is true concerning hemoglobin.

It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups.

20

Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called ________.

sinusoids

21

Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ________.

has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium

22

What is the average normal pH range of blood?

7.35-7.45

23

Blood pressure is lowest in which of the following vessels?

Venules

24

The fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker than the right ventricle reveals that it ________.

pumps blood against a greater resistance

25

Blood from the lower limbs is returned to the heart via the:

inferior vena cava.

26

Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the ________.

left atrium

27

The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.

arterioles

28

Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.

Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.

29

Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?

They are nucleated.

30

All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except ________.

low blood viscosity

31

Select the correct statement about blood flow.

Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output.

32

The bicuspid valve directs blood flow in which direction?

From the left atrium to the left ventricle

33

The pulmonary circuit is not active in the developing fetus

True

34

A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in all of the following changes except ________.

decreased size of the heart muscle

35

Blood flows directly from _____ into capillary beds.

arterioles

36

Erythropoiesis is best defined as:

red blood cell production.

37

The role of the coronary arteries is to:

supply blood to the heart tissue.

38

The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is ________.

angina pectoris

39

Which of the following factors does not influence heart rate?

Skin Color

40

An abnormal excess of erythrocytes is called__________.

polycythemia

41

Blood from the brain is returned to the heart via the:

superior vena cava.

42

During contraction of heart muscle cells ________.

some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from intracellular stores

43

Norepinephrine acts on the heart by ________.

causing threshold to be reached more quickly

44

Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?

There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.

45

Erythropoietin is made primarily by the:

kidneys.

46

The special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is ________.

hemoglobin F

47

The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is ________.

shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea

48

Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the ________.

papillary muscles

49

Which blood type is called the universal donor?

O

50

Select the correct statement about the structure of the heart wall.

The myocardium is the layer of the heart that actually contracts.

51

Bilirubin is cleared from the body by:

the liver.

52

Peripheral resistance ________.

increases as blood viscosity increases

53

Choose the correct sequence of current flow through the heart wall.

SA node, AV node, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

54

Identify the correct sequence of blood flow through the chambers of the heart.

Right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle

55

The atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves open and close in response to ____________________.

the difference in blood pressure on their upper and lower sides.

56

At rest, on average, how many times per minute does the heart beat?

75

57

Aortic pressure is highest during ____________________.

ventricular systole.

58

Blood ____________________.

flow through the heart moves in one direction.

59

Cardiac output is:

the amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle in one minute.

60

The first heart sound (the 'lub' of 'lub-dup') is caused by:

closure of the atrioventricular valves.

61

The __________ are attached to the AV valve flaps.

chordae tendineae.

62

The ________ valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

tricuspid

63

Cardiac systole is the period of the cardiac cycle when ____________________.

the atria or ventricles are contracting.

64

Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.

Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.


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