Economics of Money: Chapter 2

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An Overview of the Financial System
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1

Every financial market has the following characteristic.

A) It determines the level of interest rates.

B) It allows common stock to be traded.

C) It allows loans to be made.

D) It channels funds from lenders-savers to borrowers-spenders.

Answer: D

2

Financial markets have the basic function of

A) getting people with funds to lend together with people who want to borrow funds.

B) assuring that the swings in the business cycle are less pronounced.

C) assuring that governments need never resort to printing money.

D) providing a risk-free repository of spending power.

Answer: A

3

Financial markets improve economic welfare because

  1. A) they channel funds from investors to savers.
  2. B) they allow consumers to time their purchase better.
  3. C) they weed out inefficient firms.

D) they eliminate the need for indirect finance

Answer: B

4

Well-functioning financial markets

A) cause inflation.

B) eliminate the need for indirect finance.

C) cause financial crises.

D) allow the economy to operate more efficiently.

Answer: D

5

A breakdown of financial markets can result in

A) financial stability.

B) rapid economic growth.

C) political instability.

D) stable prices.

Answer: C

6

The principal lender-savers are

A) governments.

B) businesses.

C) households.

D) foreigners.

Answer: C

7

Which of the following can be described as direct finance?

A) You take out a mortgage from your local bank.

B) You borrow $2500 from a friend.

C) You buy shares of common stock in the secondary market.

D) You buy shares in a mutual fund.

Answer: B

8

Assume that you borrow $2000 at 10% annual interest to finance a new business project. For this loan to be profitable, the minimum amount this project must generate in annual earnings is

A) $400.

B) $201.

C) $200.

D) $199.

Answer: B

9

You can borrow $5000 to finance a new business venture. This new venture will generate annual earnings of $251. The maximum interest rate that you would pay on the borrowed funds and still increase your income is

A) 25%.

B) 12.5%.

C) 10%.

D) 5%.

Answer: D

10

Which of the following can be described as involving direct finance?

  1. A) A corporation issues new shares of stock.
  2. B) People buy shares in a mutual fund.
  3. C) A pension fund manager buys a short-term corporate security in the secondary market.

D) An insurance company buys shares of common stock in the over-the-counter markets.

Answer: A

11

Which of the following can be described as involving direct finance?

A) A corporation takes out loans from a bank.

B) People buy shares in a mutual fund.

C) A corporation buys a short-term corporate security in a secondary market.

D) People buy shares of common stock in the primary markets.

Answer: D

12

Which of the following can be described as involving indirect finance?

A) You make a loan to your neighbor.

B) A corporation buys a share of common stock issued by another corporation in the primary market.

C) You buy a U.S. Treasury bill from the U.S. Treasury at TreasuryDirect.gov.

D) You make a deposit at a bank.

Answer: D

13

Which of the following can be described as involving indirect finance?

A) You make a loan to your neighbor.

B) You buy shares in a mutual fund.

C) You buy a U.S. Treasury bill from the U.S. Treasury at Treasury Direct.gov.

D) You purchase shares in an initial public offering by a corporation in the primary market.

Answer: B

14

Securities are ________ for the person who buys them, but are ________ for the individual or firm that issues them.

A) assets; liabilities

B) liabilities; assets

C) negotiable; nonnegotiable

D) nonnegotiable; negotiable

Answer: A

15

With ________ finance, borrowers obtain funds from lenders by selling them securities in the financial markets.

A) active

B) determined

C) indirect

D) direct

Answer: D

16

With direct finance, funds are channeled through the financial market from the ________ directly to the ________.

A) savers, spenders

B) spenders, investors

C) borrowers, savers

D) investors, savers

Answer: A

17

Distinguish between direct finance and indirect finance. Which of these is the most important source of funds for corporations in the United States?

Answer: With direct finance, funds flow directly from the lender/saver to the borrower. With indirect finance, funds flow from the lender/saver to a financial intermediary who then channels the funds to the borrower/investor. Financial intermediaries (indirect finance) are the major source of funds for corporations in the U.S.

18

Which of the following statements about the characteristics of debt and equity is FALSE?

A) They can both be long-term financial instruments.

B) They can both be short-term financial instruments.

C) They both involve a claim on the issuer's income.

D) They both enable a corporation to raise funds.

Answer: B

19

Which of the following statements about the characteristics of debt and equities is TRUE?

A) They can both be long-term financial instruments.

B) Bond holders are residual claimants.

C) The income from bonds is typically more variable than that from equities.

D) Bonds pay dividends.

Answer: A

20

Which of the following statements about financial markets and securities is TRUE?

A) A bond is a long-term security that promises to make periodic payments called dividends to the firm's residual claimants.

B) A debt instrument is intermediate term if its maturity is less than one year.

C) A debt instrument is intermediate term if its maturity is ten years or longer.

D) The maturity of a debt instrument is the number of years (term) to that instrument's expiration date.

Answer: D

21

Which of the following is an example of an intermediate-term debt?

A) a fifteen-year mortgage

B) a sixty-month car loan

C) a six-month loan from a finance company

D) a thirty-year U.S. Treasury bond

Answer: B

22

If the maturity of a debt instrument is less than one year, the debt is called

A) short-term.

B) intermediate-term.

C) long-term.

D) prima-term.

Answer: A

23

Long-term debt has a maturity that is

  1. A) between one and ten years.
  2. B) less than a year.
  3. C) between five and ten years.
  4. D) ten years or longer.

Answer: D

24

When I purchase ________, I own a portion of a firm and have the right to vote on issues important to the firm and to elect its directors.

A) bonds

B) bills

C) notes

D) stock

Answer: D

25

Equity holders are a corporation's ________. That means the corporation must pay all of its debt holders before it pays its equity holders.

A) debtors

B) brokers

C) residual claimants

D) underwriters

Answer: C

26

Which of the following benefits directly from any increase in the corporation's profitability?

A) a bond holder

B) a commercial paper holder

C) a shareholder

D) a T-bill holder

Answer: C

27

A financial market in which previously issued securities can be resold is called a ________ market.

A) primary

B) secondary

C) tertiary

D) used securities

Answer: B

28

An important financial institution that assists in the initial sale of securities in the primary market is the

A) investment bank.

B) commercial bank.

C) stock exchange.

D) brokerage house.

Answer: A

29

When an investment bank ________ securities, it guarantees a price for a corporation's securities and then sells them to the public.

A) underwrites

B) undertakes

C) overwrites

D) overtakes

Answer: A

30

Which of the following is NOT a secondary market?

A) foreign exchange market

B) futures market

C) options market

D) IPO market

Answer: D

31

) ________ work in the secondary markets matching buyers with sellers of securities.

A) Dealers

B) Underwriters

C) Brokers

D) Claimants

Answer: C

32

A corporation acquires new funds only when its securities are sold in the

A) primary market by an investment bank.

B) primary market by a stock exchange broker.

C) secondary market by a securities dealer.

D) secondary market by a commercial bank.

Answer: A

33

A corporation acquires new funds only when its securities are sold in the

A) secondary market by an investment bank.

B) primary market by an investment bank.

C) secondary market by a stock exchange broker.

D) secondary market by a commercial bank.

Answer: B

34

An important function of secondary markets is to

A) make it easier to sell financial instruments to raise funds.

B) raise funds for corporations through the sale of securities.

C) make it easier for governments to raise taxes.

D) create a market for newly constructed houses.

Answer: A

35

Secondary markets make financial instruments more

A) solid.

B) vapid.

C) liquid.

D) risky.

Answer: C

36

A liquid asset is

A) an asset that can easily and quickly be sold to raise cash.

B) a share of an ocean resort.

C) difficult to resell.

D) always sold in an over-the-counter market.

Answer: A

37

The higher a security's price in the secondary market the ________ funds a firm can raise by selling securities in the ________ market.

A) more; primary

B) more; secondary

C) less; primary

D) less; secondary

Answer: A

38

When secondary market buyers and sellers of securities meet in one central location to conduct trades the market is called a(n)

A) exchange.

B) over-the-counter market.

C) common market.

D) barter market.

Answer: A

39

In a(n) ________ market, dealers in different locations buy and sell securities to anyone who comes to them and is willing to accept their prices.

A) exchange

B) over-the-counter

C) common

D) barter

Answer: B

40

Forty or so dealers establish a "market" in these securities by standing ready to buy and sell them.

A) secondary stocks

B) surplus stocks

C) U.S. government bonds

D) common stocks

Answer: C

41

Which of the following statements about financial markets and securities is TRUE?

A) Many common stocks are traded over-the-counter, although the largest corporations usually have their shares traded at organized stock exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange.

B) As a corporation gets a share of the broker's commission, a corporation acquires new funds whenever its securities are sold.

C) Capital market securities are usually more widely traded than shorter-term securities and so tend to be more liquid.

D) Prices of capital market securities are usually more stable than prices of money market securities, and so are often used to hold temporary surplus funds of corporations.

Answer: A

42

A financial market in which only short-term debt instruments are traded is called the ________ market.

A) bond

B) money

C) capital

D) stock

Answer: B

43

Equity instruments are traded in the ________ market.

A) money

B) bond

C) capital

D) commodities

Answer: C

44

Because these securities are more liquid and generally have smaller price fluctuations, corporations and banks use the ________ securities to earn interest on temporary surplus funds.

  1. A) money market
  2. B) capital market
  3. C) bond market
  4. D) stock market

Answer: A

45

Corporations receive funds when their stock is sold in the primary market. Why do corporations pay attention to what is happening to their stock in the secondary market?

Answer: The existence of the secondary market makes their stock more liquid and the price in the secondary market sets the price that the corporation would receive if they choose to sell more stock in the primary market.

46

Describe the two methods of organizing a secondary market.

Answer: A secondary market can be organized as an exchange where buyers and sellers meet in one central location to conduct trades. An example of an exchange is the New York Stock Exchange. A secondary market can also be organized as an over-the-counter market. In this type of market, dealers in different locations buy and sell securities to anyone who comes to them and is willing to accept their prices. An example of an over-the-counter market is the federal funds market.

47

Prices of money market instruments undergo the least price fluctuations because of

A) the short terms to maturity for the securities.

B) the heavy regulations in the industry.

C) the price ceiling imposed by government regulators.

D) the lack of competition in the market.

Answer: A

48

) U.S. Treasury bills pay no interest but are sold at a ________. That is, you will pay a lower purchase price than the amount you receive at maturity.

A) premium

B) collateral

C) default

D) discount

Answer: D

49

U.S. Treasury bills are considered the safest of all money market instruments because there is a low probability of

A) defeat.

B) default.

C) desertion.

D) demarcation.

Answer: B

50

A debt instrument sold by a bank to its depositors that pays annual interest of a given amount and at maturity pays back the original purchase price is called

A) commercial paper.

B) a certificate of deposit.

C) a municipal bond.

D) federal funds.

Answer: B

51

A short-term debt instrument issued by well-known corporations is called

A) commercial paper.

B) corporate bonds.

C) municipal bonds.

D) commercial mortgages.

Answer: A

52

________ are short-term loans in which Treasury bills serve as collateral.

A) Repurchase agreements

B) Negotiable certificates of deposit

C) Federal funds

D) U.S. government agency securities

Answer: A

53

Collateral is ________ the lender receives if the borrower does not pay back the loan.

  1. A) a liability
  2. B) an asset
  3. C) a present

D) an offering

Answer: B

54

Federal funds are

A) funds raised by the federal government in the bond market.

B) loans made by the Federal Reserve System to banks.

C) loans made by banks to the Federal Reserve System.

D) loans made by banks to each other.

Answer: D

55

An important source of short-term funds for commercial banks are ________ which can be resold on the secondary market.

A) negotiable CDs

B) commercial paper

C) mortgage-backed securities

D) municipal bonds

Answer: A

56

Which of the following are short-term financial instruments?

A) a repurchase agreement

B) a share of Walt Disney Corporation stock

C) a Treasury note with a maturity of four years

D) a residential mortgage

Answer: A

57

Which of the following instruments are traded in a money market?

A) state and local government bonds

B) U.S. Treasury bills

C) corporate bonds

D) U.S. government agency securities

Answer: B

58

Which of the following instruments are traded in a money market?

A) bank commercial loans

B) commercial paper

C) state and local government bonds

D) residential mortgages

Answer: B

59

Which of the following instruments is NOT traded in a money market?

A) residential mortgages

B) U.S. Treasury Bills

C) negotiable bank certificates of deposit

D) commercial paper

Answer: A

60

Bonds issued by state and local governments are called ________ bonds.

A) corporate

B) Treasury

C) municipal

D) commercial

Answer: C

61

Equity and debt instruments with maturities greater than one year are called ________ market instruments.

A) capital

B) money

C) federal

D) benchmark

Answer: A

62

Which of the following is a long-term financial instrument?

A) a negotiable certificate of deposit

B) a repurchase agreement

C) a U.S. Treasury bond

D) a U.S. Treasury bill

Answer: C

63

Which of the following instruments are traded in a capital market?

A) U.S. Government agency securities

B) negotiable bank CDs

C) repurchase agreements

D) U.S. Treasury bills

Answer: A

64

Which of the following instruments are traded in a capital market?

  1. A) corporate bonds
  2. B) U.S. Treasury bills
  3. C) negotiable bank CDs

D) repurchase agreements

Answer: A

65

Which of the following are NOT traded in a capital market?

A) U.S. government agency securities

B) state and local government bonds

C) repurchase agreements

D) corporate bonds

Answer: C

66

The most liquid securities traded in the capital market are

A) corporate bonds.

B) municipal bonds.

C) U.S. Treasury bonds.

D) mortgage-backed securities.

Answer: C

67

Mortgage-backed securities are similar to ________ but the interest and principal payments are backed by the individual mortgages within the security.

A) bonds

B) stock

C) repurchase agreements

D) negotiable CDs

Answer: A

68

Equity of U.S. companies can be purchased by

A) U.S. citizens only.

B) foreign citizens only.

C) U.S. citizens and foreign citizens.

D) U.S. mutual funds only.

Answer: C

69

One reason for the extraordinary growth of foreign financial markets is

A) decreased trade.

B) increases in the pool of savings in foreign countries.

C) the recent introduction of the foreign bond.

D) slower technological innovation in foreign markets.

Answer: B

70

Bonds that are sold in a foreign country and are denominated in the country's currency in which they are sold are known as

A) foreign bonds.

B) Eurobonds.

C) equity bonds.

D) country bonds.

Answer: A

71

Bonds that are sold in a foreign country and are denominated in a currency other than that of the country in which it is sold are known as

A) foreign bonds.

B) Eurobonds.

C) equity bonds.

D) country bonds.

Answer: B

72

If Microsoft sells a bond in London and it is denominated in dollars, the bond is a

  1. A) Eurobond.
  2. B) foreign bond.
  3. C) British bond.

D) currency bond.

Answer: A

73

U.S. dollar deposits in foreign banks outside the U.S. or in foreign branches of U.S. banks are called

A) Atlantic dollars.

B) Eurodollars.

C) foreign dollars.

D) outside dollars.

Answer: B

74

If Toyota sells a $1000 bond in the United States, the bond is a

A) foreign bond.

B) Eurobond.

C) Tokyo bond.

D) currency bond.

Answer: A

75

Distinguish between a foreign bond and a Eurobond.

Answer: A foreign bond is sold in a foreign country and priced in that country's currency. A Eurobond is sold in a foreign country and priced in a currency that is not that country's currency.

76

The process of indirect finance using financial intermediaries is called

A) direct lending.

B) financial intermediation.

C) resource allocation.

D) financial liquidation.

Answer: B

77

In the United States, loans from ________ are far ________ important for corporate finance than are securities markets.

A) government agencies; more

B) government agencies; less

C) financial intermediaries; more

D) financial intermediaries; less

Answer: C

78

The time and money spent in carrying out financial transactions are called

A) economies of scale.

B) financial intermediation.

C) liquidity services.

D) transaction costs.

Answer: D

79

Economies of scale enable financial institutions to

A) reduce transactions costs.

B) avoid the asymmetric information problem.

C) avoid adverse selection problems.

D) reduce moral hazard.

Answer: A

80

An example of economies of scale in the provision of financial services is

A) investing in a diversified collection of assets.

B) providing depositors with a variety of savings certificates.

C) hiring more support staff so that customers don't have to wait so long for assistance.

D) spreading the cost of writing a standardized contract over many borrowers.

Answer: D

81

Financial intermediaries provide customers with liquidity services. Liquidity services

A) make it easier for customers to conduct transactions.

B) allow customers to have a cup of coffee while waiting in the lobby.

C) are a result of the asymmetric information problem.

D) are another term for asset transformation.

Answer: A

82

The process where financial intermediaries create and sell low-risk assets and use the proceeds to purchase riskier assets is known as

A) risk sharing.

B) risk aversion.

C) risk neutrality.

D) risk selling.

Answer: A

83

The process of asset transformation refers to the conversion of

A) safer assets into risky assets.

B) safer assets into safer liabilities.

C) risky assets into safer assets.

D) risky assets into risky liabilities.

Answer: C

84

Reducing risk through the purchase of assets whose returns do not always move together is

A) diversification.

B) intermediation.

C) intervention.

D) discounting.

Answer: A

85

The concept of diversification is captured by the statement

A) don't look a gift horse in the mouth.

B) don't put all your eggs in one basket.

C) it never rains, but it pours.

D) make hay while the sun shines.

Answer: B

86

Risk sharing is profitable for financial institutions due to

A) low transactions costs.

B) asymmetric information.

C) adverse selection.

D) moral hazard.

Answer: A

87

Typically, borrowers have superior information relative to lenders about the potential returns and risks associated with an investment project. The difference in information is called

A) moral selection.

B) risk sharing.

C) asymmetric information.

D) adverse hazard.

Answer: C

88

If bad credit risks are the ones who most actively seek loans and, therefore, receive them from financial intermediaries, then financial intermediaries face the problem of

A) moral hazard.

B) adverse selection.

C) free-riding.

D) costly state verification.

Answer: B

89

The problem created by asymmetric information before the transaction occurs is called ________, while the problem created after the transaction occurs is called ________.

A) adverse selection; moral hazard

B) moral hazard; adverse selection

C) costly state verification; free-riding

D) free-riding; costly state verification

Answer: A

90

Adverse selection is a problem associated with equity and debt contracts arising from

A) the lender's relative lack of information about the borrower's potential returns and risks of his investment activities.

B) the lender's inability to legally require sufficient collateral to cover a 100% loss if the borrower defaults.

C) the borrower's lack of incentive to seek a loan for highly risky investments.

D) the borrower's lack of good options for obtaining funds.

Answer: A

91

An example of the problem of ________ is when a corporation uses the funds raised from selling bonds to fund corporate expansion to pay for Caribbean cruises for all of its employees and their families.

A) adverse selection

B) moral hazard

C) risk sharing

D) credit risk

Answer: B

92

Banks can lower the cost of information production by applying one information resource to many different services. This process is called

A) economies of scale.

B) asset transformation.

C) economies of scope.

D) asymmetric information.

Answer: C

93

Conflicts of interest are a type of ________ problem that can happen when an institution provides multiple services.

A) adverse selection

B) free-riding

C) discounting

D) moral hazard

Answer: D

94

Studies of the major developed countries show that when businesses go looking for funds to finance their activities they usually obtain these funds from

A) government agencies.

B) equities markets.

C) financial intermediaries.

D) bond markets.

Answer: C

95

The countries that have made the least use of securities markets are ________ and ________; in these two countries finance from financial intermediaries has been almost ten times greater than that from securities markets.

A) Germany; Japan

B) Germany; Great Britain

C) Great Britain; Canada

D) Canada; Japan

Answer: A

96

Although the dominance of ________ over ________ is clear in all countries, the relative importance of bond versus stock markets differs widely.

A) financial intermediaries; securities markets

B) financial intermediaries; government agencies

C) government agencies; financial intermediaries

D) government agencies; securities markets

Answer: A

97

Because there is an imbalance of information in a lending situation, we must deal with the problems of adverse selection and moral hazard. Define these terms and explain how financial intermediaries can reduce these problems.

Answer: Adverse selection is the asymmetric information problem that exists before the transaction occurs. For lenders, it is the difficulty in judging a good credit risk from a bad credit risk. Moral hazard is the asymmetric information problem that exists after the transaction occurs. For lenders, it is the difficulty in making sure the borrower uses the funds appropriately. Financial intermediaries can reduce adverse selection through intensive screening and can reduce moral hazard by monitoring the borrower.

98

Financial institutions that accept deposits and make loans are called ________ institutions.

A) investment

B) contractual savings

C) depository

D) underwriting

Answer: C

99

Thrift institutions include

A) banks, mutual funds, and insurance companies.

B) savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, and credit unions.

C) finance companies, mutual funds, and money market funds.

D) pension funds, mutual funds, and banks.

Answer: B

100

Which of the following is a depository institution?

A) a life insurance company

B) a credit union

C) a pension fund

D) a mutual fund

Answer: B

101

Which of the following is a depository institution?

A) a life insurance company

B) a mutual savings bank

C) a pension fund

D) a finance company

Answer: B

102

Which of the following financial intermediaries is NOT a depository institution?

A) a savings and loan association

B) a commercial bank

C) a credit union

D) a finance company

Answer: D

103

The primary assets of credit unions are

A) municipal bonds.

B) business loans.

C) consumer loans.

D) mortgages.

Answer: C

104

The primary liabilities of a commercial bank are

A) bonds.

B) mortgages.

C) deposits.

D) commercial paper.

Answer: C

105

The primary liabilities of depository institutions are

A) premiums from policies.

B) shares.

C) deposits.

D) bonds.

Answer: C

106

________ institutions are financial intermediaries that acquire funds at periodic intervals on a contractual basis.

A) Investment

B) Contractual savings

C) Thrift

D) Depository

Answer: B

107

Which of the following is a contractual savings institution?

A) a life insurance company

B) a credit union

C) a savings and loan association

D) a mutual fund

Answer: A

108

Contractual savings institutions include

A) mutual savings banks.

B) money market mutual funds.

C) commercial banks.

D) life insurance companies.

Answer: D

109

Which of the following are NOT contractual savings institutions?

A) life insurance companies

B) credit unions

C) pension funds

D) state and local government retirement funds

Answer: B

110

Which of the following is NOT a contractual savings institution?

  1. A) a life insurance company
  2. B) a pension fund
  3. C) a savings and loan association

D) a fire and casualty insurance company

Answer: C

111

The primary assets of a pension fund are

A) money market instruments.

B) corporate bonds and stock.

C) consumer and business loans.

D) mortgages.

Answer: B

112

Which of the following are investment intermediaries?

A) life insurance companies

B) mutual funds

C) pension funds

D) state and local government retirement funds

Answer: B

113

An investment intermediary that lends funds to consumers is

A) a finance company.

B) an investment bank.

C) a finance fund.

D) a consumer company.

Answer: A

114

The primary assets of a finance company are

A) municipal bonds.

B) corporate stocks and bonds.

C) consumer and business loans.

D) mortgages.

Answer: C

115

________ are financial intermediaries that acquire funds by selling shares to many individuals and using the proceeds to purchase diversified portfolios of stocks and bonds.

A) Mutual funds

B) Investment banks

C) Finance companies

D) Credit unions

Answer: A

116

Money market mutual fund shares function like

A) checking accounts that pay interest.

B) bonds.

C) stocks.

D) currency.

Answer: A

117

An important feature of money market mutual fund shares is

A) deposit insurance.

B) the ability to write checks against shareholdings.

C) the ability to borrow against shareholdings.

D) claims on shares of corporate stock.

Answer: B

118

The primary assets of money market mutual funds are

A) stocks.

B) bonds.

C) money market instruments.

D) deposits.

Answer: C

119

An investment bank helps ________ issue securities.

A) a corporation

B) the United States government

C) the SEC

D) foreign governments

Answer: A

120

An investment bank purchases securities from a corporation at a predetermined price and then resells them in the market. This process is called

A) underwriting.

B) underhanded.

C) understanding.

D) undertaking.

Answer: A

121

A mutual fund that is organized as a limited partnership with high minimum investments is called a

A) hedge fund.

B) investment bank.

C) mutual savings bank.

D) money market mutual fund.

Answer: A

122

Hedge funds require large minimum investments ranging from ________ to ________ or more.

A) $100,000; $1 million

B) $1000; $10,000

C) $100; $1000

D) $$10,000; $25,000

Answer: A

123

The limited memberships and high dollar minimums for hedge funds means that these funds are

A) subject to weaker regulation than other mutual funds.

B) more stringently regulated for fear of collapse.

C) limited in the types of assets they can purchase.

D) under the control of the U.S. Treasury.

Answer: A

124

Which of the following is NOT a goal of financial regulation?

A) ensuring the soundness of the financial system

B) reducing moral hazard

C) reducing adverse selection

D) ensuring that investors never suffer losses

Answer: D

125

Increasing the amount of information available to investors helps to reduce the problems of ________ and ________ in the financial markets.

A) adverse selection; moral hazard

B) adverse selection; risk sharing

C) moral hazard; transactions costs

D) adverse selection; economies of scale

Answer: A

126

A goal of the Securities and Exchange Commission is to reduce problems arising from

A) competition.

B) banking panics.

C) risk.

D) asymmetric information.

Answer: D

127

The purpose of the disclosure requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission is to

A) increase the information available to investors.

B) prevent bank panics.

C) improve monetary control.

D) protect investors against financial losses.

Answer: A

128

Government regulations to reduce the possibility of financial panic include all of the following EXCEPT

A) transactions costs.

B) restrictions on assets and activities.

C) disclosure.

D) deposit insurance.

Answer: A

129

Which of the following do NOT provide charters?

A) the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency

B) the Federal Reserve System

C) the National Credit Union Administration

D) state banking and insurance commissions

Answer: B

130

A restriction on bank activities that was repealed in 1999 was

A) the prohibition of the payment of interest on checking deposits.

B) restrictions on credit terms.

C) minimum down payments on loans to purchase securities.

D) separation of commercial banking from the securities industries.

Answer: D

131

In order to reduce risk and increase the safety of financial institutions, commercial banks and other depository institutions are prohibited from

A) owning municipal bonds.

B) making real estate loans.

C) making personal loans.

D) owning common stock.

Answer: D

132

The primary purpose of deposit insurance is to

A) improve the flow of information to investors.

B) prevent banking panics.

C) protect bank shareholders against losses.

D) protect bank employees from unemployment.

Answer: B

133

The agency that was created to protect depositors after the banking failures of 1930-1933 is the

A) Federal Reserve System.

B) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

C) Treasury Department.

D) Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.

Answer: B

134

The agency that restricts insider trading is the

A) Federal Reserve System.

B) Securities and Exchange Commission.

C) Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.

D) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

Answer: B

135

The regulatory agency that sets reserve requirements for all banks is

A) the Federal Reserve System.

B) the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

C) the Office of Thrift Supervision.

D) the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Answer: A

136

Asymmetric information is a universal problem. This would suggest that financial regulations

A) in industrial countries are an unqualified failure.

B) differ significantly around the world.

C) in industrialized nations are similar.

D) are unnecessary.

Answer: C

137

How do regulators help to ensure the soundness of financial intermediaries?

Answer: Regulators restrict who can set up a financial intermediary, conduct regular examinations, restrict assets, and provide insurance to help ensure the soundness of financial intermediaries.


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