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Economics of Money: Chapter 14

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The Money Supply Process

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1

The government agency that oversees the banking system and is responsible for the conduct of monetary policy in the United States is

  1. A) the Federal Reserve System.
  2. B) the United States Treasury.
  3. C) the U.S. Gold Commission.
  4. D) the House of Representatives.

Answer: A

2

Individuals that lend funds to a bank by opening a checking account are called

  1. A) policyholders.
  2. B) partners.
  3. C) depositors.
  4. D) debt holders.

Answer: C

3

The three players in the money supply process include

  1. A) banks, depositors, and the U.S. Treasury.
  2. B) banks, depositors, and borrowers.
  3. C) banks, depositors, and the central bank.
  4. D) banks, borrowers, and the central bank.

Answer: C

4

Of the three players in the money supply process, most observers agree that the most important player is

  1. A) the United States Treasury.
  2. B) the Federal Reserve System.
  3. C) the FDIC.
  4. D) the Office of Thrift Supervision.

Answer: B

5

Both ________ and ________ are Federal Reserve assets.

  1. A) currency in circulation; reserves
  2. B) currency in circulation; securities
  3. C) securities; loans to financial institutions
  4. D) securities; reserves

Answer: C

6

The monetary liabilities of the Federal Reserve include

  1. A) securities and loans to financial institutions.
  2. B) currency in circulation and reserves.
  3. C) securities and reserves.
  4. D) currency in circulation and loans to financial institutions.

Answer: B

7

Both ________ and ________ are monetary liabilities of the Fed.

  1. A) securities; loans to financial institutions
  2. B) currency in circulation; reserves
  3. C) securities; reserves
  4. D) currency in circulation; loans to financial institutions

Answer: B

8

The sum of the Fed's monetary liabilities and the U.S. Treasury's monetary liabilities is called

  1. A) the money supply.
  2. B) currency in circulation.
  3. C) bank reserves.
  4. D) the monetary base.

Answer: D

9

The monetary base consists of

  1. A) currency in circulation and Federal Reserve notes.
  2. B) currency in circulation and the U.S. Treasury's monetary liabilities.
  3. C) currency in circulation and reserves.
  4. D) reserves and Federal Reserve Notes.

Answer: C

10

Total reserves minus bank deposits with the Fed equals

  1. A) vault cash.
  2. B) excess reserves.
  3. C) required reserves.
  4. D) currency in circulation.

Answer: A

11

Reserves are equal to the sum of

  1. A) required reserves and excess reserves.
  2. B) required reserves and vault cash reserves.
  3. C) excess reserves and vault cash reserves.
  4. D) vault cash reserves and total reserves.

Answer: A

12

Total reserves are the sum of ________ and ________.

  1. A) excess reserves; borrowed reserves
  2. B) required reserves; currency in circulation
  3. C) vault cash; excess reserves
  4. D) excess reserves; required reserves

Answer: D

13

Excess reserves are equal to

  1. A) total reserves minus discount loans.
  2. B) vault cash plus deposits with Federal Reserve banks minus required reserves.
  3. C) vault cash minus required reserves.
  4. D) deposits with the Fed minus vault cash plus required reserves.

Answer: B

14

Total Reserves minus vault cash equals

  1. A) bank deposits with the Fed.
  2. B) excess reserves.
  3. C) required reserves.
  4. D) currency in circulation.

Answer: A

15

The amount of deposits that banks must hold in reserve is

  1. A) excess reserves.
  2. B) required reserves.
  3. C) total reserves.
  4. D) vault cash.

Answer: B

16

The percentage of deposits that banks must hold in reserve is the

  1. A) excess reserve ratio.
  2. B) required reserve ratio.
  3. C) total reserve ratio.
  4. D) currency ratio.

Answer: B

17

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds two million dollars in vault cash, eight million dollars on deposit with the Federal Reserve, and one million dollars in required reserves. Given this information, we can say First National Bank has ________ million dollars in excess reserves.

  1. A) three
  2. B) nine
  3. C) ten
  4. D) eleven

Answer: B

18

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds two million dollars in vault cash, eight million dollars on deposit with the Federal Reserve, and one million dollars in required reserves. Given this information, we can say First National Bank faces a required reserve ratio of ________ percent.

  1. A) ten
  2. B) twenty
  3. C) eighty
  4. D) ninety

Answer: A

19

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds two million dollars in vault cash, eight million dollars on deposit with the Federal Reserve, and nine million dollars in excess reserves. Given this information, we can say First National Bank has ________ million dollars in required reserves.

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) eight
  4. D) ten

Answer: A

20

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds two million dollars in vault cash, eight million dollars on deposit with the Federal Reserve, and nine million dollars in excess reserves. Given this information, we can say First National Bank faces a required reserve ratio of ________ percent.

  1. A) ten
  2. B) twenty
  3. C) eighty
  4. D) ninety

Answer: A

21

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds eight million dollars on deposit with the Federal Reserve, one million dollars in required reserves, and faces a required reserve ratio of ten percent. Given this information, we can say First National Bank has ________ million dollars in excess reserves.

  1. A) two
  2. B) eight
  3. C) nine
  4. D) ten

Answer: C

22

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds eight million dollars on deposit with the Federal Reserve, one million dollars in required reserves, and faces a required reserve ratio of ten percent. Given this information, we can say First National Bank has ________ million dollars in vault cash.

  1. A) two
  2. B) eight
  3. C) nine
  4. D) ten

Answer: A

23

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds two million dollars in vault cash, nine million dollars in excess reserves, and faces a required reserve ratio of ten percent. Given this information, we can say First National Bank has ________ million dollars in required reserves.

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) eight
  4. D) ten

Answer: A

24

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds two million dollars in vault cash, nine million dollars in excess reserves, and faces a required reserve ratio of ten percent. Given this information, we can say First National Bank has ________ million dollars on deposit with the Federal Reserve.

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) eight
  4. D) ten

Answer: C

25

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds two million dollars in vault cash, one million dollars in required reserves, and faces a required reserve ratio of ten percent. Given this information, we can say First National Bank has ________ million dollars in excess reserves.

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) nine
  4. D) ten

Answer: C

26

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds two million dollars in vault cash, one million dollars in required reserves, and faces a required reserve ratio of ten percent. Given this information, we can say First National Bank has ________ million dollars on deposit with the Federal Reserve.

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) eight
  4. D) ten

Answer: C

27

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds eight million dollars on deposit with the Federal Reserve, nine million dollars in excess reserves, and faces a required reserve ratio of ten percent. Given this information, we can say First National Bank has ________ million dollars in required reserves.

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) nine
  4. D) ten

Answer: A

28

Suppose that from a new checkable deposit, First National Bank holds eight million dollars on deposit with the Federal Reserve, nine million dollars in excess reserves, and faces a required reserve ratio of ten percent. Given this information, we can say First National Bank has ________ million dollars in vault cash.

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) nine
  4. D) ten

Answer: B

29

The interest rate the Fed charges banks borrowing from the Fed is the

  1. A) federal funds rate.
  2. B) Treasury bill rate.
  3. C) discount rate.
  4. D) prime rate.

Answer: C

30

When banks borrow money from the Federal Reserve, these funds are called

  1. A) federal funds.
  2. B) discount loans.
  3. C) federal loans.
  4. D) Treasury funds.

Answer: B

Answer: B

31

The monetary base minus currency in circulation equals

  1. A) reserves.
  2. B) the borrowed base.
  3. C) the nonborrowed base.
  4. D) discount loans.

Answer: A

32

The monetary base minus reserves equals

  1. A) currency in circulation.
  2. B) the borrowed base.
  3. C) the nonborrowed base.
  4. D) discount loans.

Answer: A

33

High-powered money minus reserves equals

  1. A) reserves.
  2. B) currency in circulation.
  3. C) the monetary base.
  4. D) the nonborrowed base.

Answer: B

34

High-powered money minus currency in circulation equals

  1. A) reserves.
  2. B) the borrowed base.
  3. C) the nonborrowed base.
  4. D) discount loans.

Answer: A

35

Purchases and sales of government securities by the Federal Reserve are called

  1. A) discount loans.
  2. B) federal fund transfers.
  3. C) open market operations.
  4. D) swap transactions.

Answer: C

36

When the Federal Reserve purchases a government bond from a primary dealer, reserves in the banking system ________ and the monetary base ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase; increases
  2. B) increase; decreases
  3. C) decrease; increases
  4. D) decrease; decreases

Answer: A

37

When the Federal Reserve sells a government bond to a primary dealer, reserves in the banking system ________ and the monetary base ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase; increases
  2. B) increase; decreases
  3. C) decrease; increases
  4. D) decrease; decreases

Answer: D

38

When a primary dealer sells a government bond to the Federal Reserve, reserves in the banking system ________ and the monetary base ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase; increases
  2. B) increase; decreases
  3. C) decrease; increases
  4. D) decrease; decreases

Answer: A

39

When a primary dealer buys a government bond from the Federal Reserve, reserves in the banking system ________ and the monetary base ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase; increases
  2. B) increase; decreases
  3. C) decrease; increases
  4. D) decrease; decreases

Answer: D

40

When the Fed buys $100 worth of bonds from a primary dealer, reserves in the banking system

  1. A) increase by $100.
  2. B) increase by more than $100.
  3. C) decrease by $100.
  4. D) decrease by more than $100.

Answer: A

41

When the Fed sells $100 worth of bonds to a primary dealer, reserves in the banking system

  1. A) increase by $100.
  2. B) increase by more than $100.
  3. C) decrease by $100.
  4. D) decrease by more than $100.

Answer: C

42

When the Fed extends a $100 discount loan to the First National Bank, reserves in the banking system

  1. A) increase by $100.
  2. B) increase by more than $100.
  3. C) decrease by $100.
  4. D) decrease by more than $100.

Answer: A

43

All else the same, when the Fed calls in a $100 discount loan previously extended to the First National Bank, reserves in the banking system

  1. A) increase by $100.
  2. B) increase by more than $100.
  3. C) decrease by $100.
  4. D) decrease by more than $100.

Answer: C

44

When the Federal Reserve extends a discount loan to a bank, the monetary base ________ and reserves ________.

  1. A) remains unchanged; decrease
  2. B) remains unchanged; increase
  3. C) increases; increase
  4. D) increases; remain unchanged

Answer: C

45

When the Federal Reserve calls in a discount loan from a bank, the monetary base ________ and reserves ________.

  1. A) remains unchanged; decrease
  2. B) remains unchanged; increase
  3. C) decreases; decrease
  4. D) decreases; remains unchanged

Answer: C

46

If the Fed decides to reduce bank reserves, it can

  1. A) purchase government bonds.
  2. B) extend discount loans to banks.
  3. C) sell government bonds.
  4. D) print more currency.

Answer: C

47

There are two ways in which the Fed can provide additional reserves to the banking system: it can ________ government bonds or it can ________ discount loans to commercial banks.

  1. A) sell; extend
  2. B) sell; call in
  3. C) purchase; extend
  4. D) purchase; call in

Answer: C

48

A decrease in ________ leads to an equal ________ in the monetary base in the short run.

  1. A) float; increase
  2. B) float; decrease
  3. C) Treasury deposits at the Fed; decrease
  4. D) discount loans; increase

Answer: B

49

The monetary base declines when

  1. A) the Fed extends discount loans.
  2. B) Treasury deposits at the Fed decrease.
  3. C) float increases.
  4. D) the Fed sells securities.

Answer: D

50

An increase in ________ leads to an equal ________ in the monetary base in the short run.

  1. A) float; decrease
  2. B) float; increase
  3. C) discount loans; decrease
  4. D) Treasury deposits at the Fed; increase

Answer: B

51

Suppose a person cashes his payroll check and holds all the funds in the form of currency. Everything else held constant, total reserves in the banking system ________ and the monetary base ________.

  1. A) remain unchanged; increases
  2. B) decrease; increases
  3. C) decrease; remains unchanged
  4. D) decrease; decreases

Answer: C

52

Suppose your payroll check is directly deposited to your checking account. Everything else held constant, total reserves in the banking system ________ and the monetary base ________.

  1. A) remain unchanged; remains unchanged
  2. B) remain unchanged; increases
  3. C) decrease; increases
  4. D) decrease; decreases

Answer: A

53

The Fed does not tightly control the monetary base because it does NOT completely control

  1. A) open market purchases.
  2. B) open market sales.
  3. C) borrowed reserves.
  4. D) the discount rate.

Answer: C

54

Subtracting borrowed reserves from the monetary base obtains

  1. A) reserves.
  2. B) high-powered money.
  3. C) the nonborrowed monetary base.
  4. D) the borrowed monetary base.

Answer: C

55

The relationship between borrowed reserves (BR), the nonborrowed monetary base (MBn), and the monetary base (MB) is

  1. A) MB = MBn- BR.
  2. B) BR = MBn- MB.
  3. C) BR = MB - MBn.
  4. D) MB = BR - MBn.

Answer: C

56

Explain two ways by which the Federal Reserve System can increase the monetary base. Why is the effect of Federal Reserve actions on bank reserves less exact than the effect on the monetary base?

Answer: The Fed can increase the monetary base by purchasing government bonds and by extending discount loans. Because the Fed cannot control the distribution of the monetary base between reserves and currency, it has less control over reserves than the base.

57

When the Fed supplies the banking system with an extra dollar of reserves, deposits increase by more than one dollar—a process called

  1. A) extra deposit creation.
  2. B) multiple deposit creation.
  3. C) expansionary deposit creation.
  4. D) stimulative deposit creation.

Answer: B

58

When the Fed supplies the banking system with an extra dollar of reserves, deposits ________ by ________ than one dollar—a process called multiple deposit creation.

  1. A) increase; less
  2. B) increase; more
  3. C) decrease; less
  4. D) decrease; more

Answer: B

59

If the required reserve ratio is equal to 10 percent, a single bank can increase its loans up to a maximum amount equal to

  1. A) its excess reserves.
  2. B) 10 times its excess reserves.
  3. C) 10 percent of its excess reserves.
  4. D) its total reserves.

Answer: A

60

In the simple deposit expansion model, if the Fed purchases $100 worth of bonds from a bank that previously had no excess reserves, the bank can now increase its loans by

  1. A) $10.
  2. B) $100.
  3. C) $100 times the reciprocal of the required reserve ratio.
  4. D) $100 times the required reserve ratio.

Answer: B

61

In the simple deposit expansion model, if the Fed purchases $100 worth of bonds from a bank that previously had no excess reserves, deposits in the banking system can potentially increase by

  1. A) $10.
  2. B) $100.
  3. C) $100 times the reciprocal of the required reserve ratio.
  4. D) $100 times the required reserve ratio.

Answer: C

62

In the simple deposit expansion model, if the Fed extends a $100 discount loan to a bank that previously had no excess reserves, the bank can now increase its loans by

  1. A) $10.
  2. B) $100.
  3. C) $100 times the reciprocal of the required reserve ratio.
  4. D) $100 times the required reserve ratio.

Answer: B

63

In the simple deposit expansion model, if the Fed extends a $100 discount loan to a bank that previously had no excess reserves, deposits in the banking system can potentially increase by

  1. A) $10.
  2. B) $100.
  3. C) $100 times the reciprocal of the required reserve ratio.
  4. D) $100 times the required reserve ratio.

Answer: C

64

In the simple model of multiple deposit creation in which banks do not hold excess reserves, the increase in checkable deposits equals the product of the change in reserves and the

  1. A) reciprocal of the excess reserve ratio.
  2. B) simple deposit expansion multiplier.
  3. C) reciprocal of the simple deposit multiplier.
  4. D) discount rate.

Answer: B

65

The simple deposit multiplier can be expressed as the ratio of the

  1. A) change in reserves in the banking system divided by the change in deposits.
  2. B) change in deposits divided by the change in reserves in the banking system.
  3. C) required reserve ratio divided by the change in reserves in the banking system.
  4. D) change in deposits divided by the required reserve ratio.

Answer: B

66

If reserves in the banking system increase by $100, then checkable deposits will increase by $1000 in the simple model of deposit creation when the required reserve ratio is

  1. A) 0.01.
  2. B) 0.10.
  3. C) 0.05.
  4. D) 0.20.

Answer: B

67

If reserves in the banking system increase by $100, then checkable deposits will increase by $500 in the simple model of deposit creation when the required reserve ratio is

  1. A) 0.01.
  2. B) 0.10.
  3. C) 0.05.
  4. D) 0.20

Answer: D

68

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, the simple deposit multiplier is

  1. A) 5.0.
  2. B) 2.5.
  3. C) 100.0.
  4. D) 10.0

Answer: D

69

If the required reserve ratio is 15 percent, the simple deposit multiplier is

  1. A) 15.0.
  2. B) 1.5.
  3. C) 6.67.
  4. D) 3.33.

Answer: C

70

If the required reserve ratio is 20 percent, the simple deposit multiplier is

  1. A) 5.0.
  2. B) 2.5.
  3. C) 4.0.
  4. D) 10.0.

Answer: A

71

If the required reserve ratio is 25 percent, the simple deposit multiplier is

  1. A) 5.0.
  2. B) 2.5.
  3. C) 4.0.
  4. D) 10.0.

Answer: C

72

A simple deposit multiplier equal to one implies a required reserve ratio equal to

  1. A) 100 percent.
  2. B) 50 percent.
  3. C) 25 percent.
  4. D) 0 percent.

Answer: A

73

A simple deposit multiplier equal to two implies a required reserve ratio equal to

  1. A) 100 percent.
  2. B) 50 percent.
  3. C) 25 percent.
  4. D) 0 percent.

Answer: B

74

A simple deposit multiplier equal to four implies a required reserve ratio equal to

  1. A) 100 percent.
  2. B) 50 percent.
  3. C) 25 percent.
  4. D) 0 percent.

Answer: C

75

In the simple deposit expansion model, if the banking system has excess reserves of $75, and the required reserve ratio is 20%, the potential expansion of checkable deposits is

  1. A) $75.
  2. B) $750.
  3. C) $37.50.
  4. D) $375.

Answer: D

76

In the simple deposit expansion model, if the required reserve ratio is 20 percent and the Fed increases reserves by $100, checkable deposits can potentially expand by

  1. A) $100.
  2. B) $250.
  3. C) $500.
  4. D) $1,000.

Answer: C

77

In the simple deposit expansion model, if the required reserve ratio is 10 percent and the Fed increases reserves by $100, checkable deposits can potentially expand by

  1. A) $100.
  2. B) $250.
  3. C) $500.
  4. D) $1,000.

Answer: D

78

In the simple deposit expansion model, an expansion in checkable deposits of $1,000 when the required reserve ratio is equal to 20 percent implies that the Fed

  1. A) sold $200 in government bonds.
  2. B) sold $500 in government bonds.
  3. C) purchased $200 in government bonds.
  4. D) purchased $500 in government bonds.

Answer: C

79

In the simple deposit expansion model, an expansion in checkable deposits of $1,000 when the required reserve ratio is equal to 10 percent implies that the Fed

  1. A) sold $1,000 in government bonds.
  2. B) sold $100 in government bonds.
  3. C) purchased $1000 in government bonds.
  4. D) purchased $100 in government bonds.

Answer: D

80

In the simple deposit expansion model, a decline in checkable deposits of $1,000 when the required reserve ratio is equal to 20 percent implies that the Fed

  1. A) sold $200 in government bonds.
  2. B) sold $500 in government bonds.
  3. C) purchased $200 in government bonds.
  4. D) purchased $500 in government bonds.

Answer: A

81

In the simple deposit expansion model, a decline in checkable deposits of $1,000 when the required reserve ratio is equal to 10 percent implies that the Fed

  1. A) sold $1,000 in government bonds.
  2. B) sold $100 in government bonds.
  3. C) purchased $1,000 in government bonds.
  4. D) purchased $100 in government bonds.

Answer: B

82

In the simple deposit expansion model, a decline in checkable deposits of $500 when the required reserve ratio is equal to 10 percent implies that the Fed

  1. A) sold $500 in government bonds.
  2. B) sold $50 in government bonds.
  3. C) purchased $50 in government bonds.
  4. D) purchased $500 in government bonds.

Answer: B

83

In the simple deposit expansion model, a decline in checkable deposits of $500 when the required reserve ratio is equal to 20 percent implies that the Fed

  1. A) sold $250 in government bonds.
  2. B) sold $100 in government bonds.
  3. C) sold $50 in government bonds.
  4. D) purchased $100 in government bonds.

Answer: B

84

If reserves in the banking system increase by $100, then checkable deposits will increase by $400 in the simple model of deposit creation when the required reserve ratio is

  1. A) 0.01.
  2. B) 0.10.
  3. C) 0.20.
  4. D) 0.25.

Answer: D

85

If reserves in the banking system increase by $100, then checkable deposits will increase by $667 in the simple model of deposit creation when the required reserve ratio is

  1. A) 0.01.
  2. B) 0.05.
  3. C) 0.15.
  4. D) 0.20.

Answer: C

86

If reserves in the banking system increase by $100, then checkable deposits will increase by $100 in the simple model of deposit creation when the required reserve ratio is

  1. A) 0.01.
  2. B) 0.10.
  3. C) 0.20.
  4. D) 1.00.

Answer: D

87

If reserves in the banking system increase by $100, then checkable deposits will increase by $2,000 in the simple model of deposit creation when the required reserve ratio is

  1. A) 0.01.
  2. B) 0.05.
  3. C) 0.10.
  4. D) 0.20.

Answer: B

88

If reserves in the banking system increase by $200, then checkable deposits will increase by $500 in the simple model of deposit creation when the required reserve ratio is

  1. A) 0.04.
  2. B) 0.25.
  3. C) 0.40.
  4. D) 0.50.

Answer: C

89

If a bank has excess reserves of $10,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $80,000, and if the reserve requirement is 20 percent, then the bank has actual reserves of

  1. A) $16,000.
  2. B) $20,000.
  3. C) $26,000.
  4. D) $36,000.

Answer: C

90

If a bank has excess reserves of $20,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $80,000, and if the reserve requirement is 20 percent, then the bank has total reserves of

  1. A) $16,000.
  2. B) $20,000.
  3. C) $26,000.
  4. D) $36,000.

Answer: D

91

If a bank has excess reserves of $5,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $80,000, and if the reserve requirement is 20 percent, then the bank has actual reserves of

  1. A) $11,000.
  2. B) $20,000.
  3. C) $21,000.
  4. D) $26,000.

Answer: C

92

If a bank has excess reserves of $15,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $80,000, and if the reserve requirement is 20 percent, then the bank has total reserves of

  1. A) $11,000.
  2. B) $21,000.
  3. C) $31,000.
  4. D) $41,000.

Answer: C

93

If a bank has excess reserves of $4,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $100,000, and if the reserve requirement is 15 percent, then the bank has actual reserves of

  1. A) $17,000.
  2. B) $19,000.
  3. C) $24,000.
  4. D) $29,000.

Answer: B

94

If a bank has excess reserves of $4,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $100,000, and if the reserve requirement is 10 percent, then the bank has actual reserves of

  1. A) $14,000.
  2. B) $19,000.
  3. C) $24,000.
  4. D) $29,000.

Answer: A

95

If a bank has excess reserves of $7,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $100,000, and if the reserve requirement is 15 percent, then the bank has actual reserves of

  1. A) $17,000.
  2. B) $22,000.
  3. C) $27,000.
  4. D) $29,000.

Answer: B

96

If a bank has excess reserves of $7,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $100,000, and if the reserve requirement is 10 percent, then the bank has actual reserves of

  1. A) $14,000.
  2. B) $17,000.
  3. C) $22,000.
  4. D) $27,000.

Answer: B

97

A bank has excess reserves of $6,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $100,000 when the required reserve ratio is 20 percent. If the reserve ratio is raised to 25 percent, the bank's excess reserves will be

  1. A) -$5,000.
  2. B) -$1,000.
  3. C) $1,000.
  4. D) $5,000.

Answer: C

98

A bank has excess reserves of $4,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $100,000 when the required reserve ratio is 20 percent. If the reserve ratio is raised to 25 percent, the bank's excess reserves will be

  1. A) -$5,000.
  2. B) -$1,000.
  3. C) $1,000.
  4. D) $5,000.

Answer: B

99

A bank has excess reserves of $10,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $100,000 when the required reserve ratio is 20 percent. If the reserve ratio is raised to 25 percent, the bank's excess reserves will be

  1. A) -$5,000.
  2. B) -$1,000.
  3. C) $1,000.
  4. D) $5,000.

Answer: D

100

A bank has no excess reserves and demand deposit liabilities of $100,000 when the required reserve ratio is 20 percent. If the reserve ratio is raised to 25 percent, the bank's excess reserves will now be

  1. A) -$5,000.
  2. B) -$1,000.
  3. C) $1,000.
  4. D) $5,000.

Answer: A

101

A bank has excess reserves of $1,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $80,000 when the reserve requirement is 20 percent. If the reserve requirement is lowered to 10 percent, the bank's excess reserves will be

  1. A) $1,000.
  2. B) $8,000.
  3. C) $9,000.
  4. D) $17,000.

Answer: C

102

A bank has excess reserves of $1,000 and demand deposit liabilities of $80,000 when the reserve requirement is 25 percent. If the reserve requirement is lowered to 20 percent, the bank's excess reserves will be

  1. A) $1,000.
  2. B) $5,000.
  3. C) $8,000.
  4. D) $9,000.

Answer: B

103

Decisions by depositors to increase their holdings of ________, or of banks to hold ________ will result in a smaller expansion of deposits than the simple model predicts.

  1. A) deposits; required reserves
  2. B) deposits; excess reserves
  3. C) currency; required reserves
  4. D) currency; excess reserves

Answer: D

104

Decisions by depositors to increase their holdings of ________, or of banks to hold excess reserves will result in a ________ expansion of deposits than the simple model predicts.

  1. A) deposits; smaller
  2. B) deposits; larger
  3. C) currency; smaller
  4. D) currency; larger

Answer: C

105

Decisions by ________ about their holdings of currency and by ________ about their holdings of excess reserves affect the money supply.

  1. A) borrowers; depositors
  2. B) banks; depositors
  3. C) depositors; borrowers
  4. D) depositors; banks

Answer: D

106

Assume that no banks hold excess reserves, and the public holds no currency. If a bank sells a $100 security to the Fed, explain what happens to this bank and two additional steps in the deposit expansion process, assuming a 10% reserve requirement. How much do deposits and loans increase for the banking system when the process is completed?

Answer: Bank A first changes a security for reserves, and then lends the reserves, creating loans. It receives $100 in reserves from the sale of securities. Since all of these reserve will be excess reserves (there was no change in checkable deposits), the bank will loan out all $100. The $100 will then be deposited into Bank B. This bank now has a change in reserves of $100, of which $90 is excess reserves. Bank B will loan out this $90, which will be deposited into Bank C. Bank C now has an increase in reserves of $90, $81 of which is excess reserves. Bank C will loan out this $81 dollars and the process will continue until there are no more excess reserves in the banking system.

For the banking system, both loans and deposits increase by $1000.

107

Explain two reasons why the Fed does not have complete control over the level of bank deposits and loans. Explain how a change in either factor affects the deposit expansion process.

Answer: The Fed does not completely control the level of bank deposits and loans because banks can hold excess reserves and the public can change its currency holdings. A change in either factor changes the deposit expansion process. An increase in either excess reserves or currency reduces the amount by which deposits and loans are increased.

108

Explain why the simple deposit multiplier overstates the true deposit multiplier.

Answer: The simple model ignores the role banks and their customers play in the creation process. The bank's customers can decide to hold currency and the bank can decide to hold excess reserves. Both of these will restrict the banking system's ability to create deposits. Thus, the true multiplier is less than the prediction of the simple deposit multiplier.

109

An increase in the nonborrowed monetary base, everything else held constant, will cause

  1. A) the money supply to fall.
  2. B) the money supply to rise.
  3. C) no change in the money supply.
  4. D) demand deposits to fall.

Answer: B

110

The money supply is ________ related to the nonborrowed monetary base, and ________ related to the level of borrowed reserves.

  1. A) positively; negatively
  2. B) negatively; not
  3. C) positively; positively
  4. D) negatively; negatively

Answer: C

111

The amount of borrowed reserves is ________ related to the discount rate, and is ________ related to the market interest rate.

  1. A) negatively; negatively
  2. B) negatively; positively
  3. C) positively; negatively
  4. D) positively; positively

Answer: B

112

A ________ in market interest rates relative to the discount rate will cause discount borrowing to_______.

  1. A) fall; increase
  2. B) rise; decrease
  3. C) rise; increase
  4. D) fall; remain unchanged

Answer: C

113

Everything else held constant, an increase in currency holdings will cause

  1. A) the money supply to rise.
  2. B) the money supply to remain constant.
  3. C) the money supply to fall.
  4. D) checkable deposits to rise.

Answer: C

114

Everything else held constant, a decrease in holdings of excess reserves will mean

  1. A) a decrease in the money supply.
  2. B) an increase in the money supply.
  3. C) a decrease in checkable deposits.
  4. D) an increase in discount loans.

Answer: B

115

In the model of the money supply process, the Federal Reserve's role in influencing the money supply is represented by

  1. A) both the required reserve ratio and the market interest rate.
  2. B) the required reserve ratio, nonborrowed reserves, and borrowed reserves.
  3. C) only borrowed reserves.
  4. D) only nonborrowed reserves.

Answer: B

116

In the model of the money supply process, the depositor's role in influencing the money supply is represented by

  1. A) the currency holdings.
  2. B) the currency holdings and excess reserve.
  3. C) the currency holdings and borrowed reserve.
  4. D) the market interest rate.

Answer: A

117

In the model of the money supply process, the bank's role in influencing the money supply process is represented by

  1. A) the excess reserve.
  2. B) both the excess reserve and the market interest rate.
  3. C) the currency ratio.
  4. D) only borrowed reserves.

Answer: A

118

Models describing the determination of the money supply and the Fed's role in this process normally focus on ________ rather than ________, since Fed actions have a more predictable effect on the former.

  1. A) reserves; the monetary base
  2. B) reserves; high-powered money
  3. C) the monetary base; high-powered money
  4. D) the monetary base; reserves

Answer: D

119

The Fed can exert more precise control over ________ than it can over ________.

  1. A) high-powered money; reserves
  2. B) high-powered money; the monetary base
  3. C) the monetary base; high-powered money
  4. D) reserves; high-powered money

Answer: A

120

The ratio that relates the change in the money supply to a given change in the monetary base is called the

  1. A) money multiplier.
  2. B) required reserve ratio.
  3. C) deposit ratio.
  4. D) discount rate.

Answer: A

121

An assumption in the model of the money supply process is that the desired levels of currency and excess reserves

  1. A) are given as constants.
  2. B) grow proportionally with checkable deposits.
  3. C) grow proportionally with high-powered money.
  4. D) grow proportionally over time.

Answer: B

122

The total amount of reserves in the banking system is equal to the ________ required reserves and excess reserves.

  1. A) sum of
  2. B) difference between
  3. C) product of
  4. D) ratio between

Answer: A

123

The total amount of required reserves in the banking system is equal to the ________ the required reserve ratio and checkable deposits.

  1. A) sum of
  2. B) difference between
  3. C) product of
  4. D) ratio between

Answer: C

124

Since the Federal Reserve sets the required reserve ratio to less than one, one dollar of reserves can support ________ of checkable deposits.

  1. A) exactly one dollar
  2. B) less than one dollar
  3. C) more than one dollar
  4. D) exactly twice the amount

Answer: C

125

An increase in the monetary base that goes into ________ is not multiplied, while an increase that goes into ________ is multiplied.

  1. A) deposits; currency
  2. B) excess reserves; currency
  3. C) currency; excess reserves
  4. D) currency; deposits

Answer: D

126

An increase in the monetary base that goes into currency is ________, while an increase that goes into deposits is ________.

  1. A) multiplied; multiplied
  2. B) not multiplied; multiplied
  3. C) multiplied; not multiplied
  4. D) not multiplied; not multiplied

Answer: B

127

If the Fed injects reserves into the banking system and they are held as excess reserves, then the money supply

  1. A) increases by only the initial increase in reserves.
  2. B) increases by only one-half the initial increase in reserves.
  3. C) increases by a multiple of the initial increase in reserves.
  4. D) does not change.

Answer: D

128

If the Fed injects reserves into the banking system and they are held as excess reserves, then the monetary base ________ and the money supply ________.

  1. A) remains unchanged; remains unchanged
  2. B) remains unchanged; increases
  3. C) increases; increases
  4. D) increases; remains unchanged

Answer: D

129

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $800 billion, and excess reserves total $0.8 billion, then the money supply is ________ billion.

  1. A) $8000
  2. B) $1200
  3. C) $1200.8
  4. D) $8400

Answer: B

130

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $800 billion, and excess reserves total $0.8 billion, then the M1 money multiplier is

  1. A) 2.5.
  2. B) 1.67.
  3. C) 2.0.
  4. D) 0.601.

Answer: A

131

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $1,200 billion, checkable deposits are $1,600 billion, and excess reserves total $2,500 billion, then the M1 money multiplier is

  1. A) 2.5.
  2. B) 1.7.
  3. C) 7.3.
  4. D) 0.73.

Answer: D

132

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $800 billion, and excess reserves total $0.8 billion, then the currency-deposit ratio is

  1. A) 0.25.
  2. B) 0.50.
  3. C) 0.40.
  4. D) 0.05.

Answer: B

133

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $800 billion, and excess reserves total $0.8 billion, then the excess reserves-checkable deposit ratio is

  1. A) 0.001.
  2. B) 0.10.
  3. C) 0.01.
  4. D) 0.05.

Answer: A

134

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $1,200 billion, checkable deposits are $1,600 billion, and excess reserves total $2,500 billion, then the excess reserves-checkable deposit ratio is

  1. A) 1.56.
  2. B) 0.48.
  3. C) 0.72.
  4. D) 0.56.

Answer: A

135

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $800 billion, and excess reserves total $0.8 billion, then the monetary base is

  1. A) $480 billion.
  2. B) $480.8 billion.
  3. C) $80 billion.
  4. D) $80.8 billion.

Answer: B

136

If the required reserve ratio is 15 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $800 billion, and excess reserves total $0.8 billion, then the M1 money multiplier is

  1. A) 2.5.
  2. B) 1.67.
  3. C) 2.3.
  4. D) 0.651.

Answer: C

137

If the required reserve ratio is 5 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $800 billion, and excess reserves total $0.8 billion, then the M1 money multiplier is

  1. A) 2.5.
  2. B) 2.72.
  3. C) 2.3.
  4. D) 0.551.

Answer: B

138

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $1000 billion, and excess reserves total $1 billion, then the money supply is ________ billion.

  1. A) $10,000
  2. B) $4000
  3. C) $1400
  4. D) $10,400

Answer: C

139

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $1000 billion, and excess reserves total $1 billion, then the M1 money multiplier is

  1. A) 2.5.
  2. B) 2.8.
  3. C) 2.0.
  4. D) 0.7.

Answer: B

140

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $1000 billion, and excess reserves total $1 billion, then the excess reserves-checkable deposit ratio is

  1. A) 0.01.
  2. B) 0.10.
  3. C) 0.001.
  4. D) 0.05.

Answer: C

141

If the required reserve ratio is 10 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $1000 billion, and excess reserves total $1 billion, then the monetary base is

  1. A) $400 billion.
  2. B) $401 billion.
  3. C) $500 billion.
  4. D) $501 billion.

Answer: D

142

If the required reserve ratio is 15 percent, currency in circulation is $400 billion, checkable deposits are $1000 billion, and excess reserves total $1 billion, then the M1 money multiplier is

  1. A) 2.54.
  2. B) 2.67.
  3. C) 2.35.
  4. D) 0.551.

Answer: A

143

If the required reserve ratio is one-third, currency in circulation is $300 billion, and checkable deposits are $900 billion, then the money supply is ________ billion.

  1. A) $2700
  2. B) $3000
  3. C) $1200
  4. D) $1800

Answer: C

144

If the required reserve ratio is one-third, currency in circulation is $300 billion, checkable deposits are $900 billion, and there is no excess reserve, then the M1 money multiplier is

  1. A) 2.5.
  2. B) 2.8.
  3. C) 2.0.
  4. D) 0.67.

Answer: C

145

If the required reserve ratio is one-third, currency in circulation is $300 billion, and checkable deposits are $900 billion, then the currency-deposit ratio is

  1. A) 0.25.
  2. B) 0.33.
  3. C) 0.67.
  4. D) 0.375.

Answer: B

146

If the required reserve ratio is one-third, currency in circulation is $300 billion, checkable deposits are $900 billion, and there is no excess reserve, then the monetary base is

  1. A) $300 billion.
  2. B) $600 billion.
  3. C) $333 billion.
  4. D) $667 billion.

Answer: B

147

Everything else held constant, an increase in the required reserve ratio on checkable deposits will cause

  1. A) the money supply to rise.
  2. B) the money supply to remain constant.
  3. C) the money supply to fall.
  4. D) checkable deposits to rise.

Answer: C

148

Everything else held constant, a decrease in the required reserve ratio on checkable deposits will mean

  1. A) a decrease in the money supply.
  2. B) an increase in the money supply.
  3. C) a decrease in checkable deposits.
  4. D) an increase in discount loans.

Answer: B

149

Everything else held constant, an increase in the required reserve ratio on checkable deposits causes the M1 money multiplier to ________ and the money supply to ________.

  1. A) decrease; increase
  2. B) increase; increase
  3. C) decrease; decrease
  4. D) increase; decrease

Answer: C

150

Everything else held constant, a decrease in the required reserve ratio on checkable deposits causes the M1 money multiplier to ________ and the money supply to ________.

  1. A) decrease; increase
  2. B) increase; increase
  3. C) decrease; decrease
  4. D) increase; decrease

Answer: B

151

Assuming initially that the required reserve ratio = 10%, the currency-deposit ratio = 40%, and the excess reserve ratio = 0, an increase in the required reserve ratio to 15% causes the M1 money multiplier to ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase from 2.55 to 2.8
  2. B) decrease from 2.8 to 2.55
  3. C) increase from 1.82 to 2
  4. D) decrease from 2 to 1.82

Answer: B

152

Assuming initially that the required reserve ratio = 10%, the currency-deposit ratio = 40%, and the excess reserve ratio = 0, a decrease in the required reserve ratio to 5% causes the M1 money multiplier to ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase from 2.8 to 3.11
  2. B) decrease from 3.11 to 2.8
  3. C) increase from 2 to 2.22
  4. D) decrease from 2.22 to 2

Answer: A

153

Everything else held constant, if the sum of the required reserve ratio and the excess reserve ratio is less than one, an increase in the currency-checkable deposit ratio will mean

  1. A) an increase in currency in circulation and an increase in the money supply.
  2. B) an increase in money supply but no change in reserves.
  3. C) a decrease in the money supply.
  4. D) an increase in currency in circulation but no change in the money supply.

Answer: C

154

Everything else held constant, if the sum of the required reserve ratio and the excess reserve ratio is less than one, a decrease in the currency-checkable deposit ratio will mean

  1. A) an increase in currency in circulation and an increase in the money supply.
  2. B) an increase in money supply.
  3. C) a decrease in the money supply.
  4. D) an increase in currency in circulation but no change in the money supply.

Answer: B

155

Everything else held constant, if the sum of the required reserve ratio and the excess reserve ratio is less than one, an increase in the currency-deposit ratio causes the M1 money multiplier to ________ and the money supply to ________.

  1. A) decrease; increase
  2. B) increase; decrease
  3. C) decrease; decrease
  4. D) increase; increase

Answer: C

156

Everything else held constant, if the sum of the required reserve ratio and the excess reserve ratio is less than one, a decrease in the currency-deposit ratio causes the M1 money multiplier to ________ and the money supply to ________.

  1. A) decrease; increase
  2. B) increase; increase
  3. C) decrease; decrease
  4. D) increase; decrease

Answer: B

157

Everything else held constant, if the sum of the required reserve ratio and the excess reserve ratio is greater than one, an increase in the currency-deposit ratio causes the M1 money multiplier to ________ and the money supply to ________.

  1. A) decrease; increase
  2. B) increase; increase
  3. C) decrease; decrease
  4. D) increase; decrease

Answer: B

158

Assuming initially that the required reserve ratio = 10%, the currency-deposit ratio = 40%, and the excess reserve ratio = 0, an increase in the currency-deposit ratio to 50% causes the M1 money multiplier to ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase from 2.5 to 2.8
  2. B) decrease from 2.8 to 2.5
  3. C) increase from 2.33 to 2.8
  4. D) decrease from 2.8 to 2.33

Answer: B

159

Assuming initially that the required reserve ratio = 10%, the currency-deposit ratio = 40%, and the excess reserve ratio = 0, an decrease in the currency-deposit ratio to 30% causes the M1 money multiplier to ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase from 2.8 to 3.25
  2. B) decrease from 3.25 to 2.8
  3. C) increase from 2.8 to 3.5
  4. D) decrease from 3.5 to 2.8

Answer: A

160

Everything else held constant, a decrease in the excess reserves ratio causes the M1 money multiplier to ________ and the money supply to ________.

  1. A) decrease; increase
  2. B) increase; increase
  3. C) decrease; decrease
  4. D) increase; decrease

Answer: B

161

Everything else held constant, an increase in the excess reserves ratio causes the M1 money multiplier to ________ and the money supply to ________.

  1. A) decrease; increase
  2. B) increase; increase
  3. C) decrease; decrease
  4. D) increase; decrease

Answer: C

162

Assuming initially that the required reserve ratio = 15%, the currency-deposit ratio = 40%, and the excess reserve ratio = 5%, a decrease in the excess reserve ratio to 0% causes the M1 money multiplier to ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase from 2.33 to 2.55
  2. B) decrease from 2.55 to 2.33
  3. C) increase from 1.67 to 1.82
  4. D) decrease from 1.82 to 1.67

Answer: A

163

Assuming initially that the required reserve ratio = 15%, the currency-deposit ratio = 40%, and the excess reserve ratio = 5%, an increase in the excess reserve ratio to 10% causes the M1 money multiplier to ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase from 2.15 to 2.33
  2. B) decrease from 2.33 to 2.15
  3. C) increase from 1.54 to 1.67
  4. D) decrease from 1.67 to 1.54

Answer: B

164

Assuming initially that the required reserve ratio = 10%, the currency-deposit ratio = 75%, and the excess reserve ratio = 156%, an increase in the excess reserve ratio to 200% causes the M1 money multiplier to ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase from 0.15 to 0.33
  2. B) decrease from 0.73 to 0.61
  3. C) increase from 0.54 to 0.67
  4. D) decrease from 1.67 to 1.54

Answer: B

165

Assuming initially that the required reserve ratio = 10%, the currency-deposit ratio = 75%, and the excess reserve ratio = 156%, an increase in the required reserve ratio to 15% causes the M1 money multiplier to ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase from 0.15 to 0.33
  2. B) increase from 0.54 to 0.67
  3. C) decrease from 0.73 to 0.71
  4. D) decrease from 1.67 to 1.54

Answer: C

166

Assuming initially that the required reserve ratio = 10%, the currency-deposit ratio = 75%, and the excess reserve ratio = 156%, an increase in the currency-deposit ratio to 150% causes the M1 money multiplier to ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase from 0.73 to 0.78
  2. B) decrease from 0.73 to 0.61
  3. C) increase from 1.54 to 1.67
  4. D) decrease from 1.67 to 1.54

Answer: A

167

The excess reserves ratio is ________ related to expected deposit outflows, and is ________ related to the market interest rate.

  1. A) negatively; negatively
  2. B) negatively; positively
  3. C) positively; negatively
  4. D) positively; positively

Answer: C

168

The money supply is ________ related to expected deposit outflows, and is ________ related to the market interest rate.

  1. A) negatively; negatively
  2. B) negatively; positively
  3. C) positively; negatively
  4. D) positively; positively

Answer: B

169

The money multiplier is

  1. A) negatively related to high-powered money.
  2. B) positively related to the excess reserves ratio.
  3. C) negatively related to the required reserve ratio.
  4. D) positively related to holdings of excess reserves.

Answer: C

170

During the 2007-2009 financial crisis the currency ratio

  1. A) increased sharply.
  2. B) decreased sharply.
  3. C) increased slightly.
  4. D) decreased slightly.

Answer: D

171

During the 2007-2009 financial crisis the excess reserve ratio

  1. A) increased sharply.
  2. B) decreased sharply.
  3. C) increased slightly.
  4. D) decreased slightly.

Answer: A

172

Explain the complete formula for the M1 money supply, and explain how changes in required reserves, excess reserves, the currency ratio, the nonborrowed base, and borrowed reserves affect the money supply.

Answer: The formula is M = × (MBn + BR). The formula indicates that the money supply is the product of the multiplier times the base. Increases in any of the multiplier components, required reserves, r; excess reserves, e; or the currency ratio, c; reduce the multiplier and the money supply. Increases in the nonborrowed base and borrowed reserves both increase the base and the money supply.

173

Which is the most important category of Fed assets?

  1. A) securities
  2. B) discount loans
  3. C) gold and SDR certificates
  4. D) cash items in the process of collection

Answer: A

174

The two most important categories of assets on the Fed's balance sheet are ________ and ________ because they earn interest.

  1. A) discount loans; coins
  2. B) securities; discount loans
  3. C) gold; coins
  4. D) cash items in the process of collection; SDR certificate accounts

Answer: B

175

The Fed's holdings of securities consist primarily of ________, but also in the past have included ________.

  1. A) Treasury securities; bankers' acceptances
  2. B) municipal securities; bankers' acceptances
  3. C) bankers' acceptances; Treasury securities
  4. D) Treasury securities; municipal securities

Answer: A

176

The volume of loans that the Fed makes to banks is affected by the Fed's setting of the interest rate on these loans, called the

  1. A) federal funds rate.
  2. B) prime rate.
  3. C) discount rate.
  4. D) interbank rate.

Answer: C

177

Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) are issued to governments by the ________ to settle international debts and have replaced ________ in international transactions.

  1. A) Federal Reserve System; gold
  2. B) Federal Reserve System; dollars
  3. C) International Monetary Fund; gold
  4. D) International Monetary Fund; dollars

Answer: C

178

When the Treasury acquires gold or SDRs, it issues certificates to the ________, which are a claim on the gold or SDRs, and in turn is credited with deposit balances at the ________.

  1. A) Federal Reserve System; Fed
  2. B) Federal Reserve System; IMF
  3. C) International Monetary Fund; Fed
  4. D) International Monetary Fund; IMF

Answer: A

179

Which of the following are NOT assets on the Fed's balance sheet?

  1. A) discount loans
  2. B) U.S. Treasury deposits
  3. C) cash items in the process of collection
  4. D) U.S. Treasury bills

Answer: B

180

Which of the following are NOT assets on the Fed's balance sheet?

  1. A) securities
  2. B) discount loans
  3. C) cash items in the process of collection
  4. D) deferred availability cash items

Answer: D

181

Which of the following are NOT liabilities on the Fed's balance sheet?

  1. A) discount loans
  2. B) bank deposits
  3. C) deferred availability cash items
  4. D) U.S. Treasury deposits

Answer: A

182

When the Fed purchases artwork to decorate the conference room at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City

  1. A) reserves rise, but the monetary base falls.
  2. B) reserves fall.
  3. C) currency in circulation falls.
  4. D) the monetary base rises.

Answer: D

183

A Fed purchase of gold, SDRs, a deposit denominated in a foreign currency or any other asset is just an open market ________ of these assets, ________ the monetary base.

  1. A) purchase; raising
  2. B) sale; raising
  3. C) purchase; lowering
  4. D) sale; lowering

Answer: A

184

An increase in Treasury deposits at the Fed causes

  1. A) the monetary base to increase.
  2. B) the monetary base to decrease.
  3. C) Fed assets to increase but has no effect on the monetary base.
  4. D) Fed assets to decrease but has no effect on the monetary base.

Answer: B

185

An increase in U.S. Treasury deposits at the Fed reduces both ________ and the ________.

  1. A) reserves; monetary base
  2. B) Fed liabilities; money multiplier
  3. C) Fed assets; monetary base
  4. D) Fed assets; money multiplier

Answer: A

186

U.S. Treasury deposits at the Fed are ________ for the Fed but ________ for the Treasury. Thus an increase in U.S. Treasury deposits ________ the monetary base.

  1. A) a liability; an asset; increases
  2. B) a liability; an asset; decreases
  3. C) an asset; a liability; increases
  4. D) an asset; a liability; decreases

Answer: B

187

An increase in which of the following leads to a decline in the monetary base?

  1. A) float
  2. B) discount loans
  3. C) foreign deposits at the Fed
  4. D) SDRs

Answer: C

188

Suppose, while cleaning out its closets, a worker at the Federal Reserve bank branch in Memphis discovers a painting of Elvis (medium: acrylic on velvet) that used to grace the walls of the conference room. Suppose further that, at a public auction, the bank sells the painting for $19.95. This sale will cause ________ in the monetary base, everything else held constant.

  1. A) an increase of $19.95
  2. B) an increase of more than $19.95
  3. C) a decrease of $19.95
  4. D) a decrease of more than $19.95

Answer: C

189

Suppose the Bank of China permanently decreases its purchases of U.S. government bonds and, instead, holds more dollars on deposit at the Federal Reserve. Everything else held constant, a open market ________ would be the appropriate monetary policy action for the Fed to take to offset the expected ________ in the monetary base in the United States.

  1. A) purchase; decrease
  2. B) purchase; increase
  3. C) sale; decrease
  4. D) sale; increase

Answer: A

190

The equation that represents M2 in the model of the money supply process is

  1. A) M2 = C + D.
  2. B) M2 = C + D + T - MMF.
  3. C) M2 = C + D - T + MMF.
  4. D) M2 = C + D + T + MMF.

Answer: D

191

In the model of the money supply process for M2, the relationship between checkable deposits and the M2 money supply is represented by

  1. A) D = × M2.
  2. B) D = (1 + c + t + mm) × M2.
  3. C) M2 = × D.
  4. D) M2 = .

Answer: A

192

The M2 money supply is represented by

  1. A) M2 = × MB.
  2. B) M2 = × .
  3. C) MB = × M2.
  4. D) MB = × .

Answer: A

193

The M2 money multiplier is

  1. A) negatively related to high-powered money.
  2. B) positively related to the time deposit ratio.
  3. C) positively related to the required reserve ratio.
  4. D) positively related to the excess reserves ratio.

Answer: B

194

Everything else held constant, an increase in the currency ratio will mean ________ in the M2 money multiplier and ________ in the M2 money supply.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) an increase; a decrease
  3. C) a decrease; an increase
  4. D) a decrease; a decrease

Answer: D

195

Everything else held constant, a decrease in the currency ratio will mean ________ in the M1 money multiplier and ________ in the M2 money multiplier.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) an increase; a decrease
  3. C) a decrease; an increase
  4. D) a decrease; a decrease

Answer: A

196

Everything else held constant, an increase in the required reserve ratio will mean ________ in the M2 money multiplier and ________ in the M2 money supply.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) an increase; a decrease
  3. C) a decrease; an increase
  4. D) a decrease; a decrease

Answer: D

197

Everything else held constant, an increase in the required reserve ratio will result in ________ in M1 and ________ in M2.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) an increase; a decrease
  3. C) a decrease; an increase
  4. D) a decrease; a decrease

Answer: D

198

Everything else held constant, an increase in the time deposit ratio will mean ________ in the M2 money multiplier and ________ in the M2 money supply.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) an increase; a decrease
  3. C) a decrease; an increase
  4. D) a decrease; a decrease

Answer: A

199

Everything else held constant, an increase in the time deposit ratio will result in ________ in the M1 money multiplier and ________ in the M2 money multiplier.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) no change; an increase
  3. C) a decrease; a decrease
  4. D) no change; a decrease

Answer: B

200

Everything else held constant, an increase in the money market fund ratio will mean ________ in the M2 money multiplier and ________ in the M2 money supply.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) an increase; a decrease
  3. C) a decrease; an increase
  4. D) a decrease; a decrease

Answer: A

201

Everything else held constant, an increase in the money market fund ratio will result in ________ in the M1 money multiplier and ________ in the M2 money multiplier.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) no change; an increase
  3. C) a decrease; a decrease
  4. D) no change; a decrease

Answer: B

202

Everything else held constant, an increase in the excess reserve ratio will mean ________ in the M2 money multiplier and ________ in the M2 money supply.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) an increase; a decrease
  3. C) a decrease; an increase
  4. D) a decrease; a decrease

Answer: D

203

Everything else held constant, an increase in the excess reserve ratio will mean ________ in the M1 money multiplier and ________ in the M2 money multiplier.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) no change; an increase
  3. C) a decrease; a decrease
  4. D) no change; a decrease

Answer: C

204

Factors causing an increase in currency holdings include

  1. A) an increase in the interest rates paid on checkable deposits.
  2. B) an increase in the cost of acquiring currency.
  3. C) a decrease in bank panics.
  4. D) an increase in illegal activity.

Answer: D

205

Part of the increase in currency holdings in the 1960s and 1970s can be attributed to

  1. A) increases in income tax rates.
  2. B) the switch from progressive to proportional income taxes.
  3. C) the adoption of regressive taxes.
  4. D) bracket creep due to inflation and progressive income taxes.

Answer: D

206

Everything else held constant, an increase in wealth will cause the holdings of checkable deposits to the holdings of currency to ________ and the currency ratio will ________.

  1. A) increase; increase
  2. B) increase; decrease
  3. C) decrease; increase
  4. D) decrease; decrease

Answer: B

207

Everything else held constant, an increase in the interest rate paid on checkable deposits will cause ________ in the amount of checkable deposits held relative to currency holdings and ________ in the currency ratio.

  1. A) an increase; an increase
  2. B) an increase; a decrease
  3. C) a decrease; an increase
  4. D) a decrease; a decrease

Answer: B

208

The increase in the availability of ATMs has caused the cost of acquiring currency to ________ which will cause the currency ratio to ________, everything else held constant.

  1. A) increase; increase
  2. B) increase; decrease
  3. C) decrease; increase
  4. D) decrease; decrease

Answer: C

209

The steepest increase in the currency ratio since 1892 occurred during

  1. A) World War II.
  2. B) the Great Depression.
  3. C) the interwar years.
  4. D) the past twenty years.

Answer: B

210

The factor accounting for the steepest rise in the currency ratio since 1892 is

  1. A) taxes.
  2. B) bank panics.
  3. C) illegal activity.
  4. D) an increase in wealth.

Answer: B

211

The increase in the currency ratio during World War II was due to

  1. A) bank panics.
  2. B) a drop in the rate of interest paid on checking deposits.
  3. C) the spread of ATMs.
  4. D) high taxes and illegal activities.

Answer: D

212

The upward trend in the currency-deposit ratio during 1994-2007 can be explained by

  1. A) the increased holdings of U.S. currency by foreigners.
  2. B) bank panics.
  3. C) a drop in the rate of interest paid on checking deposits.
  4. D) high taxes and illegal activities.

Answer: A

213

The declining trend in the currency-deposit ratio during 2007-2014 can be explained by

  1. A) the increased holdings of U.S. currency by foreigners.
  2. B) bank panics.
  3. C) a drop in the rate of interest paid on checking deposits.
  4. D) the increasing use of debit cards.

Answer: D

214

During the bank panics of the Great Depression the currency ratio

  1. A) increased sharply.
  2. B) decreased sharply.
  3. C) increased slightly.
  4. D) decreased slightly.

Answer: A

215

During the bank panics of the Great Depression the excess reserve ratio

  1. A) increased sharply.
  2. B) decreased sharply.
  3. C) increased slightly.
  4. D) decreased slightly.

Answer: A

216

In the early 1930s, the currency-deposit ratio rose, as did the level of excess reserves. Money supply analysis predicts that, everything else held constant, the money supply should have

  1. A) risen.
  2. B) fallen.
  3. C) remain unchanged.
  4. D) either risen, fallen, or remain unchanged.

Answer: B

217

The monetary base increased by 20% during the contraction of 1929-1933, but the money supply fell by 25%. Explain why this occurred. How can the money supply fall when the base increases?

Answer: The banking crisis caused the public to fear for the safety of their deposits, increasing both the currency ratio and bank holdings of excess reserves in anticipation of deposit outflows. Both of these changes reduce the money multiplier and the money supply. In this case, the fall in the multiplier due to increases of currency and excess reserves more than offset the increase in the base, causing the money supply to fall.


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