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Chapter 20: Lymphatic System (Mastering)

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1

Which of the following are primary lymphoid organs?

lymph nodes and tonsils

bone marrow and thymus

appendix and spleen

spleen and thymus

bone marrow and thymus

2

Which of the following areas in a secondary lymphoid organ allows intimate contact between blood and the lymphocytes?

germinal centers of the lymph nodes

white pulp of the spleen

red pulp of the spleen

Hassall’s corpuscles of the thymus

white pulp of the spleen

3

Where in the lymph node do the T cells first encounter antigens presented by dendritic cells?

medullary cords in the medulla

lymphoid follicles of the outer cortex

germinal centers of the cortex

deep in the cortex

deep in the cortex

4

Collections of lymphoid tissues, called MALT, are strategically placed throughout the respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary systems. Which one of these is located at the end of the small intestine?

Peyer’s patches

appendix

tonsils

Peyer’s patches

5

There is a decrease in our ability to fight infection as we age. Which lymphoid organ may have a role in this decline? spleen

thymus

lymph nodes

thymus

6

Besides lymph nodes, where would you expect to find proliferating (dividing) B cells?

in the brain

in the thyroid

in the skin

in the spleen

in the spleen

7

Which of the following mechanisms is NOT used to propel lymph through lymphatic vessels?

small heart-like pumps

gravity

the milking action of muscles

pulmonary motion

small heart-like pumps

8

Adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely. What is the unique structural modification that increases their permeability?

lacteals

minivalves

fibroblasts

trabeculae

minivalves

9

Which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?

increasing pressure in the interstitial space

anchoring of endothelial cells to adjacent structures by collagen fibers

increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

inflammation of tissues surrounding lymphatic capillaries

increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

10

Lymph from what regions of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?

the left upper limb, the left side of the head and thorax, and both lower limbs

the right upper limb, the right side of the head, and the thorax

the right upper limb, the right side of the head and thorax, and the right lower limb

the digestive organs and lower limbs

the right upper limb, the right side of the head, and the thorax

11

What is the name of the enlarged sac to which the lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk return lymph?

cisterna chyli

thoracic duct

lacteals

right lymphatic duct

cisterna chyli

12

Where are the three large clusters of superficial lymph nodes?

the cervical, acromial, and mammary regions

the axillary, brachial, and subclavian regions

the lumbar, inguinal, and femoral regions

the cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

the cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

13

Once collected, lymph ultimately drains into __________.

lymph nodes

arterial circulation

venous circulation

the liver for detoxification

venous circulation

14

Which statement describes the origin of lymph fluid?

Lymph is collected from atrial to venous anastomoses.

Lymph is secreted into the lymph vessels.

Lymph is collected from fluid that accumulates in veins as blood slowly circulates back toward the heart.

Lymph is excess fluid formed from plasma that accumulates in the tissues as interstitial fluid.

Lymph is excess fluid formed from plasma that accumulates in the tissues as interstitial fluid.

15

Art-based Question

Which lymphoid organ extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood in addition to storing some of the breakdown products for later reuse?

A

B

C

D

card image

C

16

Which lymph cells produce antibodies?

dendritic cells

macrophages

plasma cells

reticular cells

plasma cells

17

What region of the lymph node contains follicles filled with dividing B cells?

hilus

cortex

subcapsular sinus

medulla

cortex

18

Which of the following is a role of lymph nodes?

They produce red blood cells.

They return lymph to circulation.

They filter lymph.

They produce lymph.

They filter lymph.

19

Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

splenic sinusoids

red pulp

white pulp

splenic cords

white pulp

20

After surgical removal of the spleen (i.e., a splenectomy), some other organs take over most of its functions. Which of the following spleen functions in the adult can not be performed by bone marrow?

immune surveillance

erythropoiesis

removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood

storage of platelets

removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood

21

Which of the following lymph organs is NOT matched with its function?

thymus: mature T cells

Peyer's patches: mature B cells

bone marrow: form lymphocytes

spleen: remove red blood cells

Peyer's patches: mature B cells

22

Peyer's patches are mucosa-associated lymph tissue located in the __________.

wall of the small intestine

spleen

wall of the colon

liver

wall of the small intestine


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