Chapter 25: The Urinary System (Mastering)

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1

Which of the following best describes glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

the volume of urine leaving the kidneys per minute

the volume of blood flowing through the glomerular capillaries per minute

the volume of filtrate created at the glomerulus per liter of blood flowing through the glomerular capillaries

the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute

the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute

2

GFR regulation mechanisms primarily affect which of the following?

capsular osmotic pressure (OPc)

blood osmotic pressure (OPg)

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg)

capsular hydrostatic pressure (HPc)

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg)

3

Which of the following are mechanisms of intrinsic control of glomerular filtration (renal autoregulation)?

myogenic mechanism and sympathetic nervous system control

myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback

tubuloglomerular feedback and the renin-angiotensin mechanism

sympathetic nervous system control and the renin-angiotensin mechanism

myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback

4

Macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) regulate GFR through which intrinsic mechanism?

myogenic mechanism

tubuloglomerular feedback s

ympathetic nervous system control

renin-angiotensin mechanism

tubuloglomerular feedback

5

The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?

efferent arterioles

systemic arterioles

glomeruli

afferent arterioles

afferent arterioles

6

What does a high concentration of NaCl in the renal tubule at the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) most likely indicate?

insufficient NaCl reabsorption due to low GFR

excessive NaCl reabsorption due to low GFR

excessive NaCl reabsorption due to high GFR

insufficient NaCl reabsorption due to high GFR

insufficient NaCl reabsorption due to high GFR

7

Through the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, how would an increase in filtrate NaCl concentration affect afferent arteriole diameter?

Afferent arteriole diameter would decrease.

Afferent arteriole diameter would stay about the same.

Afferent arteriole diameter would increase.

Afferent arteriole diameter would decrease.

8

Granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) regulate GFR indirectly through which mechanism?

renin-angiotensin mechanism

myogenic mechanism

tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism

sympathetic nervous system controls

renin-angiotensin mechanism

9

The long nephron loops of the __________

juxtamedullary

10

nephrons are located in the renal ________

medulla

11

The __________ create the medullary osmotic gradient

long nephron loops

12

and act as countercurrent ________

multipliers

13

The __________ preserve the medullary osmotic gradient

vasa recta

14

and act as countercurrent __________.

exchangers

15

The ___________ use the medullary osmotic gradient to concentrate urine.

collecting ducts

16

Which of the following is NOT a property used to establish the medullary osmotic gradient?

the blood flow through the ascending and descending portions of the vasa recta

the descending limb's permeability to water and impermeability to salt

the filtrate flow through the ascending and descending limbs of the long nephron loops of juxtamedullary nephrons

the ascending limb's impermeability to water and permeability to salt

the blood flow through the ascending and descending portions of the vasa recta

17

Art-based Question

Focus your attention on the positive feedback cycle in Focus Figure 25.1.

Drag and drop the labels onto the figure in the correct order of events to complete the positive feedback loop. You may use a label only once or not at all.

card image

See Photo

18

Art-based Question

Long Nephron Loops: Creation of the Medullary Osmotic Gradient. Focus your attention on the long nephron loop in Focus Figure 25.1.

Sort the items onto the appropriate limb of the nephron loop figures. All items must be sorted.

→ direction of filtrate flow →

card image

Descending:

Ascending:

Both : Passive Transport

Neither: H2O intro filtrate, NaCl into filtrate

19

What area of the nephron is responsible for the reabsorption of most of the water from the filtrate as well as most nutrients?

descending nephron loop

proximal convoluted tubule

collecting duct

distal convoluted tubule

proximal convoluted tubule

20

In what part of the renal tubule does parathyroid hormone (PTH) promote the reabsorption of calcium ions?

descending limb of the nephron loop

distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)

collecting duct

distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

21

Approximately 80% of the energy used for active transport is devoted to the reabsorption of __________.

water

sodium

potassium

glucose

sodium

22

Upon reaching what point in the nephron is reabsorption (1) dependent upon the body's needs at the time and (2) regulated by hormones?

distal convoluted tubule

descending limb of the loop of Henle

ascending limb of the loop of Henle

proximal convoluted tubule

distal convoluted tubule

23

Art-based Question

Art-labeling Activity: Figure 25.12d Part A

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

card image

See Photo

24

Which of the following processes would be considered as a secretory rather than an excretory activity?

feces elimination by the colon

sweat removal by the skin

carbon dioxide removal by the lungs

aldosterone release by the adrenal glands

aldosterone release by the adrenal glands

25

Art-based Question

Art-labeling Activity: Figure 25.8a (2 of 2) Part A

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

card image

See Photo

26

Art-based Question

Art-labeling Activity: Figure 25.10 Part A

Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.

card image

See photo


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