© 2016

Articulations and Body Movements

Set Details Share
Helpfulness: 0
show more

Name two functions of an articulation (joint)

1. Hold bones together

2. Allow rigid skeletal system some flexibility so gross body movements can occur


Structural classifications of joints

What type of tissue is present in the joint cavity? 3 types: fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial


Functional classifications of joints

How much movement is allowed by joint? 3 types: synarthroses (immovable), amphiarthroses (slightly movable), diarthroses (freely movable)


Fibrous joints

Made of dense regular connective tissue and no joint cavity. Joints are either synarthrotic or amphiarthrotic.

Examples: Suture (short fibers, located in skull), Gumphosis (periodontal ligament, tooth in bony socket)


Cartilaginous joints

Adjoining bones united by cartilage with no joint cavity. Joints are either synarthrotic or amphiarthrotic.

Examples: Intervertebral discs, Pubic symphysis (fibrocartilage)


Synovial joints

Most common type of joint in body; joints are freely movable. Remember, slick as snot

Several defining structural characteristics:

a. Joint cavity (filled with synovial fluid)

b. Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage covering ends of bones forming joint)

c. Articular capsule (two layers enclosing joint cavity. Fibrous layer (dense irregular connective tissue) and inner layer (synovial membrane))

d. Synovial fluid (viscous fluid acting as lubricant)

e. Reinforcing ligaments

f. Nerves and blood vessels (sensory nerve fibers to detect pain and joint stretching, blood vessels supply synovial membrane)

g. Articular discs

h. Bursa and tendon sheath

Examples: Elbow joint, shoulder joint, hip joint, etc


Types of synovial joints: Plane

non-axial (gliding); between flat or slightly curved bones

examples: intertarsal, intercarpal joints


Types of synovial joints: Hinge

Uniaxial (flexion and extension); a rounded or cylindrical bone fits into a concave surface on the other bone

examples: elbow, interphalangeal joints, knee


Types of synovial joints: Pivot

Uniaxial (rotation); A rounded bone fits into a sleeve (a concave bone plus a ligament)

examples: proximal radioulnar, atlantoaxial joint


Types of synovial joints: Condylar

Biaxial (flexion, extension, adduction, abduction); An oval condyle fits into an oval depression on the other bone

examples: metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) and radiocarpal joints; metacarpal/carpal joints


Types of synovial joints: Saddle

Biaxial (flexion, extension, adduction, abduction); Articulating surfaces are saddle shaped; one surface is concave, the other is convex

examples: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb (this is mostly where this joint is)


Types of synovial joints: Ball-and-socket

Multiaxial (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation); the ball-shaped head of one bone fits into the cuplike depression of the other bone

examples: shoulder, hip joints



stationary, immovable, or less movable attachment of muscle to bone; anchor for part of body that moves



More movable attachment site of muscle to bone; part of body that moves



card image

Movement (usually in sagittal plane) that decreases the angle of the joint and reduces the distance between two bones (example bending knee or elbow)



card image

Movement that increases the angle of the joint and the distance between two bones or parts of body; opposite of flexion.



card image

Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body, along the frontal plan, or the fanning movement of fingers or toes when they are spread apart. REMEMBER: Children are abducted from their parents...they are taken away



card image

Movement of a limb towards the midline of the body or drawing the fingers or toes together; opposite of abduction.



card image

Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis without lateral or medial displacement. Also describes movement of atlas around dens of axis.



card image

A combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction commonly observed in ball and socket joints like the shoulder. The limb as a whole outlines a cone.



card image

Movement of the palm of the hand from an anterior or upward-facing position to a posterior or downward facing position. The distal end of radius rotates over the ulna.



card image

Movement of the palm from a posterior position to an anterior position. Radius and ulna are parallel.



card image

Movement of ankle joint that lifts foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin


Plantar flexion

card image

Movement of ankle joint in which foot flexes downward as if standing on one's toes or pointing the toes



card image

Movement that turns sole of the foot medially



card image

Movement that turns sole of foot laterally


Ligamentum teres

card image

ligament in hip running from the fovea capitis on the femur head to the acetabulum, also called ligament of the head of the femur


Ligaments of the knee

card image

patellar, medial, lateral patellar (merged with articular capsule)

fibular and tibial collateral ligaments (prevent rotation during extension)

oblique popliteal and arcuate popliteal ligaments (reinforce knee)

posterior and anterior cruciate ligaments (intracapsular and prevent overflexion and hyperextension)


Glenohumeral joint

card image

Shoulder joint

Related pages

which diagram represents anaphase i of meiosisgram positive diplococcigastrocnemius veinsnursing abdominal assessment orderwhat is the mouths role in the digestive systemdifference between nucleotide and nucleosidethalamus hypothalamus and epithalamuswhere is the fourth ventricle locatedcompact bone is replaced more often than spongy boneplace where enzymes for the etc are locatedmuscular cowboysribosomes in animal cellsmost common vocabulary words on the satwhy ice floats on water hydrogen bondingwhat organisms perform alcoholic fermentationapical and lateral meristemelectrical stimulation physical therapy parametersgenetics and inheritance worksheet answerswhich statement is true regarding the formation of ionic bondsmonomer of triglycerideconsecutive exterior angles definitioninvesting fascia of necksurgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wallquaint antonymwhat barred nuclear testing in the atmospheretkam quiznose and nasal cavity respiratory systemsympathetic chain gangliawhat is zoology definitioncambrian explosion explaineddavy crockett daniel boonelh fsh graphmedical term for sweat glandswhat structure produces bileexamples of shopping goodscentral canal of osteonalbinism is the inherited inability to produceaccessory reproductive glandsiodine electron shellsconfirmatory test for anionsmedical terminolgy quizcampbell biology 10th edition test bankulta armani codebones of pectoral girdle and upper limbsnip on a horsethe substance forming the primary cell wallmechanical stage microscopee coli endosporebranch of left coronary arterywhich cells produce testosteronewhat must occur for a girl to be colorblindwhat is the role of emulsification in the digestive processdefine nuclear membranephotosynthetic cyanobacteria caused an increase in atmospheric levels ofwhich phase occurs directly after g2what are agonist and antagonist muscleswhy are the fermentation pathways referred to as anaerobic pathwayswhat is meant by semiconservative replicationwhen is gene expression blocked in the lac operon systemhomeostatic imbalances of the nervous systemhuman sperm cells first arise in thewhat does the xylem tissue in leaves transportcynthia newbyurecholine side effectssister calista roygerontology quizhow many bones comprise the skullxeroderma pigmentosum inheritancecampbell biology chapter quizzesdaniel webster compromise of 1850case study of tsunamiventuri mask definitionsynapsis biologyphosphorylation of pyruvate kinaselower extremity musclechapter 11 anatomy and physiologybooks of microbiology