Chapter 42 Test Preparation

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Campbell Biology
Chapter 42
Circulation and Gas Exchange
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1) What would be expected if the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of the lungs were to increase significantly?

A) The amount of carbon dioxide entering the lungs from the blood would increase.

B) The amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would increase.

C) The amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would decrease.

D) The pressure would cause the capillary beds to burst.

E) Both C and D would be expected.

Answer: C


2) Which is a correct statement concerning the insect circulatory system?

A) The circulating fluid bathes tissues directly.

B) Blood is always contained in a system of tubes called tracheae.

C) Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues.

D) There is no heart, or pump.

E) There is no blood, or circulating fluid.

Answer: A


3) Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have

A) an open circulatory system.

B) a closed circulatory system.

C) a gastrovascular cavity.

D) branched tracheae.

E) hemolymph.

Answer: B


4) Which of the following blood components would interfere with the functioning of an open circulatory system but not a closed one?

A) electrolytes

B) water

C) red blood cells

D) amino acids

E) antibodies

Answer: C


5) In which animal does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?

A) annelid

B) mollusk

C) fish

D) frog

E) insect

Answer: D


6) Three-chambered hearts generally consist of which of the following numbers of atria and ventricles?

A) one atrium; one ventricle

B) two atria; one ventricle

C) three atria; no ventricles

D) no atria; three ventricles

E) one atrium; two ventricles

Answer: B


7) Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?

A) amphibians

B) birds

C) fishes

D) mammals

E) reptiles

Answer: C


8) To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n)

A) open circulatory system.

B) hemocoel.

C) lymphatic system.

D) two-chambered heart.

E) four-chambered heart.

Answer: E


9) A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. From this point in the artery, how many capillary beds must this red blood cell pass through before it returns to the left ventricle of the heart?

A) one

B) two

C) three

D) four

E) five

Answer: B


10) Through how many capillary beds must a human red blood cell travel if it takes the shortest possible route from the right ventricle to the right atrium?

A) one

B) two

C) three

D) four

E) five

Answer: B

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11) Chambers or vessels that carry oxygenated blood include which of the following?

A) 1 and 2 only

B) 3 and 4 only

C) 5 and 6 only

D) 1, 2, and 4

E) 3, 5, and 6

Answer: E

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12) Blood is carried directly to the lungs from which of the following?

A) 2

B) 3

C) 4

D) 5

E) 6

Answer: C

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13) What is the correct sequence of blood flow, beginning at the pulmonary artery?

A) 2-1-4-systemic circulation-3-5-6

B) 3-5-6-systemic circulation-2-1-4

C) 4-5-6-3-systemic circulation-2-1

D) 4-systemic circulation-2-1-6-3-5

E) 5-6-3-2-1-4

Answer: C


14) Which sequence of blood flow can be observed in either a reptile or a mammal?

A) left ventricle → aorta → lungs → systemic circulation

B) right ventricle → pulmonary vein → pulmocutaneous circulation

C) pulmonary vein → left atrium → ventricle → pulmonary circuit

D) vena cava → right atrium → ventricle → pulmonary circuit

E) right atrium → pulmonary artery → left atrium → ventricle

Answer: D


15) In order for an insect to grow as large as an elephant, what changes or modifications would need to be made in the circulatory systems of insects?

A) The circulating body fluid would need to be contained in closed vessels.

B) The heart would need to have multiple chambers.

C) The heart would need to have multiple ostia.

D) Only A and B are correct.

E) A, B, and C are correct.

Answer: D


16) A patient has a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 40 beats/min, a stroke volume of 70mL/beat, and a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/min. This person's cardiac output per minute will be

A) 500 mL.

B) 1,000 mL.

C) 1,750 mL.

D) 2,800 mL.

E) 4,800 mL.

Answer: D


17) Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans

A) is a major contributor to heart attacks.

B) would block conductance between the bundle branches and the Purkinje fibers.

C) would have a negative effect on peripheral resistance.

D) would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions.

E) would have an effect on blood pressure monitors in the aorta.

Answer: D


18) If the atrioventricular node could be surgically removed from the heart without disrupting signal transmission to the Purkinje fibers, what would be the effect?

A) No apparent effect on heart activity would be observed.

B) The heart rate would be decreased.

C) Only the ventricles would contract.

D) Only the atria would contract.

E) Atria and ventricles would contract at about the same time.

Answer: E


19) A nonfunctional sinoatrial node would

A) have no adverse effects on heart contraction.

B) cause the heart to stop beating in an autorhythmic fashion.

C) result in a block in ventricular contractions.

D) cause no effects because hormones will take over regulation of the heart beat.

E) have no significant effect on stroke volume.

Answer: E


20) Why is the velocity of blood flow the lowest in capillaries?

A) The capillary walls are not thin enough to allow oxygen to exchange with the cells.

B) Capillaries are far from the heart, and blood flow slows as the distance from the heart increases.

C) The diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to the capillaries at a high flow rate.

D) The systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower cardiac output than the right ventricle.

E) The total surface area of the capillaries is larger than the total surface area of the arterioles.

Answer: E


21) Average blood pressure is lowest in which structure(s)?

A) the aorta

B) arteries

C) arterioles

D) capillaries

E) venae cavae

Answer: E


22) Which of the following is correct for a blood pressure reading of 130/80?

I. The systolic pressure is 130.

II. The diastolic pressure is 80.

III. The blood pressure during heart contraction is 80.

A) I only

B) III only

C) I and II only

D) II and III only

E) I, II, and III

Answer: C


23) What can be expected to happen to the blood pressure of a healthy individual during inhalation?

A) The systolic pressure would rise and the diastolic pressure would decrease.

B) The extra pressure exerted by the inflating lungs will increase blood pressure.

C) There will be a transient decrease in blood pressure.

D) Blood pressure will initially increase and then immediately decrease.

E) Nothing will happen in healthy individuals.

Answer: C


24) What is the reason that fluid is forced out of systemic capillaries at the arteriole end?

A) The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than that of the blood.

B) The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is less than that of the interstitial fluid.

C) The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood.

D) The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the blood.

E) The osmotic pressure of the blood is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid.

Answer: C


25) If, during protein starvation, the osmotic pressure on the venous side of capillary beds drops below the hydrostatic pressure, then

A) hemoglobin will not release oxygen.

B) fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues.

C) the pH of the interstitial fluids will increase.

D) most carbon dioxide will be bound to hemoglobin and carried away from tissues.

E) plasma proteins will escape through the endothelium of the capillaries.

Answer: B


26) If a person were suffering from edema, which of the following conditions would help to reduce the accumulation of interstitial fluid?

A) decrease of plasma protein production by the liver

B) constriction of the smooth layer of the arteriole

C) removal of an obstruction in the lymphatic system

D) decrease of the systolic blood pressure

E) enlargement of clefts between capillary endothelial cells

Answer: D


27) What would be the long-term effect if the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed were to become blocked?

A) More fluid would enter the venous capillaries.

B) Blood pressure in the capillary bed would increase.

C) Fluid would accumulate in interstitial areas.

D) Fewer proteins would leak into the interstitial fluid from the blood.

E) Nothing would happen.

Answer: C


28) Human plasma proteins include which of the following?

I. fibrinogen

II. hemoglobin

III. immunoglobulin

A) I only

B) II only

C) I and III only

D) II and III only

E) I, II, and III

Answer: C


29) Which of the following is not a function of plasma proteins in humans?

A) maintenance of blood osmotic pressure

B) transport of water-insoluble lipids

C) blood clotting

D) immune responses

E) oxygen transport

Answer: E


30) Cyanide acts as a mitochondrial poison by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. What will happen to human red blood cells if they are placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide?

A) The cell shape will be maintained, but the mitochondria will be poisoned.

B) The cells will lyse as the cyanide concentration increases inside the cell.

C) As a protective mechanism, the cells will switch to anaerobic metabolism.

D) The cells will not be able to carry oxygen.

E) The cells will probably be unaffected.

Answer: E


31) Speeds up heart rate

A) low-density lipoproteins

B) immunoglobulins

C) erythropoietin

D) epinephrine

E) platelets

Answer: D


32) Part of the cellular elements of the blood

A) low-density lipoproteins

B) immunoglobulins

C) erythropoietin

D) epinephrine

E) platelets

Answer: E


33) Stimulates the production of red blood cells

A) low-density lipoproteins

B) immunoglobulins

C) erythropoietin

D) epinephrine

E) platelets

Answer: C


34) Involved in the early stages of blood clotting

A) low-density lipoproteins

B) immunoglobulins

C) erythropoietin

D) epinephrine

E) platelets

Answer: E


35) The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot consists mostly of which protein?

A) fibrinogen

B) fibrin

C) thrombin

D) prothrombin

E) collagen

Answer: B


36) Which of the following is not a normal event in the process of blood clotting?

A) production of erythropoietin

B) conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

C) activation of prothrombin to thrombin

D) adhesion of platelets

E) clotting factor release by clumped platelets

Answer: A


37) High blood pressure

A) atherosclerosis

B) arteriosclerosis

C) hypertension

D) heart murmur

E) cardiovascular thrombus

Answer: C


38) Defect in one or more of the valves of the heart

A) atherosclerosis

B) arteriosclerosis

C) hypertension

D) heart murmur

E) cardiovascular thrombus

Answer: D


39) Plaque formation by infiltration of lipids into arterial smooth muscles

A) atherosclerosis

B) arteriosclerosis

C) hypertension

D) heart murmur

E) cardiovascular thrombus

Answer: A


40) Which of the following features do all gas exchange systems have in common?

A) The exchange surfaces are moist.

B) They are enclosed within ribs.

C) They are maintained at a constant temperature.

D) They are exposed to air.

E) They are found only in animals.

Answer: A


41) Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs?

A) Water is denser than air.

B) Water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume.

C) Gills have less surface area than lungs.

D) Only A and B are correct.

E) A, B, and C are correct.

Answer: D


42) Which of the following is an example of countercurrent exchange?

A) the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills

B) the flow of blood in the dorsal vessel of an insect and that of air within its tracheae

C) the flow of air within the primary bronchi of a human and that of blood within the pulmonary veins

D) the flow of water across the skin of a frog and that of blood within the ventricle of its heart

E) the flow of fluid out of the arterial end of a capillary and that of fluid back into the venous end of the same capillary

Answer: A


43) Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize

A) endocytosis.

B) blood pressure.

C) diffusion.

D) active transport.

E) osmosis.

Answer: C


44) Which one of the following statements about gills operating in water is false?

A) Water can support the delicate gill features.

B) Most fish actively pump water over their gills.

C) Keeping membranes moist is no problem.

D) Water carries more oxygen than air, and therefore gills need to be more efficient than lungs.

E) Gills have evolved many times in aquatic animals.

Answer: D


45) Tracheal systems for gas exchange are found in which organism?

A) crustacean

B) earthworm

C) insect

D) jellyfish

E) vertebrate

Answer: C


46) Where do air-breathing insects carry out gas exchange?

A) in specialized external gills

B) in specialized internal gills

C) in the alveoli of their lungs

D) across the membranes of cells

E) across the thin cuticular exoskeleton

Answer: D


47) An oil-water mixture is used as a spray against mosquitoes. How might this spray also affect gas exchange in other insects?

A) The oil might coat their lungs.

B) The oil might block the openings into the tracheal system.

C) The oil might interfere with gas exchange across the capillaries.

D) Only A and B are correct.

E) A, B, and C are correct.

Answer: B


48) All of the following respiratory surfaces are associated with capillary beds except the

A) gills of fishes.

B) alveoli of lungs.

C) tracheae of insects.

D) skin of earthworms.

E) skin of frogs.

Answer: C


49) If a molecule of CO2 released into the blood in your left toe travels out of your nose, it must pass through all of the following structures except the

A) right atrium.

B) pulmonary vein.

C) alveolus.

D) trachea.

E) right ventricle.

Answer: B


50) Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because

A) the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume.

B) pressure in the alveoli increases.

C) gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure.

D) pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs.

E) a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes.

Answer: A


51) Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs?

A) The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.

B) The residual volume of the lungs decreases.

C) The diaphragm contracts.

D) The epiglottis closes.

E) The rib cage expands.

Answer: A


52) Which of the following lung volumes would be different in a person at rest compared with when the person exercises?

A) tidal volume

B) vital capacity

C) residual volume

D) total lung capacity

E) All of the above would be different.

Answer: A


53) Tidal volume in respiration is analogous to what measurement in cardiac physiology?

A) cardiac output

B) heart rate

C) stroke volume

D) systolic pressure

E) diastolic pressure

Answer: C


54) A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and a residual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of

A) 1,450 mL.

B) 4,000 mL.

C) 4,450 mL.

D) 5,000 mL.

E) 5,450 mL.

Answer: D


55) Air flows in only one direction through the lungs of which animals?

A) frogs

B) birds

C) mammals

D) crocodiles

E) flying insects

Answer: B


56) Why is the respiratory system of a bird more efficient than the human respiratory system?

A) The bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air.

B) A bird lung contains multiple alveoli, which increases the amount of surface area available for gas exchange.

C) The human respiratory system ends in small parabronchi, which reduce the amount of surface area available for gas exchange.

D) Only B and C are correct.

E) A, B, and C are correct.

Answer: A


57) The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate?

A) nitric acid

B) nitrogen

C) oxygen

D) carbon dioxide

E) carbon monoxide

Answer: D


58) Breathing is usually regulated by

A) erythropoietin levels in the blood.

B) the concentration of red blood cells.

C) hemoglobin levels in the blood.

D) CO2 and O2 concentration and pH-level sensors.

E) the lungs and the larynx.

Answer: D


59) At an atmospheric pressure of 870 mm Hg, what is the contribution of oxygen?

A) 100 mm Hg

B) 127 mm Hg

C) 151 mm Hg

D) 182 mm Hg

E) 219 mm Hg

Answer: D


60) At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg. Oxygen gas is approximately 21% of the total gasses in the atmosphere. What is the approximate partial pressure of oxygen?

A) 0.2 mm Hg

B) 20.0 mm Hg

C) 76.0 mm Hg

D) 160.0 mm Hg

E) 508.0 mm Hg

Answer: D


61) At the summit of a high mountain, the atmospheric pressure is 380 mm Hg. If the atmosphere is still composed of 21% oxygen, what is the partial pressure of oxygen at this altitude?

A) 0 mm Hg

B) 80 mm Hg

C) 160 mm Hg

D) 380 mm Hg

E) 760 mm Hg

Answer: B


62) Which one of these statements about lungs is false?

A) Gas exchange takes place across moist membranes.

B) The gases move across the exchange membranes by diffusion.

C) The total exchange surface area is relatively large.

D) The lining of the alveoli is only one cell thick.

E) The concentration of CO2 is higher in the air than in the alveolar capillaries.

Answer: E

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63) For this capillary bed, which of the following statements is correct?

A) The pH is lower on the arterial side than on the venous side.

B) Oxygen is taken up by the erythrocytes within the capillaries.

C) The osmotic pressure remains constant due to carbon dioxide compensation.

D) The hydrostatic pressure declines from the arterial side to the venous side because oxygen is lost.

E) Fluids will leave the capillaries on the arterial side of the bed and re-enter on the venous side.

Answer: E


64) The site of this capillary bed could be all of the following except the

A) pancreas.

B) muscle tissue.

C) medulla.

D) alveoli.

E) kidneys.

Answer: D


65) Which of the following is false concerning the hemoglobin molecule?

A) It contains amino acids.

B) It contains iron.

C) It is composed of four polypeptide chains.

D) It can bind four O2 molecules.

E) It is found in humans only.

Answer: E


66) Which of the following is a characteristic of both hemoglobin and hemocyanin?

A) found within blood cells

B) red in color

C) contains the element iron as an oxygen-binding component

D) transports oxygen

E) occurs in mammals

Answer: D


67) The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in

A) the partial pressure of oxygen.

B) the partial pressure of carbon monoxide.

C) hemoglobin concentration.

D) temperature.

E) pH.

Answer: E


68) How is most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood in humans?

A) bicarbonate ions in the plasma

B) CO2 attached to hemoglobin

C) carbonic acid in the erythrocytes

D) CO2 dissolved in the plasma

E) bicarbonate attached to hemoglobin

Answer: A


69) Hydrogen ions produced in human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering pH by combining with

A) hemoglobin.

B) plasma proteins.

C) carbon dioxide.

D) carbonic acid.

E) plasma buffers.

Answer: A


70) From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the

A) right atrium.

B) left atrium.

C) aorta.

D) capillaries of the lungs.

E) posterior vena cava.

Answer: B


71) From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the

A) right atrium.

B) left atrium.

C) aorta.

D) capillaries of the lungs.

E) posterior vena cava.

Answer: E


72) Blood pressure is highest in the

A) aorta.

B) posterior vena cava.

C) anterior vena cava.

D) pulmonary artery.

E) capillaries.

Answer: A


73) Most carbon dioxide is carried from the body tissues to the lungs

A) as bicarbonate ions.

B) combined with hemoglobin.

C) by the trachea.

D) as hydrogen ions.

E) dissolved in blood plasma.

Answer: A


74) In the blood, most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues

A) as bicarbonate ions.

B) combined with hemoglobin.

C) by the trachea.

D) by water.

E) dissolved in blood plasma.

Answer: B


75) Which of the following respiratory systems is not closely associated with a blood supply?

A) vertebrate lungs

B) fish gills

C) tracheal systems of insects

D) the outer skin of an earthworm

E) the parapodia of a polychaete worm

Answer: C


76) Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein will drain first into the

A) vena cava.

B) left atrium.

C) right atrium.

D) left ventricle.

E) right ventricle.

Answer: B


77) Pulse is a direct measure of

A) blood pressure.

B) stroke volume.

C) cardiac output.

D) heart rate.

E) breathing rate.

Answer: D


78) When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leads to the urge to breathe?

A) rising O2

B) falling O2

C) rising CO2

D) falling CO2

E) rising CO2 and falling O2

Answer: C


79) In negative pressure breathing, inhalation results from

A) forcing air from the throat down into the lungs.

B) contracting the diaphragm.

C) relaxing the muscles of the rib cage.

D) using muscles of the lungs to expand the alveoli.

E) contracting the abdominal muscles.

Answer: B


80) The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

A) occurs when fibrinogen is released from broken platelets.

B) occurs within red blood cells.

C) is linked to hypertension and may damage artery walls.

D) is likely to occur too often in an individual with hemophilia.

E) is the final step of a clotting process that involves multiple clotting factors.

Answer: E


81) A decrease in the pH of human blood caused by exercise would

A) decrease breathing rate.

B) increase heart rate.

C) decrease the amount of O2 unloaded from hemoglobin.

D) decrease cardiac output.

E) decrease CO2 binding to hemoglobin.

Answer: B


82) Compared to the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, blood reaching these cells in arteries has a

A) higher PO2.

B) higher PCO2 .

C) greater bicarbonate concentration.

D) lower pH.

E) lower osmotic pressure.

Answer: A


83) Which of the following reactions prevails in red blood cells traveling through pulmonary capillaries? (Hb= hemoglobin)

A)Hb+4O2 →Hb(O2)4

B) Hb(CO2)4 → Hb + 4 O2

C)CO2 +H2O→H2CO3

D) H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3-

E) Hb + 4 CO2 → Hb(CO2)4

Answer: A


84) The relationship between blood pressure(bp), cardiac output(co), and peripheral resistance(pr) can be expressed as bp = co × pr. All of the following changes would result in an increase in blood pressure except

A) increase in the stroke volume.

B) increase in the heart rate.

C) increase in the duration of ventricular diastole.

D) contraction of the smooth muscle in arteriole walls.

E) reduction in diameter of arterioles.

Answer: C

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