Practice Exam: Digestive System

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1) Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract except the
A) colon.
B) bladder.
C) pharynx.
D) esophagus.
E) stomach.

Answer: B


2) Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?
A) colon
B) pancreas
C) spleen
D) appendix
E) esophagus

Answer: B


3) Digestion refers to the
A) mechanical breakdown of food.
B) chemical breakdown of food.
C) mechanical and chemical breakdown of food.
D) progressive dehydration of indigestible residue.
E) All of the answers are correct

Answer: C


4) Which of the following is not a function of the digestive system?
A) filtration
B) secretion
C) ingestion
D) mechanical processing
E) absorption

Answer: A


5) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term submucosal plexus?
A) component of mucosa
B) coordinates activity of muscularis externa
C) loose connective tissue layer containing blood vessels
D) sensory neural network
E) secretes a watery fluid

Answer: D


6) Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called
A) segmentation.
B) pendular movements.
C) peristalsis.
D) mastication.
E) churning movements.

Answer: C


7) The activities of the digestive system are regulated by
A) hormones.
B) parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons.
C) intrinsic nerve plexuses.
D) the contents of the digestive tract.
E) All of the answers are correct

Answer: E


8) The digestive tract is also referred to as the
A) alimentary canal.
B) GI tract.
C) esophagus.
D) alimentary canal and the GI tract.
E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: D


9) The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of the
A) muscularis mucosa.
B) submucosa.
C) mucosa.
D) serosa.
E) adventitia.

Answer: C


10) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term myenteric plexus?
A) coordinates activity of muscularis externa
B) secretes a watery fluid
C) component of mucosa
D) sensory neural network
E) loose connective tissue layer containing blood vessels

Answer: A


11) Contraction of the ________ alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds.
A) submucosal plexus
B) adventitia
C) mucosa
D) submucosa
E) muscularis mucosa

Answer: E


12) The ________ are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels.
A) serosa
B) mesenteries
C) fibrosa
D) adventitia
E) lamina propria

Answer: B


13) Sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers can be found in the
A) mucosa.
B) lamina propria.
C) submucosal plexus.
D) adventitia.
E) serosa

Answer: C


14) Sandwiched between the layer of circular and longitudinal muscle in the muscularis externa is the
A) submucosal plexus.
B) mucosa.
C) submucosa.
D) myenteric plexus.
E) muscularis mucosa.

Answer: D


15) Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the
A) adventitia.
B) serosa.
C) submucosa.
D) mucosa.
E) muscularis.

Answer: C


16) The layer of loose connective tissue that directly supports the digestive epithelium is the
A) lamina propria.
B) muscularis mucosae.
C) submucosa.
D) myenteric plexus.
E) submucosal plexus.

Answer: A


17) A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following except in the
A) oropharynx.
B) oral cavity.
C) esophagus.
D) stomach.
E) anal canal.

Answer: D


18) A feature of the digestive tract wall that increases surface area available for absorption is the
A) elastic cells.
B) rugae.
C) muscularis mucosa.
D) circular folds.
E) transitional cells.

Answer: D


19) The ________ supports all but 25 cm of the small intestine and provides stability and limited movement.
A) falciform ligament
B) lesser omentum
C) diaphragm
D) greater omentum
E) mesentery proper

Answer: E


20) What organ is primarily responsible for water absorption?
A) esophagus
B) stomach
C) small intestine
D) large intestine
E) pancreas

Answer: C


21) Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen?
A) diaphragm
B) mesentery proper
C) falciform ligament
D) lesser omentum
E) greater omentum

Answer: E


22) Which layer of the digestive tract has a layer of areolar tissue that surrounds the muscularis mucosae?
A) mucosa
B) digestive epithelium
C) muscularis mucosae
D) lamina propria
E) submucosa

Answer: D


23) Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?
A) stomach
B) small intestine
C) anus
D) esophagus
E) large intestine

Answer: E


24) The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the viscera are called
A) the diaphragm.
B) mesenteries.
C) peritoneal sheets.
D) ascites.
E) the dorsal and ventral frenulums.

Answer: B


25) What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?
A) greater omentum
B) mesentery proper
C) lesser omentum
D) falciform ligament
E) diaphragm

Answer: C


26) All of the following contain mucous cells in the epithelium except the
A) stomach.
B) transverse colon.
C) esophagus.
D) large intestine.
E) small intestine.

Answer: C


27) The oral mucosa has ________ epithelium.
A) simple squamous
B) pseudostratified
C) stratified columnar
D) transitional
E) stratified squamous

Answer: E


28) The greater omentum is
A) attached to the stomach at the lesser curvature.
B) a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera.
C) important in the digestion of fats.
D) the entrance to the stomach.
E) a sheet of mesentery that attaches to the liver.

Answer: B


29) A disease that attacks and disables the myenteric plexus would
A) decrease intestinal motility.
B) increase gastric secretion.
C) decrease gastric secretion.
D) increase intestinal motility.
E) interfere with both intestinal motility and gastric secretion.

Answer: A


31) Put the following layers of the digestive tract wall in order from the lumen to the deepest layer.
1. lamina propria
2. muscularis externa
3. submucosa
4. digestive (mucous) epithelium

5. serosa

6. muscularis mucosae

A) 5, 2, 3, 6, 1, 4

B) 4, 1, 6, 3, 2, 5
C) 5, 4, 2, 6, 1, 3
D) 1, 4, 3, 6, 2, 5
E) 4, 6, 3, 1, 2, 5

Answer: B


32) The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following except
A) sensory analysis of material before swallowing.
B) lubrication.
C) mechanical processing of food.
D) digestion of carbohydrates.
E) absorption of monosaccharides.

Answer: E


33) ________ pair(s) of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity.
A) Two

B) One

C) Six to Ten

D) Four

E) Three

Answer: E


34) The ________ gland empties into the oral cavity at the level of the second upper molar.
A) parotid
B) sublingual
C) submaxillary
D) submandibular
E) vestibular

Answer: A


35) A structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx prematurely is the
A) pharyngeal arch.
B) epiglottis.
C) palatopharyngeal arch.
D) uvula.
E) palatoglossal arch.

Answer: D


36) Functions of the tongue include all of the following except
A) aiding in speech.
B) sensory analysis of food.
C) partitioning the oropharynx from the nasopharynx.
D) mechanical processing of food.
E) manipulation of food.

Answer: C


37) The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone called
A) enamel.
B) cementum.
C) dentin.
D) periodontium.
E) pulp.

Answer: C


38) The part of a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is the
A) pulp cavity.
B) cementum.
C) dentin.
D) enamel.
E) periodontium.

Answer: A


39) The root of a tooth is covered by
A) cementum.
B) the root canal.
C) dentin.
D) pulp.
E) enamel.

Answer: A


40) The crown of a tooth is covered by
A) cementum.
B) dentin.
C) pulp.
D) periodontium.
E) enamel

Answer: E


41) ________ are also known as canines.
A) Cuspids
B) Molars
C) Incisors
D) Bicuspids
E) Secondary teeth

Answer: A


42) If the lingual frenulum is too restrictive, an individual
A) cannot speak normally.
B) has difficulty eating.
C) cannot protract the tongue as far as most individuals.
D) has a condition called ankyloglossia.
E) All of the answers are correct

Answer: E


43) A blockage of the ducts from the parotid glands would
A) inhibit the secretion of saliva from other glands.
B) interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.
C) occur when too much protein is ingested.
D) prevent emulsification of lipids.
E) cause mumps.

Answer: B


44) Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from
A) myenteric reflexes.
B) parasympathetic stimulation.
C) sympathetic stimulation.
D) hunger.
E) hormonal stimulation.

Answer: B


45) In most cases, the mumps is a viral infection of the ________ glands.
A) mandibular
B) sublingual
C) lingual
D) parotid
E) submandibular

Answer: D


46) The ________ salivary glands are covered by the mucous membrane in the floor of the mouth.
A) mandibular
B) sublingual
C) submandibular
D) lingual
E) parotid

Answer: B


47) Which of the following is not a function of the tongue?
A) passing food across occlusal surfaces
B) manipulation to assist with chewing
C) secretion of mucins
D) mechanical processing
E) All of these are functions of the tongue.

Answer: C


48) Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?
A) sublingual
B) submandibular
C) lingual
D) parotid
E) mandibular

Answer: D


51) The space between the cheeks or lips and the teeth is called the
A) pharynx.
B) fauces.
C) larynx.
D) vestibule.
E) dip sulcus

Answer: D


52) The ridge of oral mucosa that surrounds the base of a tooth is the
A) alveolus.

B) faux.

C) vestibule.

D) gingiva.

E) uvula.

Answer: D


53) The connection of the anterior portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium is the
A) glossal septum.
B) labial frenulum.
C) lingual frenulum.
D) faux.
E) uvula.

Answer: C


54) The uvula is located at the
A) posterior of the tongue.
B) posterior margin of the soft palate.
C) base of a tooth.
D) margin of the vestibule.
E) margin of the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx.

Answer: B


55) ________ are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or clipping.
A) Bicuspids

B) Canines

C) Incisors

D) Cuspids

E) Molars

Answer: C


56) ________ are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing and slashing.
A) Premolars
B) Incisors
C) Cuspids
D) Molars
E) Bicuspids

Answer: C


57) ________ are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges that are adapted for crushing and

A) Cuspids

B) Molars

C) Canines

D) Eye teeth

E) Dentins

Answer: B


58) Which of the following is not a pharyngeal muscle involved in swallowing?
A) palatopharyngeus
B) pharyngeal constrictor muscle
C) omohyoid
D) stylopharyngeus
E) They are all pharyngeal muscles involved in swallowing.

Answer: C


59) The epithelium lining the oropharynx is
A) simple columnar.
B) pseudostratified squamous.
C) simple cuboidal.
D) stratified squamous.
E) simple squamous.

Answer: D


61) The esophagus has several variations from the standard plan of the GI tract. These include
A) epithelium of mucosa is simple columnar and muscularis externa may be striated muscle.
B) epithelium of mucosa is stratified squamous and simple columnar.
C) epithelium of mucosa is simple columnar.
D) epithelium of mucosa is stratified squamous.
E) muscularis externa has some skeletal muscle.

Answer: E


62) During deglutition, which of the following phases is not present?
A) gastric
B) buccal
C) pharyngeal
D) esophageal
E) They are all present during deglutition.

Answer: A


63) Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in
A) opening the cardiac sphincter.
B) moving the tongue.
C) mastication.
D) swallowing.
E) esophageal peristalsis.

Answer: D


64) Functions of the stomach include all of the following except
A) absorption of triglycerides.
B) denaturation of proteins.
C) mechanical breakdown of food.
D) initiation of protein digestion.
E) storage of ingested food.

Answer: A


65) Parietal cells secrete
A) gastrin.
B) hydrochloric acid.
C) pepsinogen.
D) enteropeptidase.
E) mucus.

Answer: B


66) Chief cells secrete
A) mucus.
B) hydrochloric acid.
C) pepsinogen.
D) intrinsic factor.
E) gastrin.

Answer: C


67) G cells of the stomach secrete
A) enteropeptidase.
B) cholecystokinin.
C) secretin.
D) pepsin.
E) gastrin.

Answer: E


68) To which region of the stomach does the esophagus connect?
A) pylorus

B) cardia

C) body

D) antrum

E) fundus

Answer: B


69) The portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the esophagus is the
A) cardia.

B) fundus.

C) pylorus.

D) antrum.

E) body.

Answer: B


70) The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food and secretions is the
A) body.

B) antrum.

C) pylorus.

D) fundus.

E) cardia.

Answer: A


71) The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the
A) pylorus.

B) cardia.

C) body.

D) fundus.

E) antrum

Answer: A


72) The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called
A) papillae.

B) villi.

C) plicae.

D) cardia.

E) rugae

Answer: E


73) The stomach secretes the hormone ghrelin which functions to
A) stimulate hunger.
B) regulate the digestion of lipids.
C) initiate secretion of gastric juice containing enzymes and acid.
D) inhibit hunger.
E) stimulate secretion of mucus from submucosal glands.

Answer: A


74) Gastric pits are
A) ridges in the body of the stomach.
B) involved in absorption of liquids from the stomach.
C) acid scars in the esophagus.
D) openings into gastric glands.
E) hollows where proteins are stored.

Answer: D


75) The enzyme pepsin digests
A) carbohydrates.
B) lipids.
C) vitamins.
D) proteins.
E) nucleic acids.

Answer: D


76) An enzyme secreted by the gastric mucosa of a newborn that coagulates milk proteins is
A) rennin.
B) cholecystokinin.
C) pepsin.
D) gastrin.
E) trypsin.

Answer: A


77) The pylorus empties into the
A) jejunum.
B) duodenum.
C) colon.
D) cecum.
E) ileum.

Answer: B


78) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term gastrin?
A) where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
B) causes gallbladder to contract
C) stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
D) stimulates gastric secretion
E) carries absorbed sugars and amino acids

Answer: D


79) During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion,
A) secretin inhibits parietal and chief cells.
B) the intestinal reflex inhibits gastric emptying.
C) production of gastric juice slows down.
D) the stomach responds to distention.
E) increased production of gastric juice occurs.

Answer: E


80) The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by the
A) release of cholecystokinin and secretin by the small intestine.
B) sight, thought, or smell of food.
C) entry of food into the stomach.
D) entry of chyme into the small intestine.
E) entry of chyme into the large intestine.

Answer: C


81) All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric digestion except that it
A) involves both neural and endocrine reflexes.
B) precedes the gastric phase.
C) helps ensure that the functions of the small intestine proceed with relative efficiency.
D) functions to control the rate of gastric emptying.
E) begins when chyme enters the small intestine.

Answer: B


82) Distension of the gastric wall leads to secretion of histamines from the lamina propria. This is an example of ________ response.
A) neural
B) muscular
C) local
D) hormonal
E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer: C


83) The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is
A) enteropeptidase.
C) cholecystokinin.
D) secretin.
E) gastrin.

Answer: E


84) Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity. As a result, you would expect
Mary to be at risk for
A) protein malnutrition.
B) an ulcer.
C) dehydration.
D) diarrhea.
E) abnormal erythropoiesis.

Answer: E


85) All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach except that it
A) has a simple columnar epithelium.
B) is covered by a thick, viscous mucus.
C) is constantly being replaced.
D) recycles bile.
E) contains gastric pits.

Answer: D


86) The term "alkaline tide" implies that the pH of the blood in gastric veins is
A) constant because of buffering.
B) greater during digestion of a large meal than following a 24-hour fast.
C) greater following a 24-hour fast than during digestion of a large meal.
D) None of the answers are correct.

Answer: A


87) The stomach is able to distend a great deal as it receives food because of the presence of
A) skeletal muscle.
B) an alkaline lining.
C) rugae.
D) gastric pits.
E) the serosa

Answer: C


88) The stomach is different from other digestive organs in that it
A) has folds in the mucosa.
B) has three layers of muscle in the muscularis externa.
C) secretes digestive juice.
D) secretes digestive hormones.
E) moves by peristalsis.

Answer: B


90) Put the following steps of stomach acid production in the correct order starting with the reaction that requires an enzyme.
1. H2CO3 dissociates.
2. Chloride ion combines with H+ in the gastric lumen.
3. Water and CO2 combine to form carbonic acid.
4. H+ and bicarbonate ion are transported into the gastric lumen.
5. Cl- diffuses into the gastric lumen.

A) 3, 1, 2, 5, 4
B) 4, 5, 1, 2, 3
C) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2
D) 4, 5, 3, 1, 2
E) 1, 3, 5, 2, 4

Answer: C


91) A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in
A) a lower pH during gastric digestion.
B) increased protein digestion in the stomach.
C) a higher pH during gastric digestion.
D) decreased production of pepsinogen by chief cells.
E) decreased gastrin production.

Answer: C


100) Circular folds and intestinal villi
A) produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine.
B) carry products of digestion that will not pass through the walls of blood capillaries.
C) produce hormones.
D) secrete digestive enzymes.
E) increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.

Answer: E


101) Submucosal glands that secrete mucus are characteristic of the
A) ileum.
B) liver.
C) pancreas.
D) jejunum.
E) duodenum.

Answer: E


102) The duodenal ampulla receives secretions from the
A) duodenum and the pylorus.
B) common bile duct and the pancreatic duct.
C) duodenum and the jejunum.
D) duodenum and the common bile duct.
E) duodenum and the pancreatic duct.

Answer: B


103) The villi are most developed in the
A) cecum.
B) duodenum.
C) jejunum.
D) gallbladder.
E) stomach

Answer: C


104) Peyer's patches are characteristic of the
A) stomach.
B) colon.
C) ileum.
D) jejunum.
E) duodenum.

Answer: C


106) Brunner glands are characteristic of the
A) ileum.
B) colon.
C) duodenum.
D) jejunum.
E) stomach.

Answer: C


107) The middle segment of the small intestine is the
A) pylorus.
B) jejunum.
C) ileum.
D) duodenum.
E) cecum.

Answer: B


108) The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is the
A) haustrum.
B) appendix.
C) jejunum.
D) duodenum.
E) ileum.

Answer: E


109) Circular folds are
A) ridges in the wall of the stomach.
B) pleats in the lining of the small intestine.
C) abnormal structures formed by excessive pressure in the small intestine.
D) sacculations in the colon.
E) fingerlike projections on the surface of the mucosa of the small intestine.

Answer: B


110) An intestinal hormone that stimulates mucin production by the submucosal duodenal glands is
A) secretin.
C) enterocrinin.
D) cholecystokinin.
E) gastrin.

Answer: C


111) The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid is
A) secretin.
B) gastrin.
C) enterocrinin.
E) cholecystokinin.

Answer: A


112) An intestinal hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile is
A) gastrin.
C) enteropeptidase.
D) secretin.
E) cholecystokinin.

Answer: E


113) An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is
A) cholecystokinin.
B) secretin.
C) enteropeptidase.
D) enterocrinin.
E) gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).

Answer: E


114) An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is
A) cholecystokinin.
B) secretin.
C) gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
D) enteropeptidase.
E) gastrin.

Answer: E


115) The human liver is composed of ________ lobe(s).
A) one
B) two large and four small
C) three
D) two
E) four

Answer: E


116) The fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct forms the
A) porta hepatis.
B) hepatic portal vein.
C) common pancreatic duct.
D) common bile duct.
E) bile canaliculus.

Answer: E


117) In the center of a liver lobule there is a
A) portal area.
B) sinusoid.
C) hepatic duct.
D) central vein.
E) portal vein.

Answer: D


118) The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of
A) pancreatic crypts.
B) triads.
C) pancreatic acini.
D) islets of Langerhans.
E) pancreatic lobules.

Answer: C


119) Each of the following is a function of the liver except
A) antibody production.
B) storage of glycogen and iron reserves.
C) synthesis of plasma proteins.
D) inactivation of toxins.
E) synthesis and secretion of bile.

Answer: A


120) The basic functional units of the liver are the
A) hepatocytes.
B) Kupffer cells.
C) portal areas.
D) bile canaliculi.
E) lobules.

Answer: E


121) ________ are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series of irregular plates converging toward a central vein.
A) Kupffer cells
B) Portal areas
C) Hepatic ducts
D) Bile canaliculi
E) Hepatocytes

Answer: E


124) The structure that marks the division between the right and left lobes of the liver is the
A) lesser omentum.
B) greater omentum.
C) hepatic ligament.
D) ligamentum teres.
E) falciform ligament.

Answer: E


125) Bile is stored in the
A) appendix.
B) pancreas.
C) gallbladder.
D) liver.
E) duodenum.

Answer: C


126) A proenzyme secreted by the pancreas is
A) trypsinogen.
B) amylase.
C) lipase.
D) carboxypeptidase.
E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: A


127) The gastroileal reflex
A) promotes gastric secretion.
B) moves some chyme to the colon.
C) decreases peristaltic activity.
D) empties the duodenum.
E) is relayed through the CNS.

Answer: B


128) A surgical procedure to promote rapid weight loss is removal of most of the
A) duodenum.
B) pancreas.
C) liver.
D) jejunum.
E) ileum.

Answer: D


129) Which of the following has an association with the fetal umbilical vein?
A) lesser omentum
B) diaphragm
C) mesentery proper
D) falciform ligament
E) greater omentum

Answer: D


130) Which of the following is not a component of the portal triad found at the edges of a liver lobule?
A) hepatic portal vein

B) hepatic artery

C) bile duct

D) central vein

Answer: D


132) The part of the small intestine most likely to develop an ulcer from exposure to gastric juice is the
A) ileum.
B) caecum.
C) pylorus.
D) duodenum.
E) jejunum

Answer: D


133) In response to the arrival of acidic chyme in the duodenum, the
A) blood levels of enterocrinin fall.
B) blood levels of cholecystokinin fall.
C) liver releases enzymes for chemical digestion.
D) blood levels of gastrin rise.
E) blood levels of secretin rise.

Answer: E


134) Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with digestion of
A) vitamins.
B) complex carbohydrates.
C) fats.
D) disaccharides.
E) proteins.

Answer: C


136) Match the proenzyme on the left (1-3) with the correct enzyme activator on the right (4-6)
1. pepsinogen
2. trypsinogen
3. procarboxypeptidase

4. enterokinase

5. hydrochloric acid

6. trypsin

A) 1 and 5; 2 and 6; 3 and 4
B) 1 and 5; 2 and 4; 3 and 6
C) 1 and 4; 2 and 5; 3 and 6
D) 1 and 4; 2 and 6; 3 and 5
E) 1 and 6; 2 and 5; 3 and 4

Answer: B


138) An obstruction of the common bile duct often results in
A) hepatitis.
B) a decrease in production of pancreatic juice.
C) cirrhosis of the liver.
D) inability to digest protein.
E) undigested fat in the feces.

Answer: E


139) If the pancreatic duct was obstructed, you would expect to see elevated blood levels of
A) gastrin.
B) cholecystokinin.
C) secretin.
D) bilirubin.
E) amylase

Answer: E


140) Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in Tom?
A) impaired digestion of protein
B) blood in the feces
C) jaundice
D) elevated levels of blood glucose
E) overproduction of blood plasma albumin

Answer: C


141) In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
A) that contains only amylase.
B) rich in mucus.
C) rich in enzymes.
D) rich in bicarbonate ion.
E) rich in bile

Answer: D


142) In response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
A) rich in enzymes.
B) rich in bile.
C) rich in bicarbonate.
D) rich in mucus.
E) that contains only amylase.

Answer: A


143) Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. Which of the following signs would you expect to observe in Tony?
A) decrease in plasma protein production
B) increased clotting time
C) portal hypertension and ascites
D) jaundice
E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: E


144) Approximately ________ liters of fluid are secreted by the small intestine each day.
A) 2

B) 10

C) 1

D) 20

E) 7

Answer: C


145) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term duodenal ampulla?
A) stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
B) carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
C) stimulates gastric secretion
D) where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
E) causes gallbladder to contract

Answer: D


146) Hydrochloric acid from the stomach is neutralized in the small intestine by
A) trypsin.
B) bicarbonate from the pancreas.
C) water that was ingested with the food.
D) bile from the liver.
E) enzymes from the intestinal crypts.

Answer: B


147) Which digestive juice contains enzymes that breakdown carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins?
A) pancreatic juice
B) bile
C) gastric juice
D) intestinal juice
E) saliva

Answer: A


156) Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day in the colon are called
A) haustral churning.
B) mass movements.
C) segmentation.
D) defecation.
E) pendular movements.

Answer: B


157) Functions of the large intestine include
A) most of the chemical breakdown of food.
B) production of gas to move waste toward the rectum.
C) secretion of vitamins.
D) reabsorption of water and compaction of feces.
E) absorption of bile salts.

Answer: D


158) At the hepatic flexure, the colon becomes
A) ascending colon.
B) transverse colon.
C) sigmoid colon.
D) rectum.
E) descending colon.

Answer: B


159) Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is the
A) sigmoid colon.
B) anal canal.
C) rectum.
D) rectal column.
E) anus.

Answer: C


160) Haustra are
A) glands in the large intestine that secrete mucus.
B) expansible pouches of the colon.
C) the source of colon hormones.
D) compact feces stored in the rectum.
E) strips of muscle in the colon.

Answer: B


161) The taenia coli are
A) ridges in the mucosa of the colon.
B) tumors normally confined in the sigmoid colon.
C) longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall.
D) tears of the colon.
E) polyps that obstruct the sigmoid colon.

Answer: C


162) At the splenic flexure, the colon becomes the
A) descending colon.
B) transverse colon.
C) sigmoid colon.
D) rectum.
E) ascending colon.

Answer: A


163) The pouchlike structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the
A) appendix.
B) cecum.
C) sigmoid colon.
D) haustra.
E) rectum.

Answer: B


164) A small, wormlike structure attached to
A) pancreas.
B) haustra.
C) appendix.
D) gallbladder.
E) ileum.

Answer: C


165) Movements unique to the large intestine are ________ movements.
A) segmentation
B) mass
C) writhing
D) peristaltic
E) pendular

Answer: B


166) The defecation reflex involves
A) conscious control of both the internal and external anal sphincters.
B) sympathetic nerves.
C) relaxation of both the internal and external anal sphincters.
D) relaxation of the ileocecal valve to move feces into the rectum.
E) parasympathetic nerve control from sacral nerves.

Answer: C


167) The enzyme amylase digests
A) polysaccharides.
B) triglycerides.
C) peptides.
D) nucleotides.
E) disaccharides.

Answer: A


168) An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is
A) amylase.

B) nuclease.

C) trypsin.

D) lipase.

E) maltase

Answer: C


169) Carbohydrate digestion begins in the
A) duodenum.
B) mouth.
C) ileum.
D) stomach.
E) esophagus.

Answer: B


170) If digestion of a carbohydrate results in equal amounts of glucose and galactose, this carbohydrate is probably

A) cellulose.

B) lactose.

C) maltose.

D) glycogen.

E) sucrose.

Answer: B


171) Which of the following is false concerning the process known as cotransport?
A) Only neutral compounds such as sugars are transported.
B) ATP is not required by the transport protein.
C) More than one molecule or ion is moved through the cell membrane at one time.
D) Molecules can be moved against a concentration gradient.

Answer: A


172) Products of fat digestion are transported initially by
A) capillaries.
B) veins.
C) lymphatic vessels.
D) the arterioles.
E) the interstitial fluid.

Answer: C


173) The absorption of some sugars in the small intestine involves
A) osmosis.
B) phagocytosis.
C) diffusion.
D) cotransport.
E) pinocytosis.

Answer: D


175) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term cholecystokinin (CCK)?
A) stimulates gastric secretion
B) causes gallbladder to contract
C) carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
D) stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
E) where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum

Answer: B


176) Which of the following is true regarding lactose intolerance?
A) The enzyme maltase begins to digest lactose.
B) Lactose-intolerant infants cannot digest dairy fat and are at risk of starvation.
C) The intestinal crypts are not producing the enzyme lactase.
D) The person cannot digest any type of monosaccharide.
E) The stomach produces inadequate amounts of lactase.

Answer: C


177) The circumferential folds that encircle the digestive tract are known as
A) adventitia.
B) rugae.
C) muscularis externa.
D) serosa.
E) circular folds

Answer: E


178) Within the oral cavity, both mechanical and chemical ________ begin.
A) deglutition
B) ingestion
C) digestion
D) mastication
E) secretions

Answer: C


179) The oral cavity performs (a) ________ prior to swallowing.
A) taste scrutiny
B) humidity investigation
C) sensory analysis
D) volume evaluation
E) pH examination

Answer: C


180) The dangling process that aids in keeping food out of the nasopharynx is known as the
A) soft palate.
B) uvula.
C) pharyngeal tonsil.
D) tongue.
E) palatine tonsil.

Answer: B


181) A viral infection that often involves the parotid glands, which swell noticeably, is
A) gingivitis.
B) parotiditis.
C) dysphagia.
D) mumps.
E) polyps

Answer: D


182) The oral cavity is also known as the ________ cavity.
A) lingual
B) buccal
C) digestive
D) gingivae
E) pharyngeal

Answer: B


183) The first teeth to appear are the ________ teeth.
A) temporary
B) transitory
C) transitional
D) provisional
E) deciduous

Answer: E


184) There are normally a total of ________ primary teeth.
A) 20

B) 18

C) 28

D) 32

E) 25

Answer: A


185) The secondary dentition usually comprises ________ teeth.
A) 20

B) 34

C) 28

D) 25

E) 32

Answer: E


186) The technical term for chewing is
A) deglutition.
B) mastication.
C) segmentation.
D) peristalsis.
E) borborygmus.

Answer: B


187) The small, semisolid mass of food formed during mastication is called a
A) pill.

B) chunk.

C) morsel.

D) bolus.

E) chime

Answer: D


188) Upon swallowing, food moves from the mouth directly into the
A) oral mucosae.
B) oropharynx.
C) sublingual space.
D) oral vestibule.
E) buccal cavity.

Answer: B


189) After food and gastric juices combine, the gastric contents are referred to as
A) bolus.

B) segments.

C) chunk.

D) chyme.

E) feces

Answer: D


190) Bile salts aid in the digestion of fats by ________ large fat droplets.
A) dehydrating
B) emulsifying
C) combining
D) binding
E) anabolizing

Answer: B


191) The ________ duct is formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct.
A) common bile
B) pancreatic
C) duodenal
D) hepatopancreatic
E) gastric

Answer: A


192) Your patient with liver failure has a firm, rounded abdomen due to accumulation of fluid. This is known clinically as
A) ascites.
B) cirrhosis.
C) hepatitis B.
D) hepatitis C.
E) gastritis.

Answer: A


193) Identify the incorrect pairing.
A) gallbladder; stores bile
B) pancreas; secretes amylases
C) liver; produces intrinsic factor
D) esophagus; transports material to stomach
E) stomach; has an alkaline lining

Answer: C


194) The middle segment of the small intestine is called the
A) jejunum.
B) hilum.
C) duodenum.
D) cecum.
E) ileum.

Answer: A


195) Pancreatic juice enters the small intestine at the
A) cystic duct.
B) pyloric sphincter.
C) hepatic duct.
D) duodenal papilla.
E) ileocecal valve.

Answer: D


196) The pancreas has endocrine cells that produce hormones and ________ cells that produce digestive enzymes.
A) mucosal
B) smooth muscle
C) exocrine
D) hepatic
E) gastric

Answer: C


197) In the large intestine the wall has three strips of longitudinal muscle called the
A) muscularis mucosa.
B) muscularis interna.
C) taenia coli.
D) haustral bands.
E) muscularis externa.

Answer: C


198) The clinical term for the gas produced by bacteria in the colon as they metabolize indigestible carbohydrates is called
A) vapors.

B) wind.

C) fumes.

D) gust.

E) flatus.

Answer: E


199) The enzyme that digests starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides is
A) saccharase.
B) lipase.
C) rennin.
D) lactase.
E) amylase.

Answer: E


200) Maltose is hydrolyzed into monosaccharides by the enzyme
A) sucrase.

B) galactase.

C) maltase.

D) dextrase.

E) lactase.

Answer: C


201) Sucrose is hydrolyzed by sucrase into glucose and
A) maltose.

B) lactose.

C) fructose.

D) glucose.

E) galactose

Answer: C


202) People who lack the enzyme ________ often experience GI upset after consuming milk and other dairy products.
A) lactase

B) maltase

C) galactase

D) lipase

E) sucrase

Answer: A


203) Complexes of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts are called
A) micelles.
B) countertransporters.
C) varicosities.
D) vesicles.
E) chylomicrons

Answer: A

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