World Religion Test 2 TCU

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1

Theravada

The remaining orthodox school of Buddhism, which adheres closely to the earliest scriptures and emphasizes individual efforts to liberate the mind from suffering

2

Bodhisattva

In Mahayana Buddhism, one who has attained enlightenment but renounces nirvana for the sake of helping all sentient beings in their journey to liberation from suffering

3

Sunyata

Voidness, the transcendental ultimate reality in Buddhism

4

Mahayana

The 'greater vehicle' in Buddhism, the more liveral mystical Northern School, in which stressed the virtue of altruistic compassion rather than intellectual efforts at an individual salvation

5

Arhant

A "Worthy One" who has followed the Buddha's Eight-fold Path to liberation broken the fetters that bind us to the suffering of the Wheel of Birth and Death and arrived at nirvana; the Theravada ideal.

6

Yana

An approach within Buddhism. A coherent system of theory and practice that carries one from a base via a path to a particular result. Literally means 'vehicle', and it is sometimes translated that way.

7

Triple Gem

The three jewels of Buddhism
1. Buddha
2. Dharma
3. Sangha

8

Shakyamuni

The historical buddha. The lord buddha, or supreme buddha. Not eternal, but continues for so long that he practically is. A heavenly, omniscient buddha that taught through skillful means and is still in existence to help people attain buddhahood.

9

Zazen

Zen Buddhist sitting meditation

10

Kensho

Sudden Enlightment in Zen Buddhism

11

Anatta

The principle that there is no eternal self

12

Middle Way

A basic Buddhist teaching that rejects both the pleasures of sensual indulgence and the self-denial of asceticism, focusing instead on a practical approach to spiritual attainment.

13

Sangha

In Theradava Buddhism, the monastic community; in Mahayana, the spiritual community of followers of the dharma, they are the community of Buddhist monks/nuns

14

Varna

The four major social divisions in India's caste system:
1. Brahmin: priest class,
2. Kshatriya: warrior/administrator class
3. Vaishya: merchant/farmer class
4. Shudra: laborer class

15

Li

Ceremonies, rituals, and rules of proper conduct, in the Confucian tradition

16

Jnana

The use of intellectual effort as yogic technique

17

Japam

Repetition of name of God, Bhakti

18

Santana Dharma

The eternal religion of Hinduism

19

Analects

the body of writing containing conversations between Confucius and his disciples that preserves his worldly wisdom and pragmatic philosophies

20

Siddhartha

A person of both legend and reality. He lived from about 563 to 483 B.C. He established Buddhism, which is one of the world's major religions. He is also known as the Buddha, a title meaning "enlightened one".

21

Four Sights

Sickness
Old age
Death
Poverty

What Siddhartha encountered investigating his spiritual quest

22

Zen

A Chinese and Japanese Buddhist school emphasizing that all things have Buddha-nature, which can only be grasped

23

Four Noble Truths

1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow.
2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire.
3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture.
4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path

24

Daode jing

Ancient Chinese text written by Laozi that is fundamental to philosophical Daoism (his wisdom he left behind)

25

Eight-Fold Path

1. right view-knowledge of the truth
2. riht htought-intention to resist evil
3. right speech- say nothing to hurt others
4. right action- respect life, mortality and property 5. right livelihood- holding a job that does not injure others
6. right effort- strivig to free one's mind of evil
7. right mindfulness- controlling one's feelings and thoughts
8. right contemplation-practicing proper forms of concentration.

26

Dao

The way or path, in Far Eastern traditions. The term is also used as a name for the Nameless.

27

Qi

The vital energy in the universe and in our bodies, according to Far Eastern esoteric traditions.

28

Shiva

In Hinduism, the Supreme as lord of yogis, absolute consciousness, creator, preserver, and destroyer of the world, or the destroying aspect of the Supreme.

29

Thich Nhat Hanh

-helped find 'engaged Buddhism' movement
-one of the few monks who decided to keep meditating and live the way of the Buddhist monk while helping families and villages ravaged by war
-founded the school youth social service
-after being banned from Vietnam in 1966 he traveled around the world promoting world peace

30

Inner Alchemy

Essence, Qi, Spirit, to promote longevity

31

Mantras

A sound or phrase chanted to evoke the sound vibration of one one aspect of creation or to praise a deity

32

Anicca

One of the Three Marks of Existence; the Buddhist doctrine that all existent things are constantly changing.

33

Sannyasin

In Hinduism and Buddhism, a renunciate spiritual seeker

34

Dharma

In Hinduism, moral order, righteousness, religion.

In Buddhism, the doctrine or law, as revealed by the Buddha; also the correct conduct for each person according to his or her level of awareness

35

Samsara

The continual round of birth, death, and rebirth in Hinduism, Janism, and Buddhism

36

Guatama

founded Buddhism, he was known as Buddha- "the enlightened one", wanted to devote his efforts to find deliverance from suffering, developed 4 noble truths

37

Karma

In Hinduism and Buddhism, our actiosn and their effects on this life and lives to come .
In Janism, subtle particles that accumulate on the soul as a result of one's thoughts and actions.

38

Asana

A yogic posture

39

Yin

In Chinese philosophy, the dark, receptive, "female", energy in the universe

40

Mandate of Heaven

Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.

41

Feng-shui

rules in Chinese philosophy that govern spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to patterns of yin and yang and the flow of energy (qi)

42

Satori

Enlightenment realization of the ultimate truth, in Zen Buddhism

43

Dukkha

According to the Buddha, a central fact of human life, variously translated as discomfort, suffering, frustration, or lack of harmony with the environment

44

Confucius

Chinese philosopher, administrator, and moralist. His social and moral teachings, collected in the Analects, tried to replace former religious observances

45

Dalai Lama

Originally, a title meaning 'universal priest' that the Mongol khans invented and bestowed on a Tibetan lama (priest) in the late 1500s to legitimate their power in Tibet. Subsequently, the title of the religious and political leader of Tibet. (p. 556)

46

Amida Buddha

The Buddha of Infinite Light, the personification of compassion whom the Pure Land Buddhist revere as the intermediary between humanity and Supreme Reality; esoterically the Higher Self

47

Karuna

The path of unselfish service on Hinduism

48

Vishnu

In Hinduism, the preserving aspect of the Supreme or the Supreme Itself, incarnating again and again to save the world.

49

Brahman-Atman

The impersonal Ultimate Principle in Hinduism

50

Yi

Righteous conduct (as opposed to conduct motivate by desire for personal profit), a Confucian virtue stressed by Mencius

51

Mandalas

A symmetrical image, with shapes emerging from a center, used as a meditation focus.

52

Nirvana

In Buddhism, the ultimate egoless state of bliss

53

Three Refuges

1. Buddha- the figure of the Buddha, the founder
2. Dharma- Buddhist teachings and the truths of the teachings
3. Sangha- the community of Buddhist monks/nuns

54

Mara

according to the early Buddhists, the devil who tempted Buddha

55

Moksha

In Hinduism, liberation of the soul from illusion and suffering

56

Bhakti

In Hinduism, devotee of a deity

57

Raja

Mental concentration yoga (ancient technique for spiritual realization)

58

Laozi

the "Old Master" who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism)

59

Yang

In Chinese philosophy, the bright, assertive, "male" energy in the universe

60

Taji Quan

An ancient Chinese system of philosophy exercises, which uses slow movements to help one become part of the universal flow of energy

61

Wu-wei

In Daoism, 'not doing' in the sense of taking action contrary to the natural flow

62

Sutras

Literally a thread on which are strung jewels.

The discourses of the teacher, in yoga, sutras are terse sayings

63

Falun Dafa

A form of Qigong mixing, Buddhism with Daoist energy practices, and emphasizing ethics

The development of truthfulness, benevolence,and forbearance

64

Shangdi

The ancient China, a deity(deities) with overarching powers

65

Qigong

A daoist system of harnessing inner energies for spiritual realization

66

Koan

In Zen Buddhism, a paradoxical puzzle to be solved without ordinary thinking

67

Brahma

A Hindu god considered the creator of the world.

68

Rujiao

The Chinese term for the teachings based on Confucius

69

Ren

Humanity, benevolence

The central Confucian virtue

70

Brahmins

One of the 4 castes of the Varna in Hinduism.
Teachers and religous leaders.

71

Kshatriyas

One of the 4 castes of the Varna in Hinduism.
Commanders of the army.

72

Vaishyas

One of the 4 castes of the Varna in Hinduism.
Farmer, craftsmen, technicians, producers.

73

Shudras

One of the 4 castes of the Varna in Hinduism.
Instilled labor, domestic, ground keepers.
'Untouchables'

74

Atman

Means 'soul'

75

Raja Yoga

-Mental Meditation
-Experimediation/Excercise
-The path of mental concentration
-Meditative
-Generally, life force is directed to move up and down the spine until it is balanced and the mind and emotions are serenely content. Then awareness is generally directed to move forward into a point in the center of the lower forehead. This meditation point, which is about half an inch above where the eyebrows meet, is called ajna, or the third eye. When the energy is balanced throughout the brain and body and easily moving forward in the area of the third eye, your mind becomes very calm.

76

Jnana Yoga

-Rational meditation
-path of rational inquiry
-for rational people
-employs rational mind rather than trying to transcend it by concentration practices

77

Yoga

A systematic approach to spiritual realization, one of the major Hindu philosophical systems
-Self, body, psych
-Spiritual discipline

78

Karma Yoga

-Active meditation
-For naturally active people
-Path of right action
-the absolute performs all actions and all actions are a gift to the absolute

79

Bhakti Yoga

-Emotional Meditation
-For emotional people
-Path to devotion
-the bhakti's whole being is surrendered to the deity of love

80

5 Abstentions

1. Non-injury
2. Non-lying
3. Non-stealing
4. Non-sensuous Addictions
5. Non-greed

81

5 Observances

1.Cleanliness
2. Contentment
3. Self Control
4. Structureness
5. Contemplate the Divine

82

Right View

Step of Eight-fold Path
Knowledge of the truth

83

Right Thought

Step of Eight-fold Path
Intention to resist evil

84

Right Speech

Step of Eight-fold Path
Say nothing to hurt others

85

Right Action

Step of Eight-fold Path
Respect life, mortality and property

86

Right Livelihood

Step of Eight-fold Path
Holding a job that does not injure others

87

Right Effort

Step of Eight-fold Path
Striving to free one's mind of evil

88

Right Mindfulness

Step of Eight-fold Path
Controlling one's feelings and thoughts

89

Right Contemplation

Step of Eight-fold Path
Practicing proper forms of concentration

90

Samatha

One of the meditation practices of Zen Buddhism.
Calm abiding
-Increases focus to a specific object to achieve calm abiding

91

Vipassana

One of the meditation practices of Zen Buddhism.
-insight
-Helps develop insight into dukkha, anicca, and anatta

92

Twin Path of Desire

The twin goals are pleasure and success; nothing is gained by repressing these desires.
-Pleasure: if you want it, go after it; the beauty and delight is there.
-Worldly Success: the path entails the triple aspects of wealth, power, and fame (all equally worthy goals).

93

Twin Path of Renunciation

Can be thought of as 'hope'
-Duty: (Dharma) There are specific duties appropriate to our age, disposition, social status, community, and peer group
-Liberation: seeking freedom from life's limitations. What are the things we really want, we deeply want?


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