The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the
Proton movement down the concentration gradient
When electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom, what happens?
The more electronegative atom is reduced, and energy is released
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is
When a molecule of NADox gains a pair of electrons the molecule becomes
Where does glycolysis take place in eukaryotic cells?
Why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to produce CO2 and water release free energy?
The electrons have moved from atoms with a lower affinity for them to atoms with a higher electron affinity.
The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
An electron loses potential energy when it
shifts to a more electronegative atom.
Why are carbohydrates and fats considered high-energy foods?
They have a lot of electrons associated with hydrogen.
In prokaryotes, the respiratory electron transport chain is located
in the plasma membrane.
Even though plants carry on photosynthesis, plant cells still use their mitochondria for oxidation of pyruvate. When and where will this occur?
in all cells all the time
In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate
two molecules of ATP are used and four molecules of ATP are produced.
A molecule that is phosphorylated
has an increased chemical potential energy; it is primed to do cellular work.
Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase?
It uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP.
How many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?
mitochondrial inner membrane
Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump protons into which location in eukaryotic cells.
mitochondrial intermembrane space
When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space, the result is
the creation of a proton-motive force.
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?
The synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, using the energy released by movement of protons across the membrane down their electrochemical gradient, is an example of
an endergonic reaction coupled to an exergonic reaction.
Which of the following occur(s) in the cytosol of the cell?
glycolysis and fermentation
The ATP made during fermentation is generated by which of the following?
In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of
ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).
Where do the catabolic products of fatty acid breakdown enter into the citric acid cycle?