1) Which of the following statements is INCORRECT regarding prokaryotic cells?
A) Their DNA is not enclosed within a membrane.
B) They lack membrane-enclosed organelles.
C) They typically have a circular chromosome.
D) They reproduce by binary fission.
E) They lack a plasma membrane.
2) Each of the following statements concerning the gram-positive cell wall is true EXCEPT
A) it maintains the shape of the cell.
B) it is sensitive to lysozyme.
C) it protects the cell in a hypertonic environment.
D) it contains teichoic acids.
E) it is sensitive to penicillin.
3) Which of the following statements best describes what happens when a bacterial cell is placed in a solution containing 5% NaCl?
4) A gram-positive bacterium suddenly acquires resistance to the antibiotic methicillin. This trait most likely occurred due to acquisition of new genetic information through
5) By which of the following mechanisms can a cell transport a substance from a lower to a higher concentration?
6) Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of most bacterial plasma membranes?
7) Which one of the following organisms has a cell wall?
C) L forms
E) animal cells
8) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Endospores are for reproduction.
B) Endospores allow a cell to survive environmental changes by producing a dormant period with no growth.
C) Endospores are easily stained in a Gram stain.
D) A cell produces one endospore and keeps growing.
E) A cell can produce many endospores.
9) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) endoplasmic reticulum — internal transport
B) Golgi complex — secretion
C) mitochondria — ATP production
D) centrosome — food storage
E) lysosome — digestive enzymes
10) Which of the following organelles most closely resembles a prokaryotic cell?
C) Golgi complex
E) cell wall
14) Antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis ultimately cause bacterial cell death as a result of
A) osmotic lysis.
B) inhibition of molecular transport.
C) decreased synthesis of plasma membrane.
E) cell shrinkage.
15) Bacteria are a commonly used organism for studies of genetic
material in the research laboratory. The nucleic acids must first be
isolated from the cells for these studies. Which of the following
would most likely be used to lyse gram-positive bacterial cells for
nucleic acid isolation?
E) mycolic acid
16) Which of the following statements about gram-negative cell walls is FALSE?
A) They protect the cell in a hypotonic environment.
B) They have an extra outer layer composed of lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and phospholipids.
C) They are toxic to humans.
D) They are sensitive to penicillin.
E) Their Gram reaction is due to the outer membrane.
17) Which of the following structures is NOT found in some prokaryotic cells?
18) Functions of the glycocalyx include all of the following EXCEPT
A) biofilm formation.
B) increased virulence.
C) source of nutrition.
D) protection against dehydration.
E) binary fission.
19) Which structure acts like an "invisibility cloak" and protects bacteria from being phagocytized?
A) slime layer
D) cell membrane
E) cell wall
20) Which of the following is NOT part of the passive transport process?
A) plasma membrane
B) transporter proteins
D) concentration gradient
22) In bacteria, photosynthetic pigments are found in
23) The difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion is that facilitated diffusion
A) moves materials from a higher to a lower concentration.
B) moves materials from a lower to a higher concentration.
C) requires ATP.
D) requires transporter proteins.
E) does not require ATP.
24) The terms "run" and "tumble" are generally associated with
A) cell wall fluidity.
B) taxic movements of the cell in response to attractants or repellents.
C) clustering properties of certain rod-shaped bacteria.
D) cell membrane synthesis.
25) You have isolated a motile, gram-positive cell with no visible nucleus. You can safely assume that the cell
A) has 9 pairs + 2 flagella.
B) has a mitochondrion.
C) has a cell wall.
D) lives in an extreme environment.
E) has cilia.
26) Fimbriae and pili differ in that
A) there are only one or two pili per cell.
B) pili are used for motility.
C) pili are used to transfer DNA.
D) pili are used for transfer of DNA and motility.
E) pili are used for attachment to surfaces.
33) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall contains porins?
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
34) Where are phospholipids most likely found in a prokaryotic cell?
B) around organelles
C) the plasma membrane
E) the plasma membrane and around organelles
35) Where are phospholipids most likely found in a eukaryotic cell?
A) surrounding flagella
B) around organelles
C) the plasma membrane
E) the plasma membrane, around organelles, and surrounding flagella
36) Which of the following is NOT found or observed to occur in both mitochondria and prokaryotes?
A) circular chromosome
B) 70S ribosomes
C) cell wall
D) binary fission
E) ATP-generating mechanism
37) Which of the following statements is correct about passive diffusion?
A) It requires an expenditure of energy by the cell.
B) It is a process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration (or down a concentration gradient).
C) It is a process in which molecules move from a region of lower concentration to one of higher concentration (or up a concentration gradient).
D) It may require a transport protein.
E) It involves movement of molecules down a concentration gradient and may require a transport protein.
38) Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane
A) by osmosis.
B) through simple diffusion.
C) with the help of a nonspecific transporter.
D) through facilitated diffusion.
E) through porins.
39) In a hypertonic solution, a bacterial cell will typically
C) stay the same.
40) What will happen if a bacterial cell is pretreated with a lysozyme solution, then placed in distilled water?
A) The cell will plasmolyze.
B) The cell will undergo osmotic lysis.
C) Water will leave the cell.
D) Lysozyme will diffuse into the cell.
E) No change will result; the solution is isotonic.
41) How do spirochetes and spirilla differ?
A) Spirochetes do not have a cell wall but spirilla do.
B) Spirilla are found in chains of cells whereas spirochetes exist as individual cells.
C) Spirilla have an external flagella but spirochetes have axial filaments.
D) Spirochetes have a rigid, corkscrew shape while spirilla are helical and more flexible.
E) Spirochetes and spirilla are basically the same organisms and the terms can be used interchangeably.
42) Which one of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) metachromatic granules - phosphate storage
B) lipid inclusions - energy reserve
C) ribosomes - carbon storage
D) sulfur granules - energy reserve
E) gas vacuoles - flotation
43) Which of the following are NOT energy reserves?
B) polysaccharide granules
C) lipid inclusions
E) metachromatic granules
44) Which of the following is NOT a functionally analogous pair?