APUSH Chapter 9

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1

Identify the statement that is false.

a.

History provided countless precedents for erecting a republic on a national scale.

b.

By 1783, the Americans had won their freedom.

c.

The Americans were blessed with a vast and fertile land.

d.

The Americans had inherited from their colonial experience a proud legacy of self-rule.

e.

No law of nature guaranteed that the thirteen colonies would be able to expand their democratic ideals.

A

2

The new Republic passed a major test when

a.

power was peacefully transferred from the conservative Federalists to the more liberal Jeffersonians in the election of 1800.

b.

George Washington and John Adams successfully guided American foreign policy during the 1790s.

c.

Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton established the two-party system.

d.

Thomas Jefferson solved the Constitutional crisis by authorizing the Louisiana Purchase.

e.

the War Hawks and Anti-War Federalists came together to support James Madison's War of 1812.

A

3

Identify the statement that is false.

a.

The American Revolution was not a revolution in the sense of a radical or total change.

b.

The American Revolution did not suddenly and violently overturn the entire social and political framework.

c.

During the American Revolution, people's lives were thrown in turmoil, they were unable to carry on day to day tasks and activities.

d.

Some isolated communities were unaware that the American Revolution was even going on.

e.

With the exodus of Loyalists, the emergence of a new Patriot elite was allowed to emerge.

C

4

Even though the wording of the Declaration of Independence says "All men are created equal," most states ____ property-holding requirements for voting.

a.

kept the same

b.

reduced

c.

raised

d.

ignored

e.

raised significantly

B

5

The American Revolution was

a.

truly radical.

b.

inconsequential in world history.

c.

an example of accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution.

d.

very much like the French revolution.

e.

very much like the Russian revolution.

C

6

Continental army officers attempting to form the Society of the Cincinnati

a.

were brought to trial for trying to sabotage the civil government.

b.

were ridiculed for their lordly pretensions.

c.

were trying to force the Congress to pay them their pensions.

d.

reflected the Revolutionary War generation's spirit of equality.

e.

represented the best of the officer corps.

B

7

The struggle for divorce between religion and government, in the post-revolutionary period, proved fiercest in

a.

Maryland.

b.

Virginia.

c.

Rhode Island.

d.

Georgia.

e.

Massachusetts.

B

8

All of the following were factors in the fight for the separation of church and state except

a.

the Anglican Church was re-formed into the Protestant Episcopal Church.

b.

The disestablishment of the Congregational Church occurred throughout New England.

c.

Thomas Jefferson joined the effort.

d.

reformers in Virginia secured the passage of that state's Statute for Religious Freedom.

e.

there was resistance to completely disentangling the church from civic affairs in some parts of New England.

B

9

The world's first antislavery society was founded by

a.

Thomas Jefferson.

b.

Quakers in Philadelphia.

c.

Puritans in New England.

d.

Catholics in Maryland.

e.

the Congregational church.

B

10

The Continental Congress in ____ called for the complete abolition of the slave trade, a summons to which most of the states responded positively.

a.

1770

b.

1772

c.

1774

d.

1776

e.

1780

C

11

All of the following are true statements about the status of blacks during the American Revolution except

a.

several northern states abolished slavery or provided for gradual emancipation.

b.

a few Virginia masters freed their slaves.

c.

no states south of Pennsylvania outlawed slavery.

d.

some states passed laws that permit blacks to marry and own land.

e.

laws everywhere harshly discriminated against free and enslaved blacks.

D

12

Early signs of the abolitionist movement can be seen in the

a.

Articles of Confederation.

b.

Constitution.

c.

emancipation of some slaves.

d.

passage of laws allowing interracial marriage.

e.

abolition of slavery in a few southern states.

C

13

The Founders failed to eliminate slavery because

a.

they did not truly believe in democracy.

b.

a fight over slavery might destroy national unity.

c.

they were more concerned with securing equality for women.

d.

the North, as its industry expanded, began to rely more heavily on slave labor.

e.

economic conditions would not allow such a loss.

B

14

As a result of the Revolution's emphasis on equality, all of the following were achieved except

a.

the reduction of property qualifications for voting by most states.

b.

the growth of trade organizations for artisans and laborers.

c.

the establishment of the world's first antislavery society.

d.

full equality between women and men.

e.

abolishing medieval inheritance laws.

D

15

Which of these is NOT a true statement about women's roles after the Revolution?

a.

They continued to do traditional women's work.

b.

They heeded Abigail Adams' warning to rebel if they did not gain political rights.

c.

The new ideology of republican motherhood elevated them as special keepers of the nation's conscience.

d.

They gained access to educational opportunities.

e.

State constitutions, like New Jersey's, briefly gave women the right to vote.

B

16

Adopted almost a decade before the federal constitution, the ____ constitution remains the longest-lived in the world.

a.

Massachusetts

b.

Virginia

c.

Maryland

d.

Rhode Island

e.

Connecticut

A

17

As written documents, the state constitutions functioned in all of the following ways except

a.

to represent a fundamental law superior to ordinary legislation.

b.

as contracts that defined the powers of government.

c.

as an accumulation of laws, customs and precedents.

d.

to guarantee individual liberties, sometimes through a bill of rights.

e.

to transform the colonies into becoming new states.

C

18

As a means of ensuring that legislators stay in touch with the mood of the people, state constitutions

a.

were rewritten once every ten years.

b.

were rewritten once every five years.

c.

required yearly visits to the homes of their constituents.

d.

stipulated that ordinary legislation could override the constitution.

e.

required the annual election of legislators.

E

19

As a result of the Revolution, many state capitals were relocated westward

a.

because better roads now made this territory more easily accessible.

b.

due to a fear of British capture.

c.

because water routes were now opened to the interior regions.

d.

to get them away from the haughty eastern seaports.

e.

All of these

D

20

One reason that the United States avoided the frightful excesses of the French Revolution is that

a.

America declared martial law until the Constitution was enacted in 1789.

b.

the American Revolution suddenly overturned the entire political framework.

c.

cheap land was easily available and America had few landed aristocrats.

d.

political democracy preceded economic democracy.

e.

a strong sense of class consciousness already existed.

C

21

It was highly significant to the course of future events that

a.

political democracy preceded economic democracy in the United States.

b.

deflation rather than inflation resulted from the Revolution.

c.

no economic depression occurred as a consequence of the Revolution.

d.

economic democracy preceded political democracy in the United States.

e.

the United States went off the gold standard after the Revolution.

D

22

The economic status of the average American at the end of the Revolutionary War was

a.

better than before the war.

b.

probably worse than before the war.

c.

about the same as before the war.

d.

more closely tied to Britain than before the war.

e.

more closely tied to France than before the war.

B

23

The Revolution spawned all of the following economic conditions except

a.

speculation and profiteering.

b.

extensive borrowing by state governments that left them buried in debt.

c.

runaway deflation.

d.

the opening of new foreign markets.

e.

many of those who were previously wealthy were left destitute.

C

24

Immediately after the Revolution, the new American nation's greatest strength lay in its

a.

ingrained respect for authority.

b.

excellent political leadership.

c.

lack of inhibiting political heritage.

d.

sound economic structure.

e.

economic ties to France.

B

25

The Second Continental Congress of Revolutionary days

a.

operated with strong constitutional authority.

b.

still did not comprise representatives from all thirteen states.

c.

took away the sovereignty of the states.

d.

was little more than a conference of ambassadors with very limited power.

e.

did little of lasting value.

D

26

The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when

a.

agreement was reached on who would be president.

b.

states gave up their right to coin money.

c.

all states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government.

d.

the states gave up their power to establish tariffs.

e.

a two-house national legislature was added.

C

27

The major issue that delayed ratification of the Articles of Confederation concerned

a.

taxation.

b.

tariff policy.

c.

monetary policy.

d.

western lands.

e.

monetary standards.

D

28

The Articles of Confederation left Congress unable to

a.

organize development of the western lands.

b.

deal with foreign affairs.

c.

apportion state representation equally.

d.

enforce a tax-collection program.

e.

establish a postal service.

D

29

A major strength of the Articles of Confederation was its

a.

control over interstate commerce.

b.

strong judicial branch.

c.

presentation of the ideal of a united nation.

d.

ability to coin money.

e.

strong executive branch.

C

30

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

a.

provided for the survey and sale of public lands in the Old Northwest.

b.

established a procedure for governing the Old Northwest territory.

c.

banned slavery from all territories of the United States.

d.

cleared the way for ratification of the Articles of Confederation.

e.

gave control over land to the territories in which they were located.

B

31

One of the most farsighted provisions of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787

a.

set aside a section of each township for education.

b.

abolished slavery in all of the United States.

c.

prohibited slavery in the Old Northwest.

d.

kept power in the national government.

e.

established a commission to determine the extent of a need for a Bill of Rights.

C

32

The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for all of the following except

a.

money from land sales should be used to pay off the national debt.

b.

the land should be surveyed before its sale.

c.

the territory should be divided into townships six miles square.

d.

the sixteenth section should be sold to support education.

e.

prohibiting slavery.

E

33

Match each nation on the left with the correct description of the problem it presented for U.S. foreign relations following the Revolutionary War.

A.

Britain

1.

threatened American commerce in the Mediterranean

B.

France

2.

demanded repayment of wartime loans

C.

Spain

3.

occupied a chain of trading forts in the Old Northwest

D.

Barbary Coast

4.

controlled important trade routes from the interior of North America

a.

A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4

b.

A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3

c.

A-2, B-2, C-3, D-4

d.

A-3, B-2, C-4, D-1

e.

A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3

D

34

After the Revolutionary War, both Britain and Spain

a.

tried to gain control of Florida.

b.

did their best to win the friendship of America.

c.

prevented America from exercising effective control over about half of its total territory.

d.

helped America to fight the pirates in North America.

e.

abandoned their fortifications in the Old Northwest.

C

35

Shays's Rebellion was provoked by

a.

fear that the Articles of Confederation had created too strong a national government for the United States.

b.

efforts by wealthy merchants to replace the Articles of Confederation with a new constitution.

c.

a quarrel over the boundary between Massachusetts and Vermont.

d.

foreclosures on the mortgages of debt-strapped backcountry farmers.

e.

the government's failure to pay bonuses to Revolutionary War veterans.

D

36

Shays's Rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for

a.

lower taxes.

b.

granting long-delayed bonuses to Revolutionary War veterans.

c.

a vigilante effort by westerners to halt the Indian threat.

d.

a stronger central government.

e.

a weaker military presence in the West.

D

37

Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the thirteen states

a.

improved to the point of total unity.

b.

was good economically but poor politically.

c.

led to a single currency.

d.

convinced many that a stronger central government was needed.

e.

was good politically but poor economically.

D

D

38

The debate between the supporters and critics of the Articles of Confederation centered on how to

a.

reconcile states' rights with strong national government.

b.

transfer territories to equal statehood.

c.

abolish slavery yet preserve national unity.

d.

balance the power of legislative and executive offices of government.

e.

conduct foreign policy while remaining neutral.

A

39

The issue that finally touched off the movement toward the Constitutional Convention was

a.

control of public lands.

b.

control of commerce.

c.

Indian policy.

d.

monetary policy.

e.

foreign threats to our independence.

B

40

By the time the Constitution was adopted in 1789

a.

the American economy was continuing to experience problems.

b.

prosperity was beginning to return.

c.

foreign trade was still in terrible shape.

d.

inflation was continuing to increase.

e.

the issue of states' rights had all but disappeared.

B

41

The Constitutional Convention was called to

a.

write a completely new constitution.

b.

allow the most radical Revolutionary leaders to write their ideas into law.

c.

weaken the power of the central government.

d.

revise the Articles of Confederation.

e.

reassess our foreign alliances.

D

42

Which of the following Revolutionary leaders was not present at the Constitutional Convention?

a.

Thomas Jefferson

b.

Benjamin Franklin

c.

James Madison

d.

George Washington

e.

Alexander Hamilton

A

43

The delegate whose contributions to the Philadelphia Convention were so notable that he has been called the "Father of the Constitution" was

a.

George Washington.

b.

Benjamin Franklin.

c.

James Madison.

d.

Thomas Jefferson.

e.

Patrick Henry.

C

44

The delegates at the Constitutional Convention were concerned mainly with

a.

abolishing slavery.

b.

establishing a very powerful military.

c.

protecting America from its weaknesses abroad and its excesses at home.

d.

ensuring that the states continued to control tariff policies.

e.

establishing the principle of states' rights.

C

45

Most of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention could best be labeled

a.

states' rightists.

b.

antifederalists.

c.

nationalists.

d.

ordinary citizens.

e.

counter-revolutionaries.

C

46

The fifty-five delegates to the Constitutional Convention shared all of the following qualities except

a.

they were well-to-do members of the professional class.

b.

they were young.

c.

they were liberal.

d.

they were more interested in strengthening the young Republic and tapping Revolutionary idealism.

e.

they wanted a firm, dignified and respected government.

C

47

Motives of the delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia include all of the following except to

a.

preserve the union.

b.

forestall anarchy.

c.

ensure the security of life and property.

d.

curb unrestrained democracy.

e.

increase individual freedom.

E

48

The large-state plan, put forward in the Constitutional Convention

a.

ultimately provided the framework of the Constitution.

b.

was proposed by Patrick Henry.

c.

favored states such as New Jersey.

d.

favored southern states over northern states.

e.

based representation in the House and Senate on population.

E

49

The Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention worked out an acceptable scheme for

a.

regulating interstate commerce.

b.

levying taxes for raising a militia.

c.

apportioning congressional representation.

d.

electing the president.

e.

choosing Senators.

C

50

Identify the following statement that is false.

a.

The U.S. Constitution grew out of the Anglo-American common law legal tradition.

b.

The U.S. Constitution can be described as a flexible guide to broad rules of procedure, rather than a fixed set of detailed laws.

c.

The original (unamended) U.S. Constitution contained just seven articles.

d.

The U.S. Constitution can be described as an elaborate legal code, common to other foreign countries constitutions, like India.

e.

The U.S. Constitution was approved through a series of compromises.

D

51

Under the Constitution, the president of the United States was to be elected by a majority vote of the

a.

general public.

b.

Senate.

c.

Electoral College.

d.

House of Representatives.

e.

state legislatures.

C

52

The idea that all tax measures should start in the House was made to appease

a.

the least populated states.

b.

western states.

c.

eastern states.

d.

the industrialists.

e.

the big states with the most people.

E

53

The Constitutional Convention addressed the North-South controversy over slavery through the

a.

large-state plan.

b.

small-state plan.

c.

three-fifths compromise.

d.

closing of the slave trade until 1807.

e.

Northwest Ordinance.

C

54

Which of the following is a compromise in the Constitution?

a.

Counting all slaves in apportioning membership in the House

b.

Continuation of the foreign slave trade

c.

Direct election of the president

d.

Control of interstate commerce by the national government

e.

Prohibiting states from abolishing the slave trade

B

55

By their actions, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention manifested their common beliefs in all of the following except

a.

government by the consent of the governed.

b.

checks and balances in government.

c.

manhood-suffrage democracy.

d.

the sanctity of private property.

e.

a stronger central government.

C

56

The one branch of the government elected directly by the people is the

a.

military.

b.

House of Representatives.

c.

executive.

d.

judiciary.

e.

Senate.

B

57

The new Constitution established the idea that the only legitimate government was one based on

a.

a strong central government.

b.

an unwritten constitution.

c.

the authority of the state.

d.

control by wealthier people.

e.

the consent of the governed.

E

58

The ultimate guarantor of liberty and justice was

a.

the authority of the state.

b.

a written constitution.

c.

an independent judicial system.

d.

the virtue of the people.

e.

the absolute authority of the federal government.

D

59

The delegates at the Constitutional Convention stipulated that the new Constitution be ratified by

a.

state conventions.

b.

state legislatures.

c.

popular referendum.

d.

majority vote in the Congress.

e.

the judiciary.

A

60

The antifederalist camp included all of the following groups except

a.

supporters of a strong central authority.

b.

states' rights supporters.

c.

backcountry dwellers.

d.

paper money advocates.

e.

debtors.

A

61

Probably the most alarming characteristic of the new Constitution to those who opposed it was the

a.

creation of a federal district for the national capital.

b.

creation of a standing army.

c.

absence of a bill of rights.

d.

omission of any reference to God.

e.

creation of the presidency.

C

62

Among other views, The Federalist, written during the ratification debate, argued that it was

a.

impossible to safeguard the rights of states from the power of a strong central government.

b.

possible to extend a republican form of government over a large territory.

c.

inevitable that slavery would be abolished in the new republic.

d.

illegal to replace the Articles of Confederation with a new constitution.

e.

best to establish a direct democracy.

B

63

Antifederalists believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government?

a.

Executive

b.

Legislative

c.

Judicial

d.

Cabinet

e.

All of these

B

64

The federalists believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government?

a.

Executive

b.

Legislative

c.

Judicial

d.

None of these

e.

All of these

E

65

One of the enduring paradoxes of American history is that

a.

conservatives supported democracy.

b.

liberals supported democracy.

c.

both radicals and conservatives have championed the heritage of democratic revolution.

d.

conservatives and liberals were on opposite sides in the Revolution.

e.

conservatives opposed democracy.

C

66

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

  1. During the Revolutionary War, many states

a.

eliminated inheritance laws like primogeniture.

b.

extended the right to vote to adult women.

c.

reduced property requirements for voting.

d.

disestablished the Anglican Church.

e.

outlawed the importation of indentured servants.

ACD

67

Most, if not all, of the new state constitutions

a.

were written documents.

b.

lacked a specific bill of rights.

c.

required the annual election of state legislators.

d.

granted the state legislatures more power than governors.

e.

created weak executive and judicial branches.

ACDE

68

The Revolutionary War

a.

stimulated American manufacturing.

b.

encouraged a more widespread respect for private property.

c.

produced runaway inflation in many states.

d.

made most people financially better off than before the war.

e.

saw America remain a nation of farmers.

ACE

69

The disruptive forces that produced a shaky start toward union of the states immediately following the Revolutionary War included

a.

the absence of the unifying element of a common cause.

b.

an economic depression in the colonies.

c.

the fact that each of the thirteen states had its own unique governmental structure.

d.

the absence of any really effective political leaders.

e.

slavery.

AB

70

Under the Articles of Confederation

a.

a unicameral Congress was to be the chief agency of national government.

b.

there was no executive branch of national government.

c.

each state remained essentially sovereign.

d.

major legislation required a two-thirds vote to pass Congress.

e.

a strong national judiciary was established.

ABCD

71

Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress

a.

was specifically designed to be weak.

b.

had no control over public land policy.

c.

had no power to regulate commerce.

d.

had no tax-collecting authority.

e.

acted in a judicial as well as legislative capacity.

ACD

72

Most of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention were

a.

relatively well-to-do.

b.

appointed by state legislatures.

c.

elected by vote of property owners in each state.

d.

experienced at writing constitutions.

e.

lawyers.

ABDE

73

Major goals of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention included

a.

careful revision of each article of the Articles of Confederation.

b.

preservation of the Union.

c.

creation of a stronger national government.

d.

restricting democracy in several states.

e.

outlawing slavery.

BCD


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