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APUSH Chapter 10

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1

When the new government was launched in 1789

a.

the nation's population was doubling about every twenty-five years.

b.

most people lived in the fast-growing cities.

c.

most people lived west of the Allegheny Mountains.

d.

New York was the largest city in the nation.

e.

Great Britain refused to establish diplomatic relations with the United States.

A

2

All of the following are accurate descriptions of the young American nation except

a.

its population was still about 90 percent rural, despite the flourishing cities.

b.

the first official census of 1790 recorded almost 4 million people.

c.

all but 5 percent of the people lived east of the Appalachian Mountains.

d.

most of the population lived in the eastern seaboard cities.

e.

foreign visitors looked down at the roughness and crudity of the pioneering life.

D

3

Despite the flourishing cities, America's population was still about ____ percent rural.

a.

20

b.

40

c.

55

d.

70

e.

90

E

4

Regarding central authority, early Americans saw it as all of the following except

a.

something to be ultimately eliminated.

b.

something to be distrusted.

c.

something to be watched.

d.

something to be curbed.

e.

a necessary evil.

A

5

The new Constitution did not provide for the creation of a(n)

a.

Electoral College.

b.

vice president.

c.

Supreme Court.

d.

cabinet.

e.

federal court system.

D

6

Match the individual with his office in the new government.

A.

Thomas Jefferson

1.

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

B.

Alexander Hamilton

2.

secretary of state

C.

Henry Knox

3.

secretary of war

D.

John Jay

4.

secretary of treasury

a.

A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4

b.

A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2

c.

A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1

d.

A-4, B-2, C-l, D-3

e.

A-1, B-4, C-3, D-2

C

7

One of the major criticisms of the Constitution, as drafted in Philadelphia, was that it

a.

was too long and detailed.

b.

was far too short and required more detail.

c.

failed to guarantee property rights.

d.

failed to provide a mechanism for amendment.

e.

did not provide guarantees for individual rights.

E

8

The Bill of Rights was intended to protect ____ against the potential tyranny of ____.

a.

the prerogatives of Congress, the president

b.

the army and the navy, the national government

c.

the South, the northern majority

d.

individual liberties, a strong central government

e.

civilian authorities, the military

D

9

One of the first jobs facing the new government, formed under the Constitution, was to

a.

establish a powerful army.

b.

reestablish diplomatic ties with Britain.

c.

draw up and pass a bill of rights.

d.

establish economic ties with France.

e.

All of these

C

10

All of the following are guarantees provided by the Bill of Rights except

a.

the right to vote for all citizens.

b.

freedom of speech.

c.

freedom of religion.

d.

freedom of the press.

e.

right to a trial by a jury.

A

11

Which amendment guards against the danger that enumerating rights might lead to the conclusion that they were the only ones protected?

a.

First

b.

Second

c.

Fifth

d.

Ninth

e.

Tenth

D

12

The ____ Amendment might rightly be called the states' rights amendment.

a.

First

b.

Sixth

c.

Eighth

d.

Ninth

e.

Tenth

E

13

All of the following were true of Alexander Hamilton except

a.

he served as the first Secretary of the Treasury.

b.

his intelligence was constantly under question, but his loyalty to the republican experiment never wavered.

c.

he would have been president if it were not for his ultraconservatism, a scandalous adultery, and a duelist's bullet.

d.

his chief rival was Thomas Jefferson.

e.

he claimed that the "British Government was the best in the world."

B

14

Alexander Hamilton's financial program for the economic development of the United States favored

a.

agricultural interests.

b.

trade with France.

c.

the wealthier class.

d.

the poor.

e.

the middle class.

C

15

Hamilton believed that, together, his funding and assumption programs would

a.

gain the monetary and political support of the rich for the federal government.

b.

restore the principles of state sovereignty.

c.

be the quickest way to pay off the national debt.

d.

guarantee the fairest treatment of the original holders of government bonds.

e.

keep taxes low and therefore create a feeling of loyalty to the new federal government.

A

16

As secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton's first objective was to

a.

help the wealthy.

b.

bring more industry to the United States.

c.

see that more agricultural products were exported.

d.

bolster the national credit.

e.

put the country on the gold standard.

D

17

All of the following were part of Alexander Hamilton's economic program except

a.

the creation of a national bank.

b.

funding the entire national debt at par.

c.

vigorous foreign trade.

d.

protective tariffs.

e.

paying only domestic debts but not foreign debts.

E

18

Alexander Hamilton believed that a limited national debt

a.

would do great harm to the nation's economy.

b.

might lead to military weakness.

c.

could persuade individuals and nations not to lend money to the United States.

d.

was beneficial, because people to whom the government owed money would work hard to make the nation a success.

e.

could help his economic plans but not his political plans.

D

19

The aspect of Hamilton's financial program that received the least support in Congress, because of its heavy agricultural and commercial interests, was

a.

funding at par.

b.

assumption.

c.

the National Bank.

d.

a protective tariff.

e.

excise taxes.

D

20

Hamilton expected that the revenue to pay the interest on the national debt would come from

a.

sales taxes and licensing fees.

b.

customs duties and excise tax.

c.

income and property taxes.

d.

western land sales and foreign loans.

e.

foreign aid.

B

21

Alexander Hamilton's proposed bank of the United States was

a.

rejected by the House of Representatives.

b.

supported by Thomas Jefferson.

c.

enthusiastically supported by George Washington.

d.

based on the "necessary and proper," or "elastic," clause in the Constitution.

e.

never fully enacted.

D

22

Jefferson's argument against the constitutionality of a Bank of the United States were based on the strict construction principles, especially embodied in the

a.

Articles of Confederation.

b.

"necessary and proper" clause of the Constitution.

c.

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.

d.

Tenth Amendment in the Bill of Rights.

e.

restrictions on Congress's power in Article I, section 10 of the Constitution.

D

23

Hamilton's major programs seriously infringed on

a.

checks and balances.

b.

national security.

c.

states' rights.

d.

free enterprise.

e.

federal authority.

C

24

The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government

a.

levied an excise tax on whiskey.

b.

tried to prohibit the sale of whiskey.

c.

allowed the import of foreign whiskey.

d.

halted the export of American whiskey.

e.

tried to prohibit the manufacturing of whiskey.

A

25

All of the following are true statements about the Whiskey Rebellion except

a.

backcountry pioneer folk saw whiskey not as a luxury but as an economic necessity and medium of exchange.

b.

protesters felt burdened by Hamilton's economic programs.

c.

Washington responded to the Whiskey Rebellion by negotiating with the protestors.

d.

protesters erected whiskey poles similar to liberty poles used against the Stamp Act in 1765.

e.

whiskey rebels tarred and feathered revenue officers.

C

26

Alexander Hamilton's Bank of the United States was modeled on the

a.

Bank of England.

b.

Swiss National Bank.

c.

Bank of France.

d.

national bank that existed in the United States prior to the Constitution.

e.

National Bank of the Netherlands.

A

27

The Founders had not envisioned the existence of permanent political parties because they

a.

opposed anyone who disagreed with them.

b.

were not part of the early colonial governments.

c.

had existed in Britain.

d.

saw them as a sign of disloyalty and lack of national unity.

e.

had caused the fall of republican Rome.

D

28

Match each political leader with his positions on public policy in the 1790s.

A.

Hamilton

1.

privileges for the upper classes

B.

Jefferson

2.

pro-British

3.

sympathy for the common people

4.

potent central government

5.

pay off the national debt

6.

government support for business

7.

pro-French

8.

universal education

a.

A-1, 2, 4, 6¾B-3, 5, 7, 8

b.

A-1, 5, 6, 7¾B-2, 3, 4, 8

c.

A-2, 3, 5, 8¾B-1, 4, 6, 7

d.

A-3, 6, 7, 8¾B-1, 2, 4, 5

e.

A-5, 2, 6, 3¾B-1, 4, 7, 8

A

29

Opposition by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton resulted in

a.

the formation of permanent political parties.

b.

Hamilton's dismissal from the cabinet by George Washington.

c.

politics drifting too far out of kilter with the wishes of the people.

d.

the rejection of Hamilton's plan by Washington.

e.

their dismissal from the cabinet of George Washington.

A

30

The event of the 1790s that has left the deepest scar on American political and social life is

a.

the Whiskey Rebellion.

b.

the French Revolution.

c.

Hamilton's economic plan for the country.

d.

the trouble with Native Americans.

e.

the development of the political party system.

B

31

The political party of the outs that provided the loyal opposition to the party in power in the 1790s was the

a.

Antifederalists.

b.

Federalists.

c.

Democratic-Republicans.

d.

Whigs.

e.

Tories.

C

32

The Franco-American alliance of 1778

a.

was ended by mutual agreement in 1789.

b.

bound the United States to neutrality in the event of war between France and Britain.

c.

bound the United States to help the French defend their possessions in the West Indies.

d.

was invoked by the French to obtain American aid in France's war with Britain after 1793.

e.

led the United States to war with Great Britain in 1812.

C

33

The Neutrality Proclamation in 1793

a.

declared that America would honor the principles found in the Franco-American Alliance of 1778.

b.

would require the United States to send troops to France if it was attacked by Britain.

c.

officially proclaimed America's neutrality in Old World quarrels.

d.

was adopted by both Congress and the President, making it a bilateral agreement by all branches of the Federal Government.

e.

led the United States to war with Britain in 1812.

C

34

When the French Revolution developed into a war with Britain, George Washington and the American government

a.

supported Britain.

b.

assisted France militarily.

c.

tried to capture French possessions in North America and the West Indies.

d.

remained neutral.

e.

captured British possessions in North America.

D

35

Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of 1793

a.

was based on calculations of American self-interest.

b.

fulfilled America's obligations under the Franco-American Treaty.

c.

was opposed by both Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson.

d.

dealt a severe blow to French military and naval strategists.

e.

had little impact on future American foreign policy.

A

36

Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) XYZ affair, (B) Neutrality Proclamation, (C) Jay's Treaty, and (D) Kentucky and Virginia resolutions.

a.

C, B, A, D

b.

B, A, C, D

c.

B, C, A, D

d.

C, B, D, A

e.

A, B, D, C

C

37

During its first quarter-century as a nation, one of the major problems facing America was

a.

the rivalry and warfare between France and Britain.

b.

a lack of good political leadership.

c.

the continued fighting between the United States and the Armed Neutrality League.

d.

Indian affairs.

e.

separation of church and state.

A

38

Washington's Neutrality Proclamation clearly illustrated the truism that

a.

he was unprepared for the demands of foreign policy.

b.

foreign policy should be handled by a group and not by a single individual.

c.

the United States was trying to do what was best for its allies.

d.

self-interest is the basic cement of alliances.

e.

unilateral decisions always are the least decisive and will garner the most support.

D

39

The Treaty of Greenville signed in August with the Miami Confederation resulted in all of the following except

a.

giving to the United States vast tracts of land in the Old Northwest.

b.

the Indians receiving a $20,000 lump sum payment.

c.

an annual annuity of $9,000 to the Indians.

d.

the right of the Indians to hunt the land they had ceded.

e.

the establishment of an equal relationship with the Indians.

E

40

Britain made neutrality very difficult for the United States during the French and British conflicts of the 1790s by

a.

granting America numerous trade privileges.

b.

seizing American merchant ships in the West Indies.

c.

leaving frontier outposts on American soil.

d.

helping to relieve tensions between Indians and Americans.

e.

blocking the major United States' seaports.

B

41

Hamilton's position on the war between Britain and France in 1793 was primarily influenced by

a.

his commitment to the Franco-American alliance of 1778.

b.

the threat of British naval action against the American coast.

c.

the national government's dependence on customs collections for revenue.

d.

his personal commitment to democratic government as a world ideal.

e.

his connection to the French foreign minister Citizen Edmond Genêt.

C

42

In Jay's Treaty, the British

a.

pledged to stop seizing American ships.

b.

released Americans from their pre-Revolutionary War debt obligations to British merchants.

c.

promised to evacuate the chain of forts in the Old Northwest.

d.

refused to pay damages for seizures of American ships.

e.

were denied most favored nation status.

C

43

The United States acquired free navigation of the Mississippi River, the rights of deposit at New Orleans, and the large disputed territory north of Florida in

a.

the Treaty of Greenville.

b.

Jay's Treaty.

c.

the Convention of 1800.

d.

the Pinckney Treaty.

e.

the Treaty of Paris.

D

44

John Jay's 1794 treaty with Britain

a.

increased George Washington's huge popularity.

b.

provided further evidence of American support for France.

c.

alienated America from Spain.

d.

created deeper splits between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans.

e.

led to the election of Thomas Jefferson.

D

45

One of George Washington's major contributions as president was

a.

keeping the nation out of foreign wars.

b.

the signing of Jay's Treaty.

c.

his advice against forming permanent alliances with foreign nations.

d.

securing a pledge from Britain to stop arming Indians on the western lands.

e.

establishing the political party system.

A

46

Washington's decision to retire from the presidency in 1797

a.

paved the way for Thomas Jefferson to step into the presidency.

b.

established a two-term tradition for American presidents.

c.

was capped off with a powerful Farewell Address, delivered before thousands of people.

d.

had political leaders singing his praises for his accomplishments and dedication.

e.

led England to see the fledgling nation as vulnerable.

B

47

Jay's Treaty contained all of the following provisions except

a.

a British promise to evacuate its chain of forts on U.S. soil.

b.

British consent to pay damages for the recent seizure of American ships.

c.

that Americans were bound to pay debts still owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary accounts.

d.

no promise by the British to pay for future seizure of American ships.

e.

a promise by the British to stop selling arms to the Indians.

E

48

Washington's Farewell Address in 1796

a.

warmly endorsed the appearance of two contending political parties in America.

b.

warned against the dangers of permanent foreign alliances.

c.

was delivered to a joint session of Congress by Washington himself.

d.

proposed a two-term limitation on the presidency.

e.

called for the country to rally behind the political party of the Jeffersonian-Republicans.

B

49

All of the following careers were tried by John Adams except

a.

scientist.

b.

doctor.

c.

artist.

d.

orator.

e.

lawyer.

C

50

In the election campaign of 1796, the Democratic-Republicans made their primary issue

a.

the content of Washington's Farewell Address.

b.

Washington's refusal to consult Congress before issuing the Neutrality Proclamation.

c.

the terms of Jay's Treaty and the crushing of the Whiskey Rebellion.

d.

the terms of the Pinckney Treaty.

e.

Alexander Hamilton's idea for a national bank.

C

51

The 1796 presidential campaign focused heavily on

a.

the Bank of the United States.

b.

the candidates' personalities.

c.

slavery.

d.

foreign trade.

e.

real issues.

B

52

The ____ amendment dealt with the problem of having a president and vice-president from two different political parties.

a.

Ninth

b.

Tenth

c.

Eleventh

d.

Twelfth

e.

Thirteenth

D

53

Among the handicaps John Adams faced upon assuming the presidency were all of the following except

a.

trying to fill the popular George Washington's shoes.

b.

Hamilton's hatred of him and efforts to undermine him.

c.

his wishy-washy positions on the issues of the day.

d.

his demeanor as an intellectual and elite, which made him unappealing to the masses.

e.

his narrow victory in his bid for office.

C

54

The High Federalists were

a.

supporters of Adams and were led by Hamilton.

b.

supporters of Jefferson.

c.

supporters of the war faction of the Federalist party.

d.

Federalists who voted for the Republicans in the election of 1800.

e.

supporters who voted for Hamilton for president.

C

55

The French grew angry with the United States after 1794 because

a.

of Jay's Treaty.

b.

Congress appointed second-rate ambassadors.

c.

of the XYZ affair.

d.

John Adams had been elected president.

e.

Thomas Jefferson was removed as ambassador.

A

56

Foreign relations between the United States and France deteriorated in the late 1790s over

a.

the deportation of Citizen Genêt.

b.

French seizure of American merchant ships.

c.

the adjustment of the Florida boundary.

d.

America's unilateral withdrawal from the Franco-American alliance.

e.

Pinckney's Treaty.

B

57

The immediate cause of the undeclared war between the United States and France was

a.

the XYZ affair.

b.

the Genêt mission.

c.

the Neutrality Proclamation.

d.

Washington's Farewell Address.

e.

Jay's Treaty.

A

58

The United States finally negotiated a peace settlement with France in 1800 mainly because Napoleon

a.

had also reached a peace agreement with Britain.

b.

wanted to concentrate on gaining more power in Europe.

c.

realized that the French could not win a military victory over the American forces.

d.

had been convinced by the Democratic-Republican pleas for cooperation.

e.

had been removed from power.

B

59

President Adams sought a peaceful solution to the undeclared war with France in order to

a.

ensure his chances of reelection in 1800.

b.

align himself with the Hamiltonian wing of the Federalist party.

c.

save the Franco-American alliance of 1778.

d.

prevent the outbreak of a full-scale war.

e.

keep trade with France in place.

D

60

The main purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts was to

a.

capture French and British spies.

b.

control the Federalists.

c.

silence and punish critics of the Federalists.

d.

keep Thomas Jefferson from becoming president.

e.

provide support for the Democratic-Republican party.

C

61

The Federalist-dominated Congress's Alien Act was aimed at ____, whereas the Sedition Act was primarily aimed at ____.

a.

rebellious slaves, newspapers

b.

recent immigrants, newspapers

c.

recent immigrants, merchants

d.

merchant smuggling, rebellious slaves

e.

Indians, farmers

B

62

The Sedition Act

a.

threatened First Amendment freedoms.

b.

established criteria for deporting dangerous foreigners.

c.

changed naturalization requirements for new citizens.

d.

was never enforced.

e.

was found by the Supreme Court to be unconstitutional.

A

63

As a result of the Sedition Acts

a.

illegal immigrants were deported.

b.

newspaper editors critical of the Adams Administration were indicted, tried and sent to jail.

c.

many Americans, staging political protests, found their Constitutional right to peaceful assembly was violated.

d.

the nation implemented its first military draft.

e.

citizens' rights to trial by jury were suspended.

B

64

The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were written in response to

a.

the XYZ affair.

b.

Thomas Jefferson's presidential candidacy in 1800.

c.

the Alien and Sedition Acts.

d.

the compact theory of government.

e.

the Federalist papers.

C

65

According to the compact theory advocated by Jefferson and Madison

a.

the national government was the creation of the thirteen sovereign states.

b.

nullification was an invalid policy.

c.

the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were illegal.

d.

legislation such as the Alien and Sedition Acts was proper.

e.

individuals, not the states, created the federal government.

A

66

According to the Federalists, the duty of judging the unconstitutionality of legislation passed by Congress lay with

a.

state legislatures.

b.

the president.

c.

state supreme courts.

d.

the Supreme Court.

e.

the people.

D

67

Federalists advocated rule by

a.

the majority.

b.

the best people.

c.

farmers.

d.

industrial workers.

e.

native-born citizens only.

B

68

Federalists strongly supported

a.

law and order.

b.

states' rights.

c.

strict construction.

d.

popular democracy.

e.

a weak military.

A

69

For its continued success, Hamilton's financial program relied heavily on

a.

trade with Britain.

b.

removal of the Spanish from the Mississippi Valley.

c.

aid from France.

d.

retiring the national debt.

e.

high taxes.

A

70

Hamiltonian Federalists advocated

a.

government interference in private enterprise.

b.

a strong central government.

c.

a full-blown democracy.

d.

strong ties with France.

e.

a low national debt.

B

71

Thomas Jefferson appealed to all of the following groups except

a.

small shopkeepers.

b.

the underprivileged.

c.

the middle class.

d.

the upper class.

e.

artisans.

D

72

To the Jeffersonian Republicans, the ideal citizen of a republic was a(n)

a.

seaboard merchant.

b.

town artisan.

c.

indentured servant.

d.

independent farmer.

e.

industrialist.

D

73

Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which

a.

the central government possessed the bulk of the power.

b.

cities were the primary focus of political activity.

c.

a large standing army ensured peace.

d.

the states retained the majority of political power.

e.

manufacturing interests dominated.

D

74

Jeffersonians believed in all of the following except

a.

opposition to a national debt.

b.

agriculture as the ideal occupation.

c.

every adult white male's right to vote.

d.

freedom of speech.

e.

central authority should be kept to a minimum.

C

75

Thomas Jefferson argued that a landless class of voters could be avoided in part by

a.

a redistribution of land.

b.

a reduced property tax.

c.

abolishing the property qualification to vote.

d.

continuing slavery.

e.

restricting the amount of property owned by each citizen.

D

76

Jefferson said landlessness threatened democracy as much as illiteracy because

a.

poorer people would not have the means to travel the long distances to the polls to vote.

b.

he feared that those without property could become political pawns of those who owned land.

c.

he feared an uprising of the landless, leading to mobocracy.

d.

only people with land had the means to obtain the education needed to be good citizens.

e.

None of these

B


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