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APUSH Chapter 17

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1

The earliest known use of the term Manifest Destiny was by

a.

John Tyler.

b.

James K. Polk.

c.

Ralph Waldo Emerson.

d.

John L. O'Sullivan.

e.

Mark Twain.

D

2

In what year did John O'Sullivan coin the phrase Manifest Destiny?

a.

1825

b.

1836

c.

1845

d.

1850

e.

1865

C

3

John Tyler joined the Whig party because he

a.

thought that it was the easiest way to become president.

b.

could not stomach the dictatorial tactics of Andrew Jackson.

c.

was forced to resign from the Senate.

d.

believed in its pro-bank, pro-protective tariff, and pro-internal improvements position.

e.

believed it better represented Virginia's interests.

B

4

The Whigs placed John Tyler on the 1840 ticket as vice president to

a.

have him instead of President William Henry Harrison actually run the executive branch.

b.

win northern votes.

c.

attract the vote of the states' rightists.

d.

reward him for his strong support of the Whig party platform.

e.

respond to the Democrats' expansionist appeal.

C

5

All of the following happened after President John Tyler's veto of a bill to establish a new Bank of the United States except

a.

he was expelled from the Whig party.

b.

all but one member of his cabinet resigned.

c.

an attempt was made in the House of Representatives to impeach him.

d.

Tyler also vetoed a Whig-sponsored high-tariff bill.

e.

he sent legislation to Congress for the creation of a National Bank.

E

6

The only member of President Tyler's Whig cabinet who did not resign in protest over his policies was

a.

Henry Clay.

b.

Zachary Taylor.

c.

Robert Walker.

d.

Daniel Webster.

e.

Millard Fillmore.

D

7

During an 1837 Canadian rebellion against Britain

a.

the United States stayed neutral in word and action.

b.

the United States imprisoned several American violators of neutrality.

c.

America was unlawfully invaded by the British.

d.

Canada warned the United States to stay out of the conflict.

e.

the U.S. government plotted to annex Canada.

C

8

Relations between Britain and the United States in the nineteenth century could be characterized as

a.

harmonious at the diplomatic level but full of popular resentments on both sides.

b.

generally peaceful, with occasional periods of tension.

c.

marked by growing American economic supremacy.

d.

constantly on the brink of war.

e.

generally tense, with periods of both violence and peaceful resolution.

E

9

As a result of the panic of 1837

a.

the U. S. established restrictions on foreign loans.

b.

Britain lent money to America, its close ally.

c.

anti-British passions cooled in America.

d.

the Democrats led America into war for more territory.

e.

several states defaulted on their debts to Britain.

E

10

The British-American dispute over the border of Maine was solved

a.

by the Third War for American Independence.

b.

by a compromise that gave each side some territory.

c.

when America was given all of the territory in question.

d.

by the Caroline incident.

e.

by admitting Maine into the Union and New Brunswick into Canada.

B

11

The Aroostook War was

a.

a short-lived insurrection in British Canada.

b.

a battle between Native Americans and settlers in northern Maine.

c.

a full-scale war between Britain and the United States.

d.

a small-scale clash between lumberjacks in Maine and Canada

e.

a dispute over fishing rights between Britain and the United States.

D

12

Arrange the following in chronological order: (A) annexation of Texas, (B) Webster-Ashburton Treaty, (C) settlement of the Oregon boundary, and (D) Aroostook War.

a.

A, B, D, C

b.

B, D, C, A

c.

D, B, A, C

d.

C, A, B, D

e.

A, D, C, B

C

13

All of the following were reasons why Britain was intensely interested in an independent Texas except

a.

such a republic would check the southward surge of the American colossus, who posed a threat to nearby British possessions in the New World.

b.

clashes between Texas and America would create a smoke-screen diversion behind which foreign powers could move into the Americas and challenge the Monroe Doctrine.

c.

British merchants believed that an independent Texas could be an important free-trade area, to offset the tariff-walled United States.

d.

Texas could become a location for the settlement of undesirable British emigrants.

e.

the alliance would give abolitionists the opportunity to free slaves in Texas and inflame nearby slaves in the South.

D

14

Some people in Britain hoped for a British alliance with Texas because

a.

the alliance would help to support the Monroe Doctrine.

b.

this area would provide an excellent base from which to attack the United States.

c.

Mexican efforts to attack the United States would be stopped.

d.

Texas could become a location for the settlement of undesirable British emigrants.

e.

the alliance would give abolitionists the opportunity to free slaves in Texas.

E

15

One argument against annexing Texas to the United States was that the annexation

a.

could involve the country in a series of ruinous wars in America and Europe.

b.

might give more power to the supporters of slavery.

c.

was not supported by the people of Texas.

d.

offered little political or economic value to America.

e.

would lead to tensions and possible war with the British.

B

16

Texas was annexed to the United States as a result of

a.

Senate approval of the Treaty of Annexation.

b.

a joint resolution rather than a treaty.

c.

a presidential order by Andrew Jackson.

d.

the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo.

e.

a compromise to admit free-state Iowa at the same time.

B

17

Arrange in chronological order the United States' acquisition of (A) Oregon, (B) Texas, and (C) California.

a.

A, B, C

b.

C, B, A

c.

B, A, C

d.

B, C, A

e.

A, C, B

C

18

The group that was instrumental in saving the soil of Oregon for the United States was

a.

the Lewis and Clark expedition.

b.

the Hudson's Bay Company.

c.

American missionaries to the Indians.

d.

U.S. naval forces in Puget Sound.

e.

Mormon settlers from Utah.

C

19

Most Americans who migrated to the Oregon Country were attracted by the

a.

rich soil of the Willamette River Valley.

b.

expectation of fighting British troops.

c.

potential profits in the fur trade.

d.

discovery of gold and silver in the Cascade Mountains.

e.

hope of finding a better trade route to East Asia.

A

20

The nomination of James K. Polk as the Democrats' 1844 presidential candidate was secured by

a.

southern expansionists.

b.

anti-Texas southerners.

c.

Henry Clay.

d.

eastern business interests.

e.

proslavery forces.

A

21

The area in dispute between the United States and Great Britain in 1845 lay between the

a.

forty-second parallel and the Columbia River.

b.

Cascade Mountains, the Columbia River, and Puget Sound.

c.

36° 30' line and the Columbia River.

d.

forty-ninth parallel and the 54° 40' line.

e.

Columbia River, the forty-ninth parallel, and the Pacific Ocean.

E

22

In the 1840s, the view that God had ordained the growth of an American nation stretching across North America was called

a.

continentalism.

b.

isolationism.

c.

anglophobia.

d.

Divine Mandate.

e.

Manifest Destiny.

E

23

In the presidential election of 1844, the Whig candidate, Henry Clay

a.

opposed the annexation of Texas.

b.

called for immediate annexation of Texas.

c.

favored both the postponing and the annexation of Texas.

d.

ignored the issue of the annexation of Texas.

e.

favored dividing Texas into several states.

C

24

The election of 1844 was notable because

a.

the campaign raised no real issues.

b.

a genuine and clear mandate emerged.

c.

it was fought over the issue of expansionism.

d.

Polk won the electoral vote but lost the popular vote.

e.

it brought the slavery issue into politics.

C

25

The group most supportive of gaining control of all the Oregon Country was the

a.

southern Democrats.

b.

Whigs.

c.

northern Democrats.

d.

Californians.

e.

Protestant missionaries.

C

26

In the Oregon treaty with Britain in 1846, the northern boundary of the United States was established to the Pacific Ocean along the line of

a.

42°.

b.

52° 40'.

c.

54° 40'.

d.

36° 30'.

e.

49°.

E

27

One reason that the British government decided to compromise on the Oregon Country border was

a.

the support of the Hudson's Bay Company.

b.

their belief that the territory was not worth fighting over.

c.

John Tyler's election to the presidency.

d.

America's acceptance of 54° 40'.

e.

their better ability to defend British Columbia.

B

28

Americans responded to the Oregon settlement with

a.

unanimous approval of the arrangement with Britain at the line of 49 degrees.

b.

anger at Senate delays in approving the pact with Britain.

c.

northwestern states joining with antislavery forces to condemn the pact.

d.

fear that Great Britain might strike to claim the rest of the territory.

e.

approval that southern slave interests were protected by the treaty.

C

29

When northwesterners questioned why all of Texas was annexed but not all of Oregon, the reply was

a.

Oregon was far more expensive.

b.

Oregon land was less desirable than that of Texas.

c.

Polk and his supporters in the Senate were far more interested in Texas as a bulwark for slavery.

d.

Great Britain was a far more powerful nation than Mexico.

e.

None of these

D

30

In his quest for California, President James K. Polk

a.

advocated war with Mexico from the beginning.

b.

argued strongly for annexation, because Americans were the most numerous people in the area.

c.

was motivated by his knowledge of gold deposits there.

d.

sought British help to persuade Mexico to sell the area to the United States.

e.

first advocated buying the area from Mexico.

E

31

Arrange the following in chronological order: (A) Bear Flag revolt, (B) Slidell mission rejected, (C) declaration of war on Mexico, and (D) American troops ordered to the Rio Grande Valley.

a.

B, D, C, A

b.

A, C, B, D

c.

D, B, A, C

d.

C, A, D, B

e.

A, D, C, B

A

32

In 1846, the United States went to war with Mexico for all of the following reasons except

a.

the ideology of Manifest Destiny.

b.

the deaths of American soldiers at the hands of Mexicans.

c.

the desire to gain payment for damage claims against the Mexican government.

d.

the impulse to satisfy those asking for spot resolutions.

e.

Polk's desire to acquire California.

D

33

President Polk's claim that "American blood [had been shed] on the American soil" referred to news of an armed clash between Mexican and American troops near

a.

San Francisco.

b.

the Nueces River.

c.

Santa Fe.

d.

the Rio Grande.

e.

San Antonio.

D

34

During the Mexican War, the Polk administration was called on several times to respond to spot resolutions, indicating where American blood had been shed to provoke the war. The resolutions were frequently introduced by

a.

Abraham Lincoln.

b.

Henry Clay.

c.

Robert Walker.

d.

David Wilmot.

e.

Lewis Cass.

A

35

One goal of Mexico in its 1846-1848 war with the United States was to

a.

demonstrate the strength of Latino culture.

b.

regain control of Texas.

c.

capture slaves and take them back to Mexico.

d.

force America to make good on unpaid claims of damages to Mexican citizens.

e.

humiliate the bullies of the North by invading the U.S. and freeing black slaves.

E

36

When the war with Mexico began, President James K. Polk

a.

advocated taking all of Mexico.

b.

believed the British would intervene on behalf of the Americans.

c.

hoped to fight a limited war, ending with the conquest of California.

d.

supported a large-scale conflict.

e.

denied any intention of expanding slavery.

C

37

The terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, ending the Mexican War, included

a.

a guarantee of the rights of Mexicans living in New Mexico.

b.

United States annexation of all the territory south of the Rio Grande.

c.

the banning of slavery from all territory ceded to the United States.

d.

a requirement that Mexico pay $3.25 million in damages to the United States.

e.

United States payment of $15 million for the cession of northern Mexico.

E

38

Those people most opposed to President James K. Polk's expansionist program were the

a.

western Democrats.

b.

antislavery forces.

c.

Senate Democrats.

d.

supporters of Nicholas P. Trist.

e.

proslavery Whigs.

B

39

All of the following were legacies of the U.S. war with Mexico, except

a.

Mexicans have never forgotten that the U.S. tore away about half of their country.

b.

the war resulted in a negative turning point in U.S. relations with Latin America.

c.

it reinvigorated the slavery issue and debates about extending slavery.

d.

Latin America solidified their friendly relations with the U.S.

e.

roughly 13,000 American soldiers died, mostly from disease.

D

40

Which of these is NOT a true statement about the missions in California?

a.

They became a combination of churches, towns, schools, farms, factories and prisons.

b.

Indians in the area were encouraged to adopt Christianity.

c.

In their early history, missions often forced Indians to work as farmers and herders,

d.

Power was transferred from the missionaries to the Mexican government in 1821.

e.

Californios were at the lowest rungs of society in the early to mid 1800s.

E

41

The Wilmot Proviso

a.

symbolized the burning issue of slavery in the territories.

b.

gained House and Senate approval in 1846.

c.

settled, once and for all, the issue of slavery in California.

d.

allowed slavery in the territory taken from Mexico in 1848.

e.

left open the issue of slavery in New Mexico and Utah.

A

42

The Wilmot Proviso, introduced into Congress during the Mexican War, declared that

a.

Mexican territory would not be annexed to the United States.

b.

slavery would be banned from all territories that Mexico ceded to the United States.

c.

the United States should annex all of Mexico.

d.

the United States should have to pay Mexico a financial indemnity for having provoked the war.

e.

slavery in the territories would be determined by popular sovereignty.

B

43

The largest single addition to American territory was

a.

the Louisiana Purchase.

b.

the Mexican Cession.

c.

the Oregon Country.

d.

the Old Northwest.

e.

Alaska.

B

44

The first Old World Europeans to come to California were

a.

Russians.

b.

French.

c.

Dutch.

d.

English.

e.

Spanish.

E

45

The Spanish Franciscan missionaries treated the native inhabitants of California

a.

according to the principles of their founder St. Francis.

b.

well but refused to convert them to Christianity.

c.

very harshly.

d.

better than they treated their African slaves.

e.

as capable of civilization if educated.

C

46

When the Mexican government secularized authority in California

a.

missionaries gained power.

b.

slavery became an accepted practice.

c.

convicts brought in by Spain were expelled.

d.

California's Indians received better treatment.

e.

Californios eventually gained control of the land.

E

47

The Californios' political ascendancy in California ended

a.

with the arrival of Franciscan friars.

b.

as a result of the influx of Anglo golddiggers.

c.

when Mexico gained control of the area in 1826.

d.

when agriculture became more profitable than mining.

e.

when the U.S. government made English mandatory.

B

48

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

  1. President John Tyler vetoed the Whig congress's proposal to

a.

end the independent treasury system.

b.

create a new national bank.

c.

distribute public land sales revenue to the states.

d.

annex Texas.

e.

solve the Maine boundary dispute.

BC

49

Britain was interested in developments in the Republic of Texas because

a.

an independent Texas was a potential counterweight to the future growth of a powerful United States.

b.

Texas would be an important alternative source of cotton for the British textile industry.

c.

Texas threatened British influence in Central America and northern South America.

d.

British abolitionists were pleased that the Republic of Texas had outlawed slavery.

e.

the British navy wanted bases at Galveston and Corpus Christi.

AB

50

President Polk's program for his administration included

a.

lower tariffs.

b.

a new independent treasury system.

c.

acquisition of California.

d.

settlement of the Oregon boundary dispute.

e.

the annexation of Texas.

ABCD

51

Points of controversy between the United States and Mexico in 1845-1846 included

a.

damage claims by American citizens against the Mexican government.

b.

the immigration of Mormons into Mexican territory.

c.

exclusion of Mexico from the Oregon boundary settlement.

d.

the refusal of the Mexican government to receive Polk's envoy, John Slidell.

e.

American annexation of Texas.

ADE

52

The Mexican War resulted in

a.

a one-third increase in the territorial size of the United States.

b.

combat experience for those who would lead the armies in the Civil War.

c.

increased respect for American military and naval capabilities.

d.

friendlier relations between the United States and Latin American nations.

e.

deepened sectional tensions over slavery.

ABCE


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