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APUSH Chapter 18

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1

In order to maintain the two great political parties as vital bonds of national unity, party leaders

a.

decided to ban slavery from all United States territories.

b.

decided to allow slavery into all United States territories.

c.

avoided public discussion of slavery.

d.

banished abolitionists from membership in either national party.

e.

worked to make third parties almost impossible.

C

2

The United States' victory in the Mexican War resulted in all of the following except

a.

renewed controversy over the issue of extending slavery into the territories.

b.

a possible split in the Whig and Democrat parties over slavery.

c.

the cession by Mexico of an enormous amount of land to the United States.

d.

a rush of settlers to new American territory in California.

e.

acquisition of the Oregon territory.

E

3

The Wilmot Proviso, if adopted, would have

a.

prevented the taking of any territory from Mexico.

b.

required California to enter the Union as a slave state.

c.

overturned the Fugitive Slave Law.

d.

prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexican War.

e.

acquired Cuba as a slave territory.

D

4

The debate over slavery in the Mexican Cession

a.

threatened to split national politics along North-South lines.

b.

nearly resulted in the return of the territory to Mexico.

c.

resulted in the formation of the Republican party.

d.

resulted in strong hostility to further expansionism.

e.

caused clashes between proslavery and antislavery settlers in California.

A

5

The Free Soil party of 1848 harbored many northerners who stood squarely against slavery in the territories primarily on the grounds that

a.

further expansion of slavery might break up the union.

b.

it destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise up from wage-earning dependence.

c.

slavery was a moral evil contrary to American principles.

d.

slave labor would be unproductive in the West.

e.

the southern fire-eaters were already planning further expansion into Central America.

B

6

In 1848, the Free Soil party platform advocated all of the following except

a.

support of the Wilmot Proviso.

b.

federal aid for internal improvements.

c.

free government homesteads for settlers.

d.

opposition to slavery in the territories.

e.

giving women the right to vote.

E

7

According to the principle of popular sovereignty, the question of slavery in the territories would be determined by

a.

the most popular national leaders.

b.

a national referendum by the Electoral College.

c.

congressional legislation.

d.

a Supreme Court decision.

e.

the people in any given territory.

F

8

The public liked popular sovereignty because it

a.

stopped the spread of slavery.

b.

fit in with the democratic tradition of self-determination.

c.

provided a national solution to the problem of slavery.

d.

supported the Wilmot Proviso.

e.

upheld the principles of white supremacy.

B

9

In the 1848 presidential election, the Democratic and Whig parties

a.

lost to the Free Soil party.

b.

addressed the issue of slavery.

c.

remained silent on the issue of slavery.

d.

abandoned the tactic of nominating military leaders.

e.

were divided on the issue of admitting California.

C

10

The two major parties kept the focus on the 1848 presidential election campaign on

a.

the personalities of Senator Cass and General Taylor.

b.

addressing the slavery issue through popular sovereignty.

c.

further expansion into Cuba and Central America.

d.

Indian removal and homesteading.

e.

the poor state of the economy and protective tariffs.

A

11

The event that threatened to destroy the longstanding balance of free and slave states in the United States Senate was the

a.

passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

b.

potential admission of Oregon as a free state.

c.

attempt to acquire Cuba as a slave state.

d.

proposed building of a southern transcontinental railroad.

e.

discovery of gold in California and its bid for statehood.

E

12

With the discovery of gold near Sutter's Mill, California, in 1848, all of the following took place except

a.

miners and adventurers from around the world came to California.

b.

most of the first wave of miners struck it rich with lucrative diggings of gold.

c.

many travelers to California faced illness and deadly fevers.

d.

people providing laundry and other personal services for miners made a fortune by charging high prices.

e.

crime soared in California due to the large number of lawless men and virtueless women who arrived there.

B

13

The South grew increasingly worried about the future of slavery because

a.

it was unsuited to the West.

b.

the admission of California might permanently tip the political balance against them.

c.

the Supreme Court might issue rulings against slavery.

d.

President Taylor was the first president openly critical of slavery.

e.

popular sovereignty would almost certainly prevent the spread of slavery.

B

14

Which of the following was not among the issues that concerned southerners in 1849-1850?

a.

The political balance in the Senate might tip against them.

b.

The admission of California as a free state might set a precedent for Utah and New Mexico.

c.

Northern abolitionists were agitating against slavery in the District of Columbia.

d.

The loss of runaway slaves through the Underground Railroad.

e.

There was a growing chance that a constitutional amendment would abolish slavery.

E

15

The issue of runaway slaves was important because

a.

the South was losing a significant portion of its labor force.

b.

the Underground Railroad might encourage a slave rebellion.

c.

the loss of property was significant, but the loss of honor was felt more.

d.

escaped slaves might establish free colonies in the West.

e.

free blacks demonstrated that the racist theory of slavery was wrong.

C

16

The Free Soilers argued that slavery

a.

was unsuited to the West.

b.

would cause more costly wage labor to wither away.

c.

would, through its profits, enable small farmers to buy more land.

d.

should be gradually abolished.

e.

was an immoral institution.

B

17

Of those people going to California during the gold rush

a.

the majority had come from foreign nations.

b.

slaves constituted a sizable minority.

c.

the majority gained considerable financial rewards.

d.

most were interested in free-soil farming.

e.

a distressingly high proportion were lawless men.

E

18

The Free Soilers condemned slavery because

a.

of the harm it did to blacks.

b.

of moral principles.

c.

it destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise from wage-earning to self-employment.

d.

it was the only way they had of combating the appeal of the Democratic party.

e.

it damaged the national economy.

C

19

By 1850, the South was losing perhaps ____ runaways a year out of its total of some 4 million slaves.

a.

200

b.

500

c.

800

d.

1,000

e.

2,000

D

20

By 1850, the South

a.

was experiencing economic difficulties.

b.

feared that slavery might be abolished in states where it already existed.

c.

remained concerned about its weak voice in national government.

d.

was relatively well off, politically and economically.

e.

recognized that slavery's expansion was over.

D

21

Harriet Tubman gained fame

a.

by helping slaves to escape to Canada.

b.

in the gold fields of California.

c.

as an African American antislavery novelist.

d.

as an advocate of the Fugitive Slave Law.

e.

by urging white women to oppose slavery.

A

22

The Underground Railroad consisted of

a.

an informal network of homes where slaves could hide on their escape to freedom.

b.

a train that hid slaves in cargo areas and carried them to freedom in the north.

c.

a vehicle for capturing and returning runaway slaves back to the south.

d.

a radical new transportation design.

e.

None of these

A

23

During the 1850s, slaves probably gained their freedom most frequently by

a.

running away.

b.

being emancipated in their masters' will.

c.

rebellion.

d.

appeal to the courts.

e.

self-purchase or voluntary emancipation.

E

24

John C. Calhoun's plan to protect the South and slavery involved all of the following except

a.

leave the issue of slavery alone.

b.

return runaway slaves back to the south.

c.

give the South its rights as a minority.

d.

restore the political balance in the Senate of free states and slave states.

e.

prevent the spread of slavery in the California territory.

E

25

One of the more surprising elements of John C. Calhoun's plan to protect the South and slavery involved

a.

a constitutional amendment permanently guaranteeing equal numbers of slave and free states.

b.

southern secession from the Union.

c.

support of Henry Clay's proposed concessions by both the North and the South.

d.

repealing the president's veto power.

e.

the election of two presidents, one from the North and one from the South.

E

26

Daniel Webster's famed Seventh of March speech in 1850 resulted in

a.

the celebration of Webster as an antislavery leader.

b.

visibly strengthened Union sentiment and especially pleased northern banking and commercial centers.

c.

condemnation by northern commercial interests.

d.

charges that he had accepted bribes from proslavery interests.

e.

a movement to draft him for the presidency.

B

27

In his Seventh of March speech, Daniel Webster

a.

attacked Henry Clay's compromise proposals.

b.

called for a new, more stringent fugitive-slave law.

c.

advocated a congressional ban on slavery in the territories.

d.

proposed a scheme for electing two presidents, one from the North and one from the South, each having veto power.

e.

became a hated figure in the South.

B

28

For his position in his Seventh of March speech, Daniel Webster was viciously condemned by

a.

northern Unionists.

b.

northern banking and commercial interests.

c.

abolitionists.

d.

Henry Clay.

e.

John C. Calhoun.

C

29

The Young Guard from the North

a.

regarded preserving the Union as their top priority.

b.

agreed fully with the Old Guard on the issue of slavery.

c.

saw expansionism as a solution to the slavery question.

d.

gave support to John C. Calhoun's plan for rescuing the Union.

e.

were most interested in purging and purifying the Union than in preserving it.

E

30

In the debates of 1850, Senator William H. Seward, as a representative of the northern Young Guard, argued that

a.

the Constitution must be obeyed.

b.

John C. Calhoun's compromise plan must be adopted to preserve the Union.

c.

Christian legislators must obey God's moral law.

d.

compromise must be achieved to preserve the Union.

e.

African Americans should be granted their own territory.

C

31

During the debate of 1850, ____ argued that there was a higher law than the Constitution that compelled him to demand the exclusion of slavery from the territories.

a.

William H. Seward

b.

Henry Clay

c.

Daniel Webster

d.

Stephen A. Douglas

e.

Zachary Taylor

A

32

An event that helped the cause of compromise in 1850, was when President Zachary Taylor

a.

led an invasion of Texas to halt its attempts to take part of New Mexico.

b.

supported fellow southerner John C. Calhoun's plan for union.

c.

died suddenly and Millard Fillmore became president.

d.

ushered in a second Era of Good Feelings.

e.

decided not to run for re-election.

C

33

Southern delegates met at a convention in Nashville in the summer of 1850 to

a.

plan southern secession.

b.

plan ways to acquire more slave territory.

c.

propose a series of constitutional amendments.

d.

denounce Daniel Webster as a traitor to the South.

e.

condemn the compromises being worked out in Congress.

E

34

In the Compromise of 1850, Congress determined that slavery in the New Mexico and Utah territories was

a.

to be banned.

b.

protected by federal law.

c.

to be decided by popular sovereignty.

d.

to be ignored until either territory applied for admission to statehood.

e.

to be decided by the Supreme Court.

C

35

The most alarming aspect of the Compromise of 1850 to northerners was the decision concerning

a.

slavery in the District of Columbia.

b.

slavery in the New Mexico and Utah territories.

c.

the new Fugitive Slave Law.

d.

settlement of the Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute.

e.

continuation of the interstate slave trade.

C

36

The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 included all of the following provisions except

a.

the requirement that fugitive slaves be returned from Canada.

b.

denial of a jury trial to runaway slaves.

c.

denial of fleeing slaves' right to testify on their own behalf.

d.

the penalty of imprisonment for northerners who helped slaves to escape.

e.

a higher payment if officials determined blacks to be runaways.

A

37

Northerners feared that the Fugitive Slave Act threatened to set a dangerous precedent for white Americans because it

a.

prohibited antislavery demonstrations and protests.

b.

denied fleeing slaves a trial by jury.

c.

forced slaves to be returned to masters.

d.

confined those who aided escaping slaves to house arrest

e.

None of these

B

38

All of the following were results of the Fugitive Slave Act except

a.

many people were drawn into the antislavery movement.

b.

Northerners who aided slaves in escaping faced heavy fines and jail sentences.

c.

federal commissioners handling the cases of runaways received twice as much in a bonus if the slave was returned.

d.

Northerners protested the capture of individual runaway slaves.

e.

the Underground Railroad scaled back its efforts.

E

39

Many northern states passed personal liberty laws in response to the Compromise of 1850's provision regarding

a.

slavery in the District of Columbia.

b.

slavery in the territories.

c.

restrictions on free blacks.

d.

the interstate slave trade.

e.

runaway slaves.

E

40

Many Northern states passed personal liberty laws in response to the Compromise of 1850 that

a.

offered asylum to slaves fleeing the District of Columbia.

b.

set up state-sponsored stations on the Underground Railroad.

c.

prohibited their citizens from identifying runaway slaves.

d.

guaranteed personal liberty to all runaway slaves.

e.

interfered with federal enforcement of the fugitive slave laws.

E

41

In light of future evidence, it seems apparent that in the Compromise of 1850 the South made a tactical blunder by

a.

allowing a ban on the slave trade in Washington, D.C.

b.

demanding a strong fugitive-slave law.

c.

not insisting on federal protection of slavery in the territories.

d.

allowing the admission of California as a free state.

e.

allowing popular sovereignty in Nebraska territory.

B

42

The fatal split in the Whig party in 1852 occurred over

a.

the nomination of General Winfield Scott or Daniel Webster.

b.

slavery.

c.

the Gadsden Purchase.

d.

homestead laws.

e.

the transcontinental railroad route.

B

43

The election of 1852 was significant because it

a.

saw the victory of a pro-South northerner.

b.

marked the return of issues-oriented campaigning.

c.

saw the rise of purely national parties.

d.

marked the end of the Whig party.

e.

saw the emergence of an antislavery third party.

D

44

For a short time in the 1850s, William Walker, an American adventurer, seized control of

a.

Nicaragua.

b.

Cuba.

c.

Japan.

d.

El Salvador.

e.

Puerto Rico.

A

45

The man who opened Japan to the United States was

a.

William Walker.

b.

Franklin Pierce.

c.

Lafcadio Hearn.

d.

Clayton Bulwer.

e.

Matthew Perry.

E

46

The primary objective of Manifest Destiny expansionists in the 1850s was

a.

Panama.

b.

Nicaragua.

c.

Cuba.

d.

Hawaii.

e.

the Dominican Republic.

C

47

The Pierce administration's secret scheme to gain control of Cuba was stopped when

a.

Spain threatened a preemptive war against the United States.

b.

the secret Ostend Manifesto was leaked to the public.

c.

United States leaders signed the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

d.

Spain declared that it would abolish slavery in Cuba.

e.

United States adventurers bungled their invasion.

B

48

Some Southerners felt Cuba would be an enticing prospect for annexation for all of the following reasons except it

a.

was not controlled by any European power and would be easily acquired.

b.

was a sugar-rich and economically productive territory.

c.

already had a large population of enslaved blacks.

d.

could be carved into several states, restoring political balance in the Senate.

e.

was located just off the nation's southern doorstep.

A

49

On July 3, 1844, the first formal diplomatic agreement between the United States and China was the

a.

Ostend Manifesto.

b.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

c.

Chinese Open-Door Treaty.

d.

Treaty of Wanghia.

e.

Hong Kong/Chinese Treaty.

D

50

Most American leaders believed that the only way to keep the new Pacific Coast territories from breaking away from United States control was to

a.

allow slavery in these areas.

b.

build a canal across Central America.

c.

grant the territories quick statehood.

d.

construct a transcontinental railroad.

e.

establish large naval bases in San Diego and Seattle.

D

51

A southern route for the transcontinental railroad seemed the best because

a.

northern areas were organized territories.

b.

slave labor could be used to construct it.

c.

the railroad would be easier to build in this area.

d.

Mexican leader Santa Anna agreed to contribute money for the project.

e.

it would firmly tie southern California to the Union.

C

52

Stephen A. Douglas proposed that the question of slavery in the Kansas-Nebraska Territory be decided by

a.

popular sovereignty.

b.

making Kansas a free territory and Nebraska a slave territory.

c.

the Supreme Court.

d.

admitting California, Kansas, and Nebraska to the Union as free states.

e.

the winner of the next presidential election.

A

53

Stephen A. Douglas's plans for deciding the slavery question in the Kansas-Nebraska scheme required repeal of the

a.

Compromise of 1850.

b.

Fugitive Slave Act.

c.

Wilmot Proviso.

d.

Northwest Ordinance.

e.

Missouri Compromise.

E

54

Undoubtedly the most durable offspring of the Kansas-Nebraska blunder was

a.

the resurgence of the Whig political party.

b.

the new Republican political party.

c.

a constitutional amendment banning slavery in any new territories.

d.

rejection of popular sovereignty.

e.

the death of the Democratic political party.

B

55

One of Stephen Douglas's mistakes in proposing the Kansas-Nebraska Act was

a.

not securing the transcontinental railroad for the North.

b.

overestimating the protest to the bill.

c.

allowing slavery to spread into new territory.

d.

underestimating the depth of northern opposition to the spread of slavery.

e.

believing that slavery could not survive in Kansas.

D

56

Historians have attributed all of the following to Douglas's motives for championing the Kansas-Nebraska Act except

a.

a possible presidential bid in 1856.

b.

his impulsivity and recklessness.

c.

his inability to recognize that Northerners did feel deeply about slavery in the territories.

d.

he was deeply invested in seeing slavery allowed in the territories.

e.

his lack of foresight.

D

57

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

  1. Presidential candidates in the 1848 election included

a.

Martin Van Buren.

b.

Henry Clay.

c.

Lewis Cass.

d.

Zachary Taylor.

e.

Winfield Scott.

ACD

58

The new Free Soil party in 1848 found major support from those who

a.

favored high tariffs.

b.

had wanted all of Oregon up to the 54° 40' line.

c.

condemned slavery as immoral.

d.

wanted to keep slavery out of the territories.

e.

believed that slavery harmed white labor.

ABCDE

59

In 1850, the South was deeply worried because

a.

the Underground Railroad was carrying away hundreds of slaves each year.

b.

the price of cotton was low.

c.

the Supreme Court had a northern majority.

d.

California sought admission as a free state.

e.

U.S. presidents were favoring the North.

AD

60

The impact of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was to

a.

bring a final solution to the question of slavery in the territories.

b.

give the North the upper hand in the debate on slavery.

c.

enrage the antislavery abolitionists.

d.

lessen the prospects for future compromises between North and South.

e.

make Stephen Douglas the most controversial national politician.

CD

61

The consequences of the Kansas-Nebraska Act included the

a.

organization of the Know-Nothing party.

b.

splitting of the Democratic party.

c.

demise of the Whig party.

d.

organization of the Republican party.

e.

rise of the Free Soil party.

BC


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