APUSH Chapter 19

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1

In 1857, the Supreme Court ruled in the Dred Scott decision that

a.

slavery was inconsistent with the constitution and must be abolished.

b.

protection of slavery was guaranteed in all the territories of the West.

c.

slavery would be constitutional only in those areas that were already slave territories.

d.

abolition of slavery would be done only in those areas in which it is already abolished.

e.

slavery was constitutional, but the slave trade was unconstitutional.

b

2

Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin

a.

intended to show the cruelty of slavery.

b.

was prompted by passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

c.

comprised the recollections of a long-time personal witness to the evils of slavery.

d.

received little notice at the time it was published but became widely read during the Civil War.

e.

portrayed blacks as militant resisters to slavery.

A

3

Uncle Tom's Cabin may be described as

a.

a firsthand account of slavery.

b.

a success only in the United States.

c.

a romanticized account of slavery.

d.

having little effect on the start of the Civil War.

e.

a powerful political force.

E

4

As a result of reading Uncle Tom's Cabin, many northerners

a.

found the book's portrayal of slavery too extreme.

b.

vowed to halt British and French efforts to help the Confederacy.

c.

rejected Hinton Helper's picture of the South and slavery.

d.

would have nothing to do with the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law.

e.

sent guns to antislavery settlers in Kansas ("Beecher's Bibles").

D

5

Harriet Beecher Stowe was described by President Abraham Lincoln as

a.

a troublemaker.

b.

a radical abolitionist.

c.

the woman who wrote the book that started the Civil War.

d.

the force behind the Underground Railroad.

e.

None of these

C

6

The roots of Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery sentiments lay in the

a.

evangelical religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening.

b.

rationalist theories of the Enlightenment.

c.

economic theories of Robert Owen and Karl Marx.

d.

ideas of the Free Soil party.

e.

feminist ideals of the Seneca Falls Convention.

A

7

When the people of Britain and France read Uncle Tom's Cabin, their governments

a.

realized that intervention in the Civil War on behalf of the South would not be popular.

b.

concluded that they must end slavery in their own territory.

c.

decided to give aid to the slaveholding South.

d.

banned the book.

e.

distributed the book as anti-American propaganda.

A

8

Hinton R. Helper's book, The Impending Crisis of the South, argued that those who suffered most from slave labor were

a.

African Americans.

b.

southern planters.

c.

northern Republican abolitionists.

d.

western farmers.

e.

nonslaveholding southern whites.

E

9

In 1855, proslavery southerners regarded Kansas as

a.

territory governed by the Missouri Compromise.

b.

slave territory.

c.

geographically unsuitable for slavery.

d.

too close to free states for slavery to be practical.

e.

a test for slavery in wheat-growing areas.

B

10

In "Bleeding Kansas" in the mid-1850s, ____ was/were identified with the proslavery element, and ____ was/were associated with the antislavery free-soilers.

a.

Beecher's Bibles; border ruffians

b.

John Brown; Preston Brooks

c.

the Pottawatomie massacre; the sack of Lawrence

d.

the Lecompton Constitution; the New England Immigrant Aid Society

e.

Stephen A. Douglas; William Sumner

D

11

In 1856, the breaking point over slavery in Kansas came with

a.

the arrival of John Brown.

b.

an attack on Lawrence by a gang of proslavery raiders.

c.

the influx of a large number of slaves.

d.

the establishment of evangelical abolitionist churches.

e.

the passage of the Lecompton Constitution.

B

12

President James Buchanan's decision on Kansas's Lecompton Constitution

a.

hopelessly divided the Democratic party.

b.

admitted Kansas to the Union as a free state.

c.

admitted Kansas to the Union as a slave state.

d.

reaffirmed the Democratic party as a national party.

e.

turned the focus of controversy to Nebraska.

A

13

The Lecompton Constitution was written so that Kansas

a.

could enter the Union as either a slave state or a free state.

b.

would hold a popular referendum on slavery after admission to the Union.

c.

would permit temporary residents like the abolitionists and border ruffians to vote.

d.

would allow slavery but prohibit the slave trade.

e.

would continue to permit slavery in some form.

E

14

The Lecompton Constitution proposed that the state of Kansas

a.

be free of all slavery.

b.

hold a popular referendum on slavery.

c.

be controlled by the free-soilers if approved.

d.

allow slavery but prohibit slave auctions.

e.

protect slave owners already in Kansas.

E

15

The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated the impracticality of ____ in the territories.

a.

abolitionism

b.

free soil

c.

popular sovereignty

d.

slavery

e.

cotton growing

C

16

The clash between Preston S. Brooks and Charles Sumner revealed

a.

the seriousness of political divisions in the North.

b.

the importance of honor to northerners.

c.

despite divisions over slavery, the House of Representatives would unite to expel a member for bad conduct.

d.

passions over slavery were becoming dangerously inflamed in both North and South.

e.

the division between the House and the Senate over slavery.

D

17

James Buchanan won the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1856 because he

a.

campaigned against the policy of popular sovereignty.

b.

had gained fame as a western explorer and soldier.

c.

controlled the key swing state of Pennsylvania.

d.

had extensive administrative and foreign policy experience.

e.

could distance himself and the Democrats from the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

E

18

Match each figure below with his role in the 1856 presidential campaign.

A.

John C. Frémont

1.

Democratic nominee for president

B.

Millard Fillmore

2.

Republican nominee for president

C.

Stephen A. Douglas

3.

Know-Nothing (American Party) nominee for president

D.

James Buchanan

4.

Too tainted by Kansas-Nebraska Act to obtain Democratic nomination

a.

A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4

b.

A-4, B-1, C-2, D-3

c.

A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1

d.

A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2

e.

A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4

C

19

The central plank of the Know-Nothing party in the 1856 election was

a.

popular sovereignty.

b.

expansionism.

c.

proslavery.

d.

abolitionism.

e.

nativism.

E

20

Nativists in the 1850s were known for their

a.

support of Native Americans (Indians).

b.

support of slavery.

c.

opposition to old-stock Protestants.

d.

anti-Catholic and antiforeign attitudes.

e.

opposition to alcohol and Sabbath-breaking.

D

21

In the presidential election of 1856, the Republicans

a.

revealed astonishing strength for a brand-new party.

b.

lost behind their most popular leader, Senator William Seward.

c.

made their debut as the most successful third party in American history.

d.

proved unable to present a clear platform on slavery expansion.

e.

finished third behind the Democrats and the Know-Nothings.

A

22

The Republicans lost the 1856 election in part because of

a.

southern threats that a Republican victory would be a declaration of war.

b.

lingering support for slavery in the North.

c.

northern bullyism.

d.

the North's unwillingness at this stage to let the South depart in peace.

e.

the division between Democrats and Know-Nothings.

A

23

The real significance of the election of 1856 was that it

a.

showed that the Democrats still remained the majority party in the country.

b.

demonstrated the importance of charismatic leadership in the presidency.

c.

foreshadowed an ominous sectional clash over slavery in the election of 1860.

d.

marked the end of Senator Stephen Douglas's presidential hopes.

e.

signalled the demise of the Know-Nothing (American) Party.

C

24

As late as 1856, many northerners were still willing to vote Democratic instead of Republican because

a.

of innate liberalism.

b.

the Democrats presented excellent candidates.

c.

many did not want to lose their profitable business connections with the South.

d.

the Democrats were the only national party.

e.

All of these

C

25

In ruling on the Dred Scott case, the United States Supreme Court

a.

freed Dred Scott but upheld the Missouri Compromise.

b.

denied Scott's appeal but held that slaves could not be taken into free territories.

c.

essentially upheld the doctrine of popular sovereignty.

d.

tried to settle the immediate issue on technical legal grounds.

e.

argued that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the federal territories.

E

26

In the Dred Scott case, the U.S. Supreme Court made all of the following determinations except

a.

it ruled that Dred Scott was a slave, not a citizen, and therefore could not sue in federal court.

b.

it said that because slaves were private property, they could be taken into free or slave territories.

c.

it decided that slaves brought into territories north of the 36-30 line were considered free.

d.

it declared that the Constitution protected slave owners' rights to property no matter where they resided.

e.

it stated that Scott should be returned to slavery.

C

27

The decision rendered in the Dred Scott case was applauded by

a.

abolitionists.

b.

Republicans.

c.

popular-sovereignty proponents.

d.

proslavery southerners.

e.

conservative unionists.

D

28

Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Dred Scott decision, (B) Lincoln-Douglas debates, (C) Kansas-Nebraska Act, and (D) Harpers Ferry raid.

a.

A, C, B, D

b.

B, D, C, A

c.

C, A, B, D

d.

D, B, A, C

e.

A, C, D, B

C

29

For a majority of northerners, the most outrageous part of the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott case was that

a.

as a slave, Scott had no right to sue in federal court.

b.

Scott did not automatically become free when his owner took him through free states and territories.

c.

Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory.

d.

slaveowners had the right to flood into territories so as to control popular sovereignty.

e.

the Bill of Rights did not apply even to free African Americans.

C

30

As a result of the panic of 1857, the South

a.

became more economically dependent on the North.

b.

became hostile to Wall Street and the stock market.

c.

believed that it was economically superior to the North.

d.

began planning for an independent southern nation.

e.

saw the need to develop manufacturing.

C

31

In the North, the panic of 1857 created calls for

a.

an end to the gold standard and dependence on British investment.

b.

the prohibition of slavery in the territories.

c.

price supports for farmers.

d.

federal regulation of land and stock speculation.

e.

free homesteads and higher protective tariffs.

E

32

The panic of 1857

a.

was caused by overexportation of southern cotton.

b.

hit hardest among grain growers of the Northwest.

c.

finally brought southern congressmen to support free homesteads.

d.

stimulated northern demands for lower tariff rates.

e.

demonstrated the economic dominance of the North.

B

33

The political career of Abraham Lincoln could best be described as

a.

a steady rise through the party ranks to power.

b.

greatly aided by the political influence of his wife, Mary Todd.

c.

fueled by his personal charisma more than his political beliefs.

d.

largely a failure until his meteoric rise after 1854.

e.

based on his success in the U.S. House and Senate.

D

34

As a result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates

a.

Lincoln was elected to the Senate.

b.

Lincoln's national stature was diminished.

c.

Douglas increased his chances of winning the presidency.

d.

Illinois rejected the concept of popular sovereignty.

e.

Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate.E

E

35

Stephen A. Douglas argued, in his Freeport Doctrine, during the Lincoln-Douglas debates that

a.

the Dred Scott decision was unconstitutional.

b.

slavery would stay down if the people voted it down no matter what the Supreme Court said.

c.

no matter what the people wanted, the Supreme Court was law.

d.

Congress should reopen the Atlantic slave trade.

e.

a new version of the Missouri Compromise was needed.

B

36

Lincoln stated that he believed that the black race was

a.

equal in every way to the white race.

b.

inferior but entitled to the same natural rights as white people.

c.

inferior and meant to be kept in bondage by whites.

d.

equal to whites in moral and intellectual capacity.

e.

superior to whites in emotional and physical capabilities.

B

37

In his raid on Harpers Ferry, John Brown intended to

a.

call upon the slaves to rise and establish a black free state.

b.

arouse the South to secede from the Union.

c.

stir West Virginia to break away from Virginia as a free state.

d.

demonstrate that blacks could fight for their freedom.

e.

seize weapons to start a guerrilla war against the federal government.

A

38

After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, the South concluded that

a.

the raid was an isolated incident.

b.

the U.S. army could not protect slavery.

c.

Brown should be put in an insane asylum.

d.

Brown had been attempting to defend his right to own slaves.

e.

the North was dominated by "Brown-loving" Republicans.

E

39

John Brown's execution produced all of the following results except

a.

Harriet Tubman praised Brown's support of freedom for slaves.

b.

abolitionists and free-soilers were outraged.

c.

Ralph Waldo Emerson and other northerners hailed him as a martyr, much like Jesus.

d.

Southerners wondered how they could stay in the Union.

e.

Brown's bloody past prior to the Harper's Ferry raid was exposed and he was discredited.E

E

40

Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 Republican party presidential nomination in part because he

a.

had been a strong supporter of William Seward.

b.

had never taken a stand on the issue of slavery in the territories.

c.

had made fewer enemies than front-runner William Seward.

d.

was a longtime supporter of Stephen Douglas.

e.

had more political experience than his opponents.

C

41

Match each presidential candidate in the 1860 election below with his party's position on the slavery question.

A.

Abraham Lincoln

1.

extend slavery into the territories

B.

Stephen Douglas

2.

ban slavery from the territories

C.

John Breckenridge

3.

preserve the Union by compromise

D.

John Bell

4.

enforce popular sovereignty

a.

A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4

b.

A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3

c.

A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1

d.

A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3

e.

A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2

B

42

In the election of 1860, the Constitutional Union party was formed

a.

to show support for the Constitution and the decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.

b.

as a middle-of-the-road party fearing for the break up of the union.

c.

to help catapult the country into a Civil War.

d.

as an antislavery southern party that supported Lincoln.

e.

as a proslavery northern party.

B

43

When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election, people in South Carolina

a.

waited to see how other southern states would act.

b.

were very upset because they would have to secede from the Union.

c.

vowed to give their loyalty to Stephen Douglas.

d.

rejoiced because it gave them an excuse to secede.

e.

accepted the democratic process and vowed to support Lincoln.

D

44

The government of the Confederate States of America was first organized in

a.

Atlanta, Georgia.

b.

Montgomery, Alabama.

c.

Richmond, Virginia.

d.

Knoxville, Tennessee.

e.

Charleston, South Carolina.

B

45

"Lame-duck" President James Buchanan believed that

a.

southern states had a legal right to secede from the Union.

b.

his duty was to protect federal installations from assault.

c.

the election of 1860 was a fraud.

d.

southern states had no choice but to secede from the Union.

e.

southern states could not secede under the Constitution.

E

46

President James Buchanan declined to use force to keep the South in the Union for all of the following reasons except that

a.

northern public opinion would not support it.

b.

the army was needed to control Indians in the West.

c.

he believed that the Constitution required Congressional approval of the use of force.

d.

a slim chance of reconciliation remained.

e.

he was surrounded by pro-southern advisers.

C

47

Abraham Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise because

a.

it allowed the doctrine of popular sovereignty to be overridden once statehood was achieved.

b.

it permitted slavery in the Utah territory.

c.

its adoption might provoke Kentucky to leave the Union.

d.

he felt bound by President Buchanan's earlier rejection of it.

e.

he had been elected on a platform that opposed the extension of slavery.

E

48

Secessionists supported leaving the Union for all of the following reasons except

a.

they were dismayed by the success of the Republican party.

b.

they believed that the North would not oppose their departure.

c.

the political balance seemed to be tipping against them.

d.

they were tired of abolitionist attacks.

e.

they believed that Republicans had been infiltrating their political ranks.

E

49

In declaring their independence, the Confederate States relied heavily on the example of the

a.

nullification crisis in South Carolina.

b.

principles of self-determination of the Declaration of Independence.

c.

Texas declaration of independence from Mexico.

d.

French Revolution.

e.

Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church.

B

50

The immense debt owed to northern creditors by the South was

a.

repaid immediately after the Civil War.

b.

repudiated by the South.

c.

paid by pro-Union southerners during the war.

d.

not repaid until the twentieth century.

e.

converted into long-term Confederate bonds.

B

51

All of the following are true statements about southerners in the secession movement except

a.

they regarded their region as a subnation with a distinct culture from the North.

b.

secessionists were inspired by worldwide impulses of nationalism.

c.

they resisted being lorded over by the North.

d.

they wanted to resume importation of slaves from Africa.

e.

they saw parallels between their movement and the 1776 break with England.

D

52

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

  1. Kansas Territory's Lecompton Constitution was supported by

a.

President James Buchanan.

b.

Stephen A. Douglas.

c.

the Republican party.

d.

proslavery settlers in Kansas.

e.

Henry Ward Beecher.

AD

53

In the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court ruled that

a.

Dred Scott was not a citizen of the United States.

b.

Dred Scott could not legally sue in a federal court.

c.

the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.

d.

Congress had no power to ban slavery from a territory.

e.

only free blacks had civil rights.

ABCD

54

Before his nomination in 1860, Abraham Lincoln had been

a.

a Jacksonian Democrat.

b.

a state legislator in Illinois.

c.

a United States congressman from Illinois.

d.

the vice-presidential candidate of the Republican party in 1856.

e.

a failed candidate for the United States Senate.

BCE

55

The 1860 Republican party platform favored

a.

the abolition of slavery.

b.

protective tariffs.

c.

construction of a transcontinental railroad.

d.

free homesteads.

e.

non-extension of slavery.

BCDE

56

In the election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln

a.

carried the Border States.

b.

won a majority in the Electoral College.

c.

won less than a majority of the popular vote.

d.

won the majority of votes from the territories.

e.

lost the northern popular vote to Douglas.

BC

57

The proposed Crittenden Compromise, if adopted, would have

a.

prohibited slavery north of 36° 30'.

b.

guaranteed federal protection of slavery in territories south of 36° 30'.

c.

annexed Cuba as a slave territory of the United States.

d.

repealed the Fugitive Slave Law.

e.

permitted the expansion of slavery into new territories south of 36° 30'.

ABE


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