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1

The fate of the defeated Confederate leaders was that

a.

most were sentenced to prison for life.

b.

several were executed for treason.

c.

after brief jail terms, all were pardoned in 1868.

d.

they were immediately returned to citizenship and full civil rights.

e.

many went into exile in slaveholding Brazil.

C

2

In the postwar South

a.

the economy and social structure was utterly devastated.

b.

the emancipation of slaves had surprisingly little economic consequence.

c.

the much-feared inflation never materialized.

d.

industry and transportation were damaged, but Southern agriculture continued to flourish.

e.

poorer whites benefited from the end of plantation slavery.

A

3

At the end of the Civil War, many white Southerners

a.

reluctantly supported the federal government.

b.

were ready to plan a future uprising against the United States.

c.

declared themselves citizens of their states but not of the United States.

d.

asked for pardons so that they could once again hold political office and vote.

e.

still believed that their view of secession was correct and their cause was just.

E

4

Freedom for Southern blacks at the end of the Civil War

a.

occurred immediately with the Emancipation Proclamation.

b.

caused large numbers to migrate to the big cities in the North.

c.

came haltingly and unevenly in different parts of the conquered Confederacy.

d.

was achieved without the use of Union soldiers.

e.

was a source of considerable anxiety.

C

5

For blacks, emancipation meant all of the following except

a.

the ability to search for lost family.

b.

the right to get married.

c.

the opportunity to form their own churches.

d.

the opportunity for an education.

e.

that large numbers would move north.

E

6

All of the following reveal the various ways southern blacks responded to the prospect of emancipation except

a.

some slaves remained loyal to plantation masters and resisted the liberating Union armies.

b.

some slaves insisted that whites address them as "Mr." or "Mrs."

c.

some slaves beat former masters with the same whips formerly used on them.

d.

some slaves claimed sections of plantation land as their own.

e.

some slaves were suspicious about whether masters were really freeing them.

D

7

In 1865, Southern

a.

whites quickly admitted they had been wrong in trying to secede and win Southern independence.

b.

whites rapidly turned their slaves into paid employees.

c.

blacks uniformly turned in anger and revenge against their former masters.

d.

blacks often began traveling to test their freedom, search for family members, and seek economic opportunity.

e.

blacks looked to the federal government for help.

D

8

From 1878 to 1880, some twenty-five thousand blacks from Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi were known as the Exodusters; they were

a.

black church leaders who linked emancipation to the Book of Exodus.

b.

black migrants from the South to Northern cities.

c.

black freedman who left the South to seek opportunity in Kansas.

d.

a political organization developed by the freedmen.

e.

black homesteaders in Oklahoma and Kansas who eventually fled the dust bowl.

C

9

The Exodusters' westward mass migration finally faltered when

a.

homesteading on the Great Plains proved more difficult than expected.

b.

the Fifteenth Amendment was passed.

c.

steamboat captains refused to transport more former slaves across the Mississippi.

d.

white Kansans passed strict segregation laws.

e.

the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution finally passed.

C

10

The Freedmen's Bureau was established to do all of the following except

a.

act as a kind of welfare agency.

b.

provide food, clothing, and medical care to slave refugees.

c.

settle former slaves with forty-acre tracts confiscated from Confederates.

d.

relocate blacks West or force them into labor contracts with former masters.

e.

provide education that would help close the gap between blacks and whites.

D

11

The greatest achievements of the Freedmen's Bureau were in

a.

providing "forty acres and a mule" to freed blacks.

b.

education.

c.

the provision of food and clothing.

d.

helping people to find employment.

e.

securing black civil rights.

B

12

The white South viewed the Freedmen's Bureau as

a.

a meddlesome federal agency that threatened to upset white racial dominance.

b.

an agency acceptable only because it also helped poor whites.

c.

a valued partner in rebuilding the South.

d.

more helpful in the North than the South.

e.

a threat to state social service agencies.

A

13

In President Andrew Johnson's view, the Freedmen's Bureau was

a.

a flawed but necessary agency.

b.

acceptable only because it also helped poor whites.

c.

a tolerable compromise with the radical Congress.

d.

a potential source of Republican patronage jobs.

e.

a meddlesome agency that should be killed.

E

14

Andrew Johnson had been put on Lincoln's ticket as vice president in his second term

a.

because Lincoln's first vice president, Hannibal Hamlin, had displayed southern sympathies.

b.

to appeal to War Democrats and pro-Union southerners.

c.

as a safe choice in case Lincoln died in office.

d.

as a poor white who balanced Lincoln's aristocratic background.

e.

to appeal to Union soldiers and radical Republicans.

B

15

As a politician, Andrew Johnson developed a reputation as a(n)

a.

supporter of the planter aristocrats.

b.

opponent of slavery.

c.

inspiring and calmly eloquent speaker.

d.

champion of the poor whites.

e.

secret Confederate sympathizer.

D

16

The controversy surrounding the Wade-Davis Bill and the readmission of the Confederate states to the Union demonstrated

a.

the deep differences between President Lincoln and Congress.

b.

the close ties that were developing between President Lincoln and the Democrats.

c.

President Lincoln's desire for a harsh reconstruction plan.

d.

that a Congressional majority believed that the South had never legally left the Union.

e.

the Republicans' fear of re-admitting Confederate leaders to Congress.

A

17

In his 10 percent plan for Reconstruction, President Lincoln promised

a.

rapid readmission of Southern states into the Union.

b.

former slaves the right to vote.

c.

the restoration of the planter aristocracy to political power.

d.

severe punishment of Southern political and military leaders.

e.

a plan to allow 10 percent of blacks to vote.

A

18

____ believed that the Southern states had completely left the Union and were therefore, "conquered provinces" that had to seek readmission on whatever terms Congress demanded.

a.

War Democrats

b.

The Supreme Court

c.

President Lincoln

d.

President Johnson

e.

Congressional Republicans

E

19

President Johnson's plan for Reconstruction

a.

differed radically from Lincoln's.

b.

guaranteed former slaves the right to vote.

c.

required that all former Confederate states ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.

d.

established literacy tests for voting in the South.

e.

aimed at swift restoration of the southern states after a few basic conditions were met.

E

20

The main purpose of the Black Codes was to

a.

guarantee freedom for the blacks.

b.

ensure a stable and subservient labor supply.

c.

prevent interracial sex and marriage.

d.

prevent blacks from becoming sharecroppers.

e.

create a system of justice for ex-slaves.

B

21

All of the following are true statements about the Black Codes except

a.

blacks were forced to work under labor contracts for little money for one year.

b.

blacks who fled their employers could be dragged back to work by a paid "Negro-catcher."

c.

they restricted the conditions under which blacks could legally marry.

d.

blacks who fled could be made to forfeit back wages or hired out to pay their fines.

e.

they were designed to reproduce the master-slave relationship after slavery was abolished.

C

22

The Black Codes provided for all of the following except

a.

a ban on jury service by blacks.

b.

a restriction against black migration from the South.

c.

a bar on blacks from renting land.

d.

punishment of blacks for idleness.

e.

fines for blacks who jumped labor contracts.

B

23

To many Northerners, the Black Codes seemed to indicate that

a.

it would take some time to reconcile the South and the North.

b.

the transition to black freedom would be difficult.

c.

the Civil War had been worth the sacrifice.

d.

presidential Reconstruction was working.

e.

the arrogant South was acting as if the North had not really won the Civil War.

E

24

For congressional Republicans, one of the most troubling aspects of the Southern states' quick restoration to the Union was that

a.

with the black population fully counted, the South would be stronger than ever in national politics.

b.

pro-Union southern politicians would be weak and inexperienced.

c.

the majority white South might be represented by black Congressmen.

d.

a high tariff might be reinstituted.

e.

slavery might be re-established.

A

25

The incident that caused the clash between Congress and President Johnson to explode into the open was

a.

passage of the Thirteenth Amendment.

b.

the creation of the sharecropping system.

c.

the attempt to pass the Fourteenth Amendment.

d.

the South's regaining control of the Senate.

e.

Johnson's veto of the bill to extend the Freedmen's Bureau.

E

26

The first and only ex-Confederate state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment in 1866 and thus be immediately readmitted to the Union under congressional Reconstruction was

a.

Virginia.

b.

Arkansas.

c.

Louisiana.

d.

Tennessee.

e.

West Virginia.

D

27

The Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed

a.

citizenship and civil rights to freed slaves.

b.

land for former slaves.

c.

voting rights for former Confederates who had previously served in the U.S. Army.

d.

freed slaves the right to vote.

e.

education to former slaves.

A

28

The Fourteenth Amendment

a.

required former Confederate states to pay their war debts.

b.

prohibited ex-Confederate leaders from holding public office.

c.

guaranteed freed slaves the right to vote.

d.

met all the demands of the radical Republicans.

e.

made women as well as blacks U.S. citizens.

B

29

Johnson's veto of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 prompted Congress to seek passage of

a.

the Thirteenth Amendment.

b.

an extension of the Freedmen's Bureau.

c.

an act to overturn the Black Codes.

d.

the Fourteenth Amendment.

e.

articles of impeachment against Johnson.

D

30

In the 1866 congressional elections

a.

President Johnson conducted a highly successful "swing around the circle" campaign tour promoting his policies.

b.

radicals replaced moderates as the dominant Republican faction in Congress.

c.

voters endorsed the congressional approach to Reconstruction.

d.

Republicans lost their majority control of Congress.

e.

a substantial number of white southern Republicans were elected to Congress.

C

31

The root cause of the battle between Congress and President Andrew Johnson was

a.

Johnson's personal vulgarity and crude style of campaigning.

b.

the president's former ownership of slaves.

c.

Johnson's "soft" treatment of the white South.

d.

Johnson's "class-based" policies that favored poor whites.

e.

Johnson's underlying loyalty to the Democratic party.

C

32

Both moderate and radical Republicans agreed that

a.

federal power must be used to bring about a social and economic revolution in the South.

b.

blacks should be the foundation of the southern Republican party.

c.

the federal government must become involved in the individual lives of American citizens.

d.

Southern states should quickly be readmitted into the Union.

e.

freed slaves must be granted the right to vote.

E

33

Radical congressional Reconstruction of the South finally ended when

a.

the South accepted the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.

b.

the last federal troops were removed in 1877.

c.

President Johnson was not reelected in 1868.

d.

the Supreme Court ruled in Ex parte Milligan that military tribunals could not try civilians.

e.

blacks showed they could defend their rights without federal intervention.

B

34

The last of the Reconstruction era amendments to pass was the

a.

Twelfth.

b.

Thirteenth.

c.

Fourteenth.

d.

Fifteenth.

e.

Eighteenth.

D

35

Many feminist leaders were deeply disappointed with the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments because they

a.

gave black women but not white women the right to vote.

b.

failed to give women the right to serve on juries.

c.

contained restrictions on ex-Confederates but not on male supremacists.

d.

failed to define what constituted equal national citizenship.

e.

gave equal rights to African American males but not to women.

E

36

Many feminist leaders were especially disappointed with the Fourteenth Amendment because it

a.

did not free all the slaves.

b.

failed to give women the right to serve on juries.

c.

guaranteed male but not female property rights.

d.

did not define what constituted equal national citizenship.

e.

specified for the first time in the Constitution that only males could vote.

E

37

Which of these is not a true statement about women's rights activists during the Civil War and Reconstruction eras?

a.

Female activists saw the struggle for black freedom and women's rights as one in the same.

b.

During the war, many women's rights leaders worked for black emancipation first and foremost.

c.

The Woman's Loyal League collected 400,000 signatures supporting a constitutional amendment ending slavery.

d.

Women's rights activists campaigned in support of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments.

e.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony sought to have the word "sex" added to the Fifteenth Amendment.

D

38

Which of the following was not among the functions provided by the black Union League?

a.

Educating blacks in their civic duties

b.

Campaigning for Republican candidates

c.

Helping blacks migrate from the South to the North

d.

Building black churches and schools

e.

Recruiting militants to protect black communities

C

39

Blacks in the South relied on the Union League to

a.

help them escape to the North during the Civil War.

b.

provide them with relief payments until the Freedmen's Bureau was established.

c.

educate them on their civic duties.

d.

gain admittance to the Union Army.

e.

protect them from the Ku Klux Klan.

C

40

During Reconstruction, African American women assumed new political roles, which included all of the following except

a.

participating in black church life.

b.

monitoring state constitutional conventions.

c.

participating in political rallies.

d.

organizing mass meetings.

e.

voting.

E

41

Which one of the following is least related to the other four?

a.

Scalawags

b.

Ku Klux Klan

c.

Carpetbaggers

d.

Freedmen

e.

Union League

B

42

Radical Reconstruction state governments

a.

did little of value.

b.

passed much desirable legislation and badly needed reforms.

c.

were more corrupt than Northern state governments.

d.

had all of their reforms repealed by the all-white "redeemer governments."

e.

failed to address the issue of education.

B

43

Political corruption during Reconstruction was

a.

primarily the fault of white carpetbaggers and scalawags.

b.

located in the North.

c.

common in both North and South.

d.

present in all Southern states except South Carolina and Louisiana.

e.

almost entirely conducted by blacks.

C

44

The Ku Klux Klan could best be described as

a.

an attempt to revive the Confederacy.

b.

the military arm of the southern Democratic party.

c.

a civic reform and service organization.

d.

a movement for openly protesting northern oppression.

e.

a secret terrorist organization.

E

45

The goals of the Ku Klux Klan included all of the following except

a.

"keep blacks in their place"; that is, subservient to whites.

b.

prevent blacks from voting.

c.

keep white "carpetbaggers" from voting.

d.

support the Force Acts of 1870 and 1871.

e.

end radical Reconstruction.

D

46

A primary motive for the formation of the Ku Klux Klan was

a.

hostility to the growing practice of interracial sex.

b.

anger at the corruption in Reconstruction legislatures.

c.

the southern desire to instigate guerrilla warfare against the occupying U.S. Army.

d.

the sense of brotherhood that a secret society could develop.

e.

white resentment of the ability and success of black legislators.

E

47

Even though the Force Acts and the Union Army helped suppress the Ku Klux Klan, the secret organization largely achieved its central goal of

a.

driving the Union Army out of the South.

b.

preventing blacks from migrating to the West or North.

c.

keeping white carpetbaggers from voting.

d.

intimidating blacks and undermining them politically.

e.

destroying the Freedmen's Bureau.

D

48

A group of Kentucky blacks provided what description of the KKK in an 1871 letter to Congress?

a.

That KKK members forced blacks to use separate accommodations from whites.

b.

That the KKK men kidnapped black women.

c.

That the KKK rode through towns at night, robbing, whipping, ravishing and killing blacks.

d.

That the KKK had especially targeted black farmers and land-owners.

e.

That the KKK dragged black men to testify positively on behalf of whites.

C

49

The official charge that the House of Representatives used to impeach President Johnson was his

a.

highly partisan "swing around the circle" in 1866.

b.

readmission of Southern states without seriously reconstructing them.

c.

dismissal of Secretary of War Stanton contrary to the Tenure of Office Act.

d.

apparent sympathy with the Ku Klux Klan.

e.

veto of the Freedmen's Bureau bill.

C

50

In 1867, Secretary of State Seward achieved the Johnson administration's greatest success in foreign relations when he

a.

commissioned the building of an all-new ironclad navy.

b.

recognized the independent republic of Hawaii.

c.

purchased Alaska from Russia.

d.

acquired the former Dominican Republic as an American territory.

e.

established friendly relations with the newly independent Dominion of Canada.

C

51

Johnson was narrowly acquitted on the impeachment charges because

a.

Secretary of War Edwin Stanton aided Johnson's defense by spying on congressional prosecutors.

b.

radical Republicans recognized that Johnson's successor would be worse.

c.

many people favored destabilizing the federal government.

d.

it was finally recognized that the charges were dubious and political.

e.

Johnson promised to stop obstructing Republican policies.

D

52

All of the following were reasons the Senate voted to acquit President Andrew Johnson except

a.

opposition to abusing the constitutional system of checks and balances.

b.

concern about the person who would become president.

c.

fears of creating a destabilizing period.

d.

Johnson promised to step down as president.

e.

Johnson's promise to stop obstructing Republican policies.

D

53

Reconstruction might have been more successful if

a.

Andrew Johnson had won reelection in 1868.

b.

the U.S. army had more quickly suppressed the Ku Klux Klan.

c.

control of the South had been returned to Southerners much sooner.

d.

the federal government had not tampered with property rights.

e.

Thaddeus Stevens's radical program of drastic economic reforms and stronger protection of political rights had been enacted.

E

54

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

  1. Reconstruction involved extended controversies over

a.

readmission of Southern states into the Union.

b.

civil and political rights for former slaves.

c.

the freedom of slaves.

d.

direction and control of the Reconstruction process.

e.

treatment of former Confederate leaders.

ABDE

55

As part of their Reconstruction plan, radical Republicans originally expected to

a.

secure civil rights for freed slaves.

b.

punish the planter aristocracy.

c.

restructure Southern society.

d.

have President Johnson on their side.

e.

use federal power to aid blacks.

ABCDE

56

Congress objected to the readmission of Southern states to the Union under Johnson's plan because

a.

the states had adopted Black Codes that limited the civil rights of freed slaves.

b.

the states had been readmitted without consultation with Congress.

c.

many former Confederates were elected to high political office in those states.

d.

it feared that the restored South would be stronger than ever in national politics.

e.

they feared that the South would just secede again if it didn't get its way.

ABCD

57

Congressional Reconstruction hoped to provide basic rights and protection for the former slaves in the South through the

a.

Military Reconstruction Act.

b.

Tenure of Office Act.

c.

Freedmen's Bureau Act.

d.

Fourteenth Amendment.

e.

Force Acts.

ACDE

58

Radical Republican leaders in Congress included

a.

Congressman Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania.

b.

Senator William Seward of New York.

c.

Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts.

d.

Senator Alexander Stephens of Georgia.

e.

Senator Hiram Revels of Mississippi.

ACE

59

Under congressional Reconstruction, Southern states were required to

a.

organize and support the Republican party.

b.

ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.

c.

give freed slaves the right to vote.

d.

provide land and education for former slaves.

e.

protect black religious freedom.

BC

60

Most radical Reconstruction regimes in the South

a.

expanded the legal rights of women.

b.

established public-school systems.

c.

were controlled by freed slaves.

d.

were troubled by graft and corruption.

e.

refused to permit southern whites to hold office.

ABD

61

Among the legacies of the Reconstruction effort were

a.

a national commitment to civil rights for all races in America.

b.

establishment of economic and political guarantees for southern blacks.

c.

a long-term eclipse of Republican party strength in southern states.

d.

perpetuation of the ideas of states' rights and local self-government under the Constitution.

e.

a sense of resentment and grievance among white southerners.

CDE


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