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Chapter 3 - Cell Structure and Function

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1

Which of the following sugars make up the petidoglycan cell wall in bacteria?

  1. N-acetyl muramic acid only
  2. N-acetyl glucosamine only
  3. Both A and B
  4. All of the above

D) Both A and B

2

Taxis is

  1. movement towards or away from a stimulus.
  2. another word for stimulus.
  3. another term for bacterial tumbling.
  4. caused by the undulating motion of a bacterium.

A. movement towards or away from a stimulus.

3

Which term refers to a bacterium moving towards a light source?

  1. Positive chemotaxis
  2. Positive phototaxis
  3. Negative phototaxis
  4. Negative chemotaxis

B. Positive phototaxis

4

As a bacterium approaches a food source, one would expect

  1. flagella to stop spinning.
  2. runs to become more frequent.
  3. tumbles to become more frequent.
  4. flagella to rotate clockwise more frequently.

B. runs to become more frequent.

5

Why are receptors on the cell surface necessary for bacterial movement?

  1. The receptors actually spin the flagella.
  2. The bacterium contains receptors that are sensitive to light.
  3. The receptors physically alter shape to steer the bacterium.
  4. The receptors sense the stimulus and send signals to the flagella

D. The receptors sense the stimulus and send signals to the flagella.

6

What structural part of a bacterial flagellum is composed of flagellin?

  1. Filament
  2. Basal body
  3. Hook
  4. Rod

A. Filament

7

How are Gram-positive and Gram-negative flagella different?

  1. Each Gram-positive flagellum contains a hook; gram-negatives do not.
  2. A Gram-positive flagellum has only two rings in its basal body; Gram-negatives each have four.
  3. A Gram-positive flagellum does not have a membrane covering its filament;
  4. A Gram-negative flagellum does. Flagella are only found in Gram-negative bacteria.

B. A Gram-positive flagellum has only two rings in its basal body; Gram-negatives each have four.

8

The rings

  1. are curved structures into which each filament inserts.
  2. are comprised of globular proteins called flagellin.
  3. are covered by a membrane.
  4. anchor the flagellum to the cell membrane.

D. anchor the flagellum to the cell membrane.

9

The basal body is composed of

  1. Hook
  2. Rod
  3. Rod and Hook
  4. Rod and Rings
  5. Rings
  6. Filament

D. Rod and rings

10

Pathogenic bacteria

  1. can be identified and classified by differences in their flagellar proteins.
  2. are unique because they have a membrane covering the filament.
  3. have a unique basal body structure.
  4. do not have flagella.

A. can be identified and classified by differences in their flagellar proteins.

11

Axial filaments are found on

  1. staphylococci.
  2. rod-shaped bacilli.
  3. streptococci.
  4. spirochetes.

D. spirochetes.

12

Peptidoglycans are composed of sugars and _____.

  1. teichoic acids
  2. lipids
  3. nucleic acids
  4. amino acids

D. amino acids

13

One chain of alternating NAGs and NAMs is connected to another chain via _____.

  1. tetrapeptides
  2. teichoic acids
  3. enzymes
  4. lipids

A. tetrapeptides

14

One of the main differences between a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterial cell wall is that the peptidoglycan portion of a Gram-positive cell wall is _____ as compared to a Gram-negative cell wall.

  1. more lipid rich
  2. thicker
  3. composed of a greater percentage of NAGs than NAMs
  4. positively charged

B. thicker

15

Within the peptidoglycan layer, the crossbridges that connect the chains of alternating sugar molecules extend between _____.

  1. an N-acetylmuramic acid and an N-acetylglucosamine
  2. two N-acetylglucosamine molecules
  3. two N-acetylmuramic acid molecules
  4. two glucose molecules

C. two N-acetylmuramic acid molecules

16

The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is most analogous to _____.

  1. an impenetrable brick wall
  2. a rain coat
  3. a sugary candy shell
  4. a chain-link fence

D. a chain-link fence

17

What role do the teichoic acids play within the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria?

  1. They serve as adhesins, allowing bacteria to bind to one another.
  2. They serve as pores allowing the passage of ions, nutrients, and amino acids into the cell.
  3. They act as crossbridges, holding the peptides and sugar molecules together.
  4. They serve to stabilize the cell wall and hold it in place.

D. They serve to stabilize the cell wall and hold it in place.

18

The region between the outer and inner membranes of a Gram-negative bacterial cell is known as the __________, and it is the location of enzymes that assemble peptidoglycan.

  1. lipopolysaccharide layer
  2. intramembranous space
  3. cytoplasm
  4. periplasmic space

D. periplasmic space

19

A patient is infected with Gram-negative bacteria and is experiencing only mild symptoms. When the patient is given an antibiotic causing lysis of the bacterial cells, he suddenly experiences an increase in inflammation and fever, as well as the formation of blood clots. What explanation best describes what happened?

  1. The lysis of the cells releases lipid A from the lipopolysaccharide layer.
  2. The antibiotic is toxic and is affecting the patient adversely.
  3. Any part of the bacterial cell wall released during lysis is seen as foreign and thereby elicits a severe immune response by the body's immune system.
  4. The lysis of the cells releases NAG and NAM from the cell wall.

A. The lysis of the cells releases lipid A from the lipopolysaccharide layer.

20

Protein synthesis occurs in the

A) nucleus.
B) ribosome.
C) periplasmic space.
D) cytoskeleton.
E) inclusion.

B. ribosome

21

Which of the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?

A) small hydrophilic molecules only
B) small hydrophobic molecules only
C) ions only
D) large molecules only
E) both ions and hydrophilic molecules

B) small hydrophobic molecules only

22

Which of the following organelles is responsible for producing most of the ATP in a eukaryotic cell?

A) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
B) Golgi body
C) mitochondrion
D) lysosome
E) nucleus

C) mitochondrion

23

The cytoplasmic membranes of ________ contain phospholipids and proteins.

A) bacterial cells
B) eukaryotic cells
C) archaeal cells
D) both bacterial and eukaryotic cells
E) archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic cells

D) both bacterial and eukaryotic cells

24

Bacterial cell walls that are resistant to drying contain _______.

A) lipopolysaccharide.
B) amino acids.
C) waxes.
D) carbohydrates.
E) tubulin.

C) waxes

25

Which of the following is unique to archaea?

A) fimbriae
B) peptidoglycan
C) pili
D) LPS
E) hami

E) hami

26

Which of the following may be a component of bacterial cell walls?

A) tubulin
B) carrageenan
C) lipoteichoic acids
D) mycolic acid
E) both lipoteichoic and mycolic acids

E) both lipoteichoic and mycolic acids

27

The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of

A) diffusion.
B) group translocation.
C) osmosis.
D) plasmolysis.
E) facilitated diffusion.

B) group translocation

28

Which of the following have a periplasmic space?

A) Gram-negative bacteria only
B) Gram-positive bacteria only
C) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
D) archaea
E) eukaryotes

A) Gram-negative bacteria only

29

Endospores survive a variety of harsh conditions in part because of the presence of

A) lipopolysaccharide.
B) hopanoids.
C) dipicolinic acid.
D) glycoproteins.
E) mycolic acid.

C) dipicolinic acid.

30

What is the function of the cellular structure glycocalyx?

A) attach to surfaces only
B) protect from dehydration only
C) provide shape only
D) attach to surfaces and protect from dehydration
E) provide shape, attach to surfaces, and protect from dehydration

D) attach to surfaces and protect from dehydration

31

Which of the following is classified as a nonmembranous organelle of eukaryotic cells?

A) mitochondrion
B) peroxisome
C) endoplasmic reticulum
D) centriole
E) Golgi body

D) centriole

32

A lipid found in prokaryotes but NOT in eukaryotes is

A) fatty acid.
B) phospholipid.
C) triglyceride.
D) steroid.
E) hopanoid.

E) hopanoid

33

Which of the following is associated with the mitochondria of a eukaryotic cell?

A) inclusions

B) nucleolus

C) chromatin

D) cristae

E) thylakoids

cristae

34

Which of the following statements concerning pili is FALSE?
A) Pili are long, hollow tubules.
B) Pili facilitate the transfer of DNA among bacterial cells.
C) Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella.
D) A bacterial cell will usually have only one or two pili.
E) Not all bacteria have pili.

C) Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella.

35

Lipid A is a component of

A) lipopolysaccharides.
B) plant cell walls.
C) cytoplasmic membranes.
D) bacterial glycocalyces.
E) mycolic acid.

A) lipopolysaccharides.

36

Which of the following statements concerning centrioles is FALSE?
A) Centrioles are found in a region of the cell called the centrosome.
B) Centrioles are found in all organisms except prokaryotes.
C) The structure of centrioles is similar to that of eukaryotic flagella and cilia.
D) Centrioles are believed to play a role in cellular processes such as mitosis and cytokinesis.
E) Centrioles are composed of microtubules.

B) Centrioles are found in all organisms except prokaryotes.

37

Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?

A) Gram-negative bacteria only
B) archaea
C) Gram-positive bacteria only
D) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
E) all prokaryotes

C) Gram-positive bacteria only

38

Which of the following statements concerning endocytosis and exocytosis is TRUE?
A) Waste products and secretions are exported from the cell during endocytosis.
B) Endocytosis is a form of passive transport, whereas exocytosis is a form of active transport.
C) Phagocytosis is a type of endocytosis in which liquids are brought into the cell.
D) These processes occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
E) Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle.

E) Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle.

39

Cytoplasmic membranes of ________ are composed of phospholipids.

A) eukaryotes
B) archaea
C) prokaryotes
D) bacteria
E) bacteria and eukaryotes

E) bacteria and eukaryotes

40

Hopanoids are found in ________ cytoplasmic membranes.

A) prokaryotic
B) bacterial
C) archaeal
D) no
E) eukaryotic

B) bacterial

41

Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that the former have

A) thylakoids.
B) 70S ribosomes.
C) two lipid bilayers.
D) cristae.
E) DNA.

A) thylakoids

42

Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of

A) metabolism.
B) responsiveness.
C) growth.
D) reproduction.
E) cellular structure.

B) responsiveness

43

Some members of ________ have hami.

A) eukaryotes
B) archaea
C) bacteria
D) archaea and bacteria
E) bacteria and eukaryotes

B) archaea

44

Some ________ use group translocation as a means of transport.

A) bacteria
B) eukaryotes and prokaryotes
C) protozoa
D) eukaryotes
E) archaea

A) bacteria

45

Endocytosis and exocytosis are means of transport used by

A) archaea.
B) eukaryotes.
C) bacteria.
D) all prokaryotes.
E) nothing; no cells use both processes.

B) eukaryotes

46

Which bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?

A) pili
B) glycocalyces
C) fimbriae
D) flagella
E) both fimbriae and glycocalyces

E) both fimbriae and glycocalyces

47

Which of the following is paired INCORRECTLY?
A) bacteria; peptidoglycan cell wall
B) fungi; chitin, glucomannan and/or cellulose cell wall
C) plants; cellulose cell wall
D) algae; glycocalyx present
E) archaea; polysaccharide cell wall

D) algae; glycocalyx present

48

Which process requires a carrier protein?

A) active transport only
B) diffusion only
C) endocytosis only
D) facilitated diffusion only
E) both facilitated diffusion and active transport

E) both facilitated diffusion and active transport

49

Membrane rafts are found in the cytoplasmic membranes of

A) archaea only.
B) eukaryotes only.
C) bacteria only.
D) both archaea and bacteria.
E) both archaea and eukaryotes.

B) eukaryotes only

50

Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial flagella?
A) basal body
B) flagellin
C) hook
D) tubulin
E) filament

D) tubulin

51

The glycocalyx of a eukaryotic cell performs all of the following functions EXCEPT
A) strengthening the cell surface.
B) transfer of genetic material between cells.
C) protection against dehydration.
D) anchoring cells to each other.
E) cellular recognition and communication.

B) transfer of genetic material between cells.

52

Which of the following is NOT a function of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton?
A) performs endocytosis
B) packages cellular secretions
C) anchors organelles
D) aids in contraction of the cell
E) gives shape to the cell

B) packages cellular secretions

53

The region between the outer and inner membranes of a Gram-negative bacterial cell is known as the __________, and it is the location of enzymes that assemble peptidoglycan.

  1. lipopolysaccharide layer
  2. intramembranous space
  3. cytoplasm
  4. periplasmic space

D. periplasmic space (contains thin peptidoglycan layer)

54

Which chemical substance contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?

A) mycolic acid
B) lipoteichoic acid
C) endotoxin
D) N-acetylglucosamine
E) peptidoglycan

A) mycolic acid

55

The cell walls of some ________ are composed of proteins.

A) eukaryotes
B) prokaryotes
C) archaea
D) bacteria
E) bacteria and eukaryotes

C) archaea

56

Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella is TRUE?
A) Prokaryotic flagella are anchored to the cell wall by means of the basal body.
B) Treponema is an example of a bacterium that has a tuft of polar flagella.
C) Prokaryotic flagella are composed of tubulin.
D) A "run" results from clockwise movement of the flagellum.
E) Prokaryotic flagella move in a whip-like manner.

A) Prokaryotic flagella are anchored to the cell wall by means of the basal body.

57

Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which process?

A) group translocation
B) active transport
C) facilitated diffusion
D) diffusion
E) osmosis

D) diffusion

58

Which of the following statements concerning osmosis is FALSE?
A) Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution.
B) Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
C) Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water.
D) Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane.
E) During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.

E) During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.

59

Which of the following statements concerning the endosymbiotic theory is FALSE?
A) The endosymbiotic theory is not universally accepted.
B) Eukaryotes were formed from the union of small anaerobic cells by larger aerobic cells.
C) Mitochondria and chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell.
D) The cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes.
E) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes.

B) Eukaryotes were formed from the union of small anaerobic cells by larger aerobic cells.

60

Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma lack cell walls. What sort of environment do they require for survival?

A) isotonic
B) hypertonic
C) a biofilm
D) hypotonic
E) low temperature

A) isotonic

61

Which of the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is FALSE?
A) Organisms may not exhibit all of the characteristics of life at all times.
B) Viruses have some, but not all, of the characteristics of living things.
C) Reproduction is defined as an increase in the size of an organism.
D) Living things store metabolic energy in the form of chemicals such as ATP.
E) Reproduction can occur asexually or sexually in living things.

C) Reproduction is defined as an increase in the size of an organism.

62

Which prokaryotic cells contain an outer membrane?

A) Gram-negative bacteria only
B) Gram-positive bacteria only
C) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
D) archaea
E) all prokaryotes

A) Gram-negative bacteria only

63

Which of the following statements about the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is CORRECT?
A) The smooth ER has ribosomes associated with it.
B) The smooth ER is a site of ATP synthesis.
C) The ER is a lipid storage organelle.
D) The ER is a transport system within the cytoplasm.
E) The rough ER is the site of lipid synthesis.

D) The ER is a transport system within the cytoplasm.

64

________ may have pili.

A) Archaea
B) Prokaryotes
C) Eukaryotes
D) Bacteria
E) Both eukaryotes and bacteria

D) Bacteria

65

ATP is expended in which processes?

A) group translocation
B) diffusion
C) active transport
D) facilitated diffusion
E) both active transport and group translocation

E) both active transport and group translocation

66

What is the function of the cellular structure smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

A) synthesis of lipids
B) cell movement
C) protein synthesis
D) ATP synthesis
E) packaging of materials for export

A) synthesis of lipids

67

The semiliquid matrix of the nucleus is called the _______.

nucleoplasm

68

A _______ is a type of glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell.

capsule

69

Eukaryotic flagella are anchored by the basal body in the _______.

cytoplasm

70

Eukaryotic cells use a process known as _______ to obtain liquids from their environment.

pinocytosis

71

A structural molecule found in eukaryotic cytoskeletons, flagella, cilia, and centrioles is
_______.

tubulin

72

A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a _______ concentration of water in a given solution.

lower

73

The presence of a cell _______ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions.

wall

74

Which of the following is unique to archaea?

A) fimbriae
B) peptidoglycan
C) pili
D) LPS
E) hami

E) hami (look things with grappling hooks)

75

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the site of _______ synthesis.

lipid

76

Gram negative cell walls have more techoic acid. T/F

False

77

In a(n) _______ solution, an animal cell can gain so much water
that it may burst.

hypotonic

78

Goli bodies are examples of a organelle.

membranous

79

A(n) _______ is a carrier protein that transports two substances in the
same direction across a membrane.

symport

80

Lipid _______ is a part of the Gram-negative cell outer membrane that can
produce fever, inflammation, and shock when it is released into the bloodstream.

A

81

Lysosomes result from the endocytosis of food particles by eukaryotic cells. T/F

False (lysosomes are formed in the golgi)

82

Peroxisomes contain enzymes used to digest nutrients that have been brought into the cell through phagocytosis. T/F

False (peroxisomes contain enzymes that neutralize poisonous free radicals and hydrogen peroxide)

83

All cell membranes contain phospholipids and a wide variety of proteins. T/F

False

84

Chloroplasts use light energy to produce ATP and carbohydrates. T/F

True

85

Formation of a biofilm may contribute to bacteria's ability to cause disease. T/F

True

86

Eukaryotic ribosomes are composed of 50S and 30S subunits. T/F

False (prokaryotic ribosomes are composed of 50S and 30S subunits)

87

Chromatin is composed of DNA and special packaging proteins called hopanoids. T/F

False (chromatin is composed of a threadlike mass of DNA associated with proteins called histones; some bacterial membranes contain hopanoids)

88

Bacterial protein synthesis can begin before the reading of the gene is complete. T/F

True

89

In prokaryotes the cell wall is made up of _______.

peptidoglycan

90

In bacteria the structures for cell to cell attachment or for attachment of bacteria to any substrates are _______ and _______.

pili; fimbrae

91

The bacterial genome is made up of a _______ and _______ DNA/chromosome.

single; circular

92

Plasma membrane is made up of 2 layers of _______.

phospholipids

93

Endospores are structures that are _______ to heat and chemicals.

resistant

94

The genus of bacteria with no cell wall is _______.

mycoplasma

95

Teichoic acid is present in the cell wall of Gram ______ bacteria only.

positive

96

Peptidoglycan is _______ in the cell wall of Gram _______ bacteria as compare to Gram _______ bacteria.

thicker; positive; negative

97

When Gram positive bacteria lose their cell wall they are referred to as _______.

protoplasts

98

Gram negative bacteria have an extra membrane layer called a _______.

glycocalyx

99

All of the following are associated with the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell except:

  1. chromatin
  2. cristae
  3. histone
  4. nucleoplasm
  5. nucleolus

B) cristae (associated with mitochondria)

100

Cross sections of eukaryotic flagella and cilia shows _______ arrangement of microtubules.

9+2

101

Eukaryotic cell walls are made of _______ or _______.

chitin; cellulose

102

Nucleus contains a matrix called ______.

nucleoplasm

103

During _______, duplicated chromosomes are separated equally into daughter cells.

mitosis

104

Goli bodies are examples of a _______ organelle.

membranous

105

_______ are organelles found in algae and plant cells and convert solar energy into chemical energy.

Chloroplasts

106

Microscopic fungi exist in two basic morphological forms, _______ and _______.

yeast; mold

107

Most fungi are _______ and obtain nutrients from _______ plants and animals.

saprobe; dead

108

In fungi, hyphae can be classified into _______ and _______ types.

vegetative; reproductive

109

Which of the following is not true about the Gram-positive cell wall?

  1. It maintains the shape of the cell
  2. It is sensitive to lysozymes
  3. It protects the cell in a hypertonic environment
  4. It contains teichoic acids
  5. None of the above

C) It protects the cell in a hypertonic environment

110

Which of the following situations best describes what happens when a bacterial cell is placed in a 5% solution of sodium chloride?

  1. The sodium chloride moves in the cell wall
  2. Water will move out of the cell
  3. Water will move into the cell wall
  4. The will undergo osmotic lyses
  5. No change will occur

B) Water will move out of the cell

111

Which of the following mechanisms are used by the cell to transport a substance from a lower concentration to higher concentration?

  1. Simple diffusion
  2. Facilitated diffusion
  3. Active transport
  4. Osmosis
  5. Any of the above

Active transport

112

Which of the following is not a structure found in a prokaryotic cell?

  1. flagella
  2. axial filament
  3. cilia
  4. sex pili
  5. peritrichous flagella

cilia

113

Which of the following structures are made up of a phospholipid bilayer?

  1. flagella
  2. pili
  3. fimbriae
  4. plasma membrane
  5. ribosomes

D) plasma membrane

114

All of the following are associated with the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell except:

  1. chromatin
  2. cristae
  3. histone
  4. nucleoplasm
  5. nucleolus

B) cristae

115

Which of the following sugars make up the petidoglycan cell wall in bacteria?

  1. N-acetyl muramic acid only
  2. N-acetly glucosamine only
  3. Both A and B
  4. All of the above

D) Both A and B

116

When a bacteria shows a variety of shapes during their life cycle, they are called _______.

  1. metamorphic
  2. dimorphic
  3. pleomorphic
  4. diplobacillus
  5. red tide

C) pleomorphic

117

Which of the following structures is used for conjugation?

  1. pili
  2. flagella
  3. fimbriae
  4. capsule
  5. cell membrane

A) pili

118

The structure that is involved in RNA synthesis is?

  1. chromatin
  2. nucleolus
  3. nucleoid region
  4. histone
  5. mitochondria

B) nucleolus

119

The structure that is involved with cell to cell communication is:

  1. cell wall
  2. cytoplasm
  3. flagellum
  4. glycocalyx
  5. chitin

D) glycocalyx

120

Which of the following structures contains enzymes for digestion of food particles?

  1. vacuoles
  2. mitochondria
  3. lysosomes
  4. golgi bodies

C) lysosomes

121

Short hair like structures used only by eukaryotic cells for movement are called:

  1. pili
  2. flagella
  3. cilia
  4. pseudopods
  5. fimbriae

C) cilia

122

Endospores allow a bacterial cell to survive harsh conditions. T/F

True

123

Gram negative cell walls have more techoic acid. T/F

Flase

124

In prokaryotic cells, DNA is located in a region called the nucleoid region. T/F

True

125

In prokaryotes the metachromatic granules store inorganic phosphates. T/F

True

126

Most bacteria explode when they are exposed to hypotonic solution. T/F

False (peptidoglycan layer of cell wall of bacteria resists further osmosis and prevents cells from bursting)

127

Eukaryotic flagella have the same structure as prokaryotic flagella. T/F

False

128

Glycocalyx is present inside each eukaryotic cell. T/F

False

129

The structure of a cell membrane is the same in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. T/F

True

130

During gamete formation the chromosome number remains the same that is accomplished by meiosis. T/F

False

131

Thylakoids and grana are structures found in the mitochondria. T/F

False (they are found in chloroplasts)

132

A cell may allow a large or charged chemical to move across the cytoplasmic membrane, down the chemical’s electrical and chemical gradients, in a process called __________________.

a. active transport

b. facilitated diffusion

c. endocytosis

d. pinocytosis

b. facilitated diffusion

133

Which of the following statements concerning growth and reproduction is false?

a. Growth and reproduction may occur simultaneously in living organisms.

b. A living organism must reproduce to be considered alive.

c. Living things may stop growing and reproducing yet still be alive.

d. Normally, living organisms have the ability to grow and reproduce themselves.

b. A living organism must reproduce to be considered alive.

134

A “9 + 2” arrangement of microtubules is seen in __________________.

a. archaeal flagella

b. bacterial flagella

c. eukaryotic flagella

d. all prokaryotic flagella

c. eukaryotic flagella

135

Which of the following is most associated with diffusion?

a. symports

b. antiports

c. carrier proteins

d. endocytosis

c. carrier proteins

136

Which of the following is not associated with prokaryotic organisms?

a. nucleoid

b. glycocalyx

c. cilia

d. circular DNA

c. cilia

137

Which of the following is true of Svedbergs?

a. They are not exact but are useful for comparisons.

b. They are abbreviated “sv.”

c. They are prokaryotic in nature but exhibit some eukaryotic characteristics.

d. They are an expression of sedimentation rate during high-speed centrifugation.

d. They are an expression of sedimentation rate during high-speed centrifugation.

138

Which of the following statements is true?

a. The cell walls of bacteria are composed of peptidoglycan.

b. Peptidoglycan is a fatty acid.

c. Gram-positive bacterial walls have a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane by teichoic acids.

d. Peptidoglycan is found mainly in the cell walls of fungi, algae, and plants.

a. The cell walls of bacteria are composed of peptidoglycan.

139

Which of the following is not a function of a glycocalyx?

a. It forms pseudopods for faster mobility of an organism.

b. It can protect a bacterial cell from drying out.

c. It hides a bacterial cell from other cells.

d. It allows a bacterium to stick to a host.

a. It forms pseudopods for faster mobility of an organism.

140

Bacterial flagella are __________________.

a. anchored to the cell by a basal body

b. composed of hami

c. are surrounded by an extension of the cytoplasmic membrane

d. composed of tubulin in hollow microtubules in a “9 + 2” arrangement

a. anchored to the cell by a basal body

141

Which cellular structure is important in classifying a bacterial species as Gram positive or Gram negative?

a. flagella

b. cell wall

c. cilia

d. glycocalyx

b. cell wall

142

A Gram-negative cell is moving uric acid across the cytoplasmic membrane against its chemical gradient. Which of the following statements is true?

a. The exterior of the cell is probably electrically negative compared to the interior of the cell.

b. The acid probably moves by a passive means such as facilitated diffusion.

c. The acid moves by an active process such as active transport.

d. The movement of the acid requires phagocytosis.

c. The acid moves by an active process such as active transport.

143

Gram-positive bacteria __________________.

a. have a thick cell wall, which retains crystal violet dye

b. contain teichoic acids in their cell walls

c. appear purple after Gram staining

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

144

Endospores __________________.

a. are reproductive structures of some bacteria

b. occur in some archaea

c. can cause shock, fever, and inflammation

d. are dormant, resistant cells

d. are dormant, resistant cells

145

What structureis made of flagellin in bacteria?

Flagella

146

Dipicolinic acid is an important component of __________________.

a. Gram-positive archaeal walls

b. cytoplasmic membranes in eukaryotes

c. endospores

d. Golgi bodies

c. endospores

147

What is the “sweet cup” composed of polysaccharides and/or polypeptides?

Glycocalyx

148

What are the bristle-like projections found in quantities of 100 or more on a cell surface?

Fimbriae

149

What are the long whip like projections from a cell?

Flagella

150

What has numerous “grappling hook” projections?

Hami

151

What is responsible for motility of spirochetes?

Axial filaments

152

What are the extensions not used for cell motility called?

Pili

153

What structures are made of tubulin in eukaryotes?

Cilia and flagella

154

What strucutre is made of flagellin in bacteria?

Flagella


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