procedures: urinary system and venipuncture

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1

a vasovagal contrast media reaction can be life threatening.

true

2

if a patient experiences tachycardia(>100heartbeats/min) following a contrast media injection, he/she is experiencing a ___ reaction

anaphylactic

3

a radiograph of an LPO position taken during an IVU reveals that the right kidney is foreshortened and superimposed over the spine. What must the tech do to correct this error during the repeat exposure?

decrease rotation

4

over-the-needle catheters are often used for drip infusion studies

true

5

in preparation for a venipuncture, a tourniquet should be applied____ above or proximal to the site of injection

3-4 inches

6

if an IVU is performed on a female, a menstrual history must be obtained

true

7

the majority of reactions to contrast media are mild.vasomotor types

true

8

the bevel of the needle must be facing upward during the actual puncture into a vein

true

9

what is the total capacity of the average adult bladder

350-500ml

10

how is contrast media introduced during a retrograde cystogram?

gravity flow through a catheter or with an injection through the urethra with a large syringe and catheter

11

situation: a paitent,during an injection of contrast media, complains about pain at injection site. the radiographer notices a moderate degree of swelling beneath the skin. the radiographer stops the injection and suspects the needle has slipped out of the vein. what should the radiographer do after removing the needle to alleviate the patients discomfort

place a warm towel over injection site and place ice over the injection site

12

situation: s patient comes to radiology with a history of vesicourethral reflux. the patient states that she is highly sensitive to iodinated contrast media. which of the following alternative procedures could be performed to demonstrate this condition?

radionuclide scan

13

urine will travel from the major calyces to the___

renal pelvis

14

acute renal failure will most often occur shortly after the injection of contrast media with high-risk patients

false

15

which structure is labeled 5(picture)?

renal pelvis

16

the left kidney is generally slightly lower,or more inferior,than the right.

false

17

a patient experiences a hot flash after the injectioin of an iodinated contrast media. What should be the next action taken by the technologist?

comfort the patient, this is a normal side effect

18

ct of the kidney for renal calculi does not require the use of intravenous contrast media

true

19

what is the correct course of action for the technologist when, during an injection of contrast media, a patient experiences a side effect of mild hot flashes and some metallic taste in his mouth

reassure the patient and continue the injection and imaging sequence, while carefully observing the patient for a possible more severe reaction to follow

20

which term describes the leakage of contrast media froma vein into the surrounding tissues of the arm?

extravasation

21

the normal creatinine level (diagnostic indication of kidney function) for an adult is

.6-1.5 mg/dl

22

the technologist should leave a butterfly needle in the vein for the first part of the IVU following an injection

true

23

situation: a patient comes to radiology for an IVU. his lab report indicates a creatinine level of .7 mg/dl. what should be the technologist's next step?

proceed with study

24

a medical emergency must be declared if the patient experiences a vasomotor contrast media reaction.

false

25

generally female patients connot be shielded during an ivu (except for nephrotomography)

true

26

situation: during an IVU, the patient develops urticaria. What should be the next action taken by the technologist ?

get medical assistance

27

a loss of consciousness due to reduced cerebral blood flow is termed

syncope

28

ionic contrast agents are more expensive than nonionic agents

false

29

which of the following symptoms is considered a severe reaction to contrast media and is a life threatening condirion requiring emergency measures?

none of the above

30

which one of the following contrast media reactions is classified as a nonallergic reaction that is due to fear or anxiety?

vasomotor reaction

31

situation: a nephrogram taken during an IVU demonstrates that the renal parenchyma is poorly visualized but the calyces are contrast enhanced. What is the most likely reason for this radiographic outcome?

the exposure was not taken soon enough following the injection

32

which structure is labeled 3(picture)

major calyx

33

patients (or legal guardian ) must sign an informed consent form before a venipuncture procedure

true

34

the most common size of needle used for injection of contrast agents for adult patients is

18-20 guage

35

region or areas of subcutaneous swelling due to allergic reaction to foods or drugs is termed

angioedema

36

which of the following occurs in many patients and is defined as an expected outcome to the introduction of iodinated contrast media?

some metallic taste in mouth and a temporary hot flash

37

laryngospasm is a symptom of a(n)__ contrast media reaction

vasovagal

38

if available,the technologist should use a central line catheter to introduce contrast agents into the patient

false

39

the numerous mucosal folds located within the urinary bladder are termed

rugae

40

an agent that increases excretion of urine is termed:

diuretic

41

normal BUN(blood urea nitrogen)levels in adults should not exceed ___mg per 100 ml

25

42

what is the recommended treatment for extravastion?

place a warm towel over the injection site

43

which structure of the kidney is labeled 1(picture)?

medulla

44

the American college of Radiology recommends that metformin (glucophage, a drug used for diabetes mellitus) be withheld for ___ following a contrast media procedure.

48 hours

45

which abdominal muscles run on each side of, and medial and posterior to, the kidneys?

right and left psoas major

46

situation: a patient comes to radiology for an IVU. during the procedure, the radiologist suspects nephroptosis. Which of the following positions best demonstrates this condition?

erect

47

the structural and functional unit of the kidney is:

the nephron

48

situation: a patient with a possible ureteric stone comes from the ED for an IVU. She has a BUN level of 50. Which of the following imaging modalities is recommended for this patient?

ct

49

what structure enables the kidneys to be visualized on plain abdominal radiographs?

adipose capsule

50

the term describing the total functioning portions of the kidney is the:

renal parenchyma

51

where is the CR centered for a nephrotomogram of the kidneys?

midway between the iliac crest and the xiphoid process

52

which of the following is considered as a high-risk condition for an IVU exam?

anuria

53

which of the following conditions is considered a moderate level reaction requiring medication?

tachycardia

54

with AEC, which ionization chamber(S) should be activated for an AP projection taken during an IVU?

left and right upper chambers

55

one of the three constricted points along each ureter is the pelvic brim. the location of this constricted point is:

where the iliac blood vessels cross over the ureters

56

which level of severity is the reaction of giant hives?

moderate reaction

57

what is the primary purpose of the premedication procedure before an iodinated contrast media study?

reduces the risk of a contrast media reaction

58

venipuncture procedures may be performed by technologist only if a physician is present int the room or is in an adjoining room?

false

59

the suprarenal glands are part of the urinary system

false

60

which term describes the act of voiding under voluntary control?

urination

61

the glomeruli,glomerular capsule,and proximal and distal convuluted tubules are located in the ___ of the kidney.

cortex

62

which of the following is true with nonionic type contrast media?

low osmoality, the inability to dissociate into two seperate ions,less chance of reaction

63

the rapid introduction of contrast agents into the vascular system is termed

bolus injection

64

the average adult kidney measures___ in length.

4 to 5 inches(10-13cm)

65

which of the following functions is not performed by the urinary system?

producing and releasing adrenaline

66

which of the following conditions is considered to be high risk for a contrast media study of the urinary system?

severe dehydration

67

what is the structure labeled 6(picture)?

ureteropelvic junction

68

nonionic contrast agents create a hypertonic condition in the blood plasma

false

69

if a patient experiences bradycardia(<50 beats/min) following a contrast media injection, he/she is experiencing a ____ reaction

vasovagal

70

nonionic contrast agents may increase the severity of side effects

false

71

if both procedures are ordered on the same day, a barium enema must be performed before an IVU.

false


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