procedures: urinary system and venipuncture
a vasovagal contrast media reaction can be life threatening.
if a patient experiences tachycardia(>100heartbeats/min) following a contrast media injection, he/she is experiencing a ___ reaction
a radiograph of an LPO position taken during an IVU reveals that the right kidney is foreshortened and superimposed over the spine. What must the tech do to correct this error during the repeat exposure?
over-the-needle catheters are often used for drip infusion studies
in preparation for a venipuncture, a tourniquet should be applied____ above or proximal to the site of injection
if an IVU is performed on a female, a menstrual history must be obtained
the majority of reactions to contrast media are mild.vasomotor types
the bevel of the needle must be facing upward during the actual puncture into a vein
what is the total capacity of the average adult bladder
how is contrast media introduced during a retrograde cystogram?
gravity flow through a catheter or with an injection through the urethra with a large syringe and catheter
situation: a paitent,during an injection of contrast media, complains about pain at injection site. the radiographer notices a moderate degree of swelling beneath the skin. the radiographer stops the injection and suspects the needle has slipped out of the vein. what should the radiographer do after removing the needle to alleviate the patients discomfort
place a warm towel over injection site and place ice over the injection site
situation: s patient comes to radiology with a history of vesicourethral reflux. the patient states that she is highly sensitive to iodinated contrast media. which of the following alternative procedures could be performed to demonstrate this condition?
urine will travel from the major calyces to the___
acute renal failure will most often occur shortly after the injection of contrast media with high-risk patients
which structure is labeled 5(picture)?
the left kidney is generally slightly lower,or more inferior,than the right.
a patient experiences a hot flash after the injectioin of an iodinated contrast media. What should be the next action taken by the technologist?
comfort the patient, this is a normal side effect
ct of the kidney for renal calculi does not require the use of intravenous contrast media
what is the correct course of action for the technologist when, during an injection of contrast media, a patient experiences a side effect of mild hot flashes and some metallic taste in his mouth
reassure the patient and continue the injection and imaging sequence, while carefully observing the patient for a possible more severe reaction to follow
which term describes the leakage of contrast media froma vein into the surrounding tissues of the arm?
the normal creatinine level (diagnostic indication of kidney function) for an adult is
the technologist should leave a butterfly needle in the vein for the first part of the IVU following an injection
situation: a patient comes to radiology for an IVU. his lab report indicates a creatinine level of .7 mg/dl. what should be the technologist's next step?
proceed with study
a medical emergency must be declared if the patient experiences a vasomotor contrast media reaction.
generally female patients connot be shielded during an ivu (except for nephrotomography)
situation: during an IVU, the patient develops urticaria. What should be the next action taken by the technologist ?
get medical assistance
a loss of consciousness due to reduced cerebral blood flow is termed
ionic contrast agents are more expensive than nonionic agents
which of the following symptoms is considered a severe reaction to contrast media and is a life threatening condirion requiring emergency measures?
none of the above
which one of the following contrast media reactions is classified as a nonallergic reaction that is due to fear or anxiety?
situation: a nephrogram taken during an IVU demonstrates that the renal parenchyma is poorly visualized but the calyces are contrast enhanced. What is the most likely reason for this radiographic outcome?
the exposure was not taken soon enough following the injection
which structure is labeled 3(picture)
patients (or legal guardian ) must sign an informed consent form before a venipuncture procedure
the most common size of needle used for injection of contrast agents for adult patients is
region or areas of subcutaneous swelling due to allergic reaction to foods or drugs is termed
which of the following occurs in many patients and is defined as an expected outcome to the introduction of iodinated contrast media?
some metallic taste in mouth and a temporary hot flash
laryngospasm is a symptom of a(n)__ contrast media reaction
if available,the technologist should use a central line catheter to introduce contrast agents into the patient
the numerous mucosal folds located within the urinary bladder are termed
an agent that increases excretion of urine is termed:
normal BUN(blood urea nitrogen)levels in adults should not exceed ___mg per 100 ml
what is the recommended treatment for extravastion?
place a warm towel over the injection site
which structure of the kidney is labeled 1(picture)?
the American college of Radiology recommends that metformin (glucophage, a drug used for diabetes mellitus) be withheld for ___ following a contrast media procedure.
which abdominal muscles run on each side of, and medial and posterior to, the kidneys?
right and left psoas major
situation: a patient comes to radiology for an IVU. during the procedure, the radiologist suspects nephroptosis. Which of the following positions best demonstrates this condition?
the structural and functional unit of the kidney is:
situation: a patient with a possible ureteric stone comes from the ED for an IVU. She has a BUN level of 50. Which of the following imaging modalities is recommended for this patient?
what structure enables the kidneys to be visualized on plain abdominal radiographs?
the term describing the total functioning portions of the kidney is the:
where is the CR centered for a nephrotomogram of the kidneys?
midway between the iliac crest and the xiphoid process
which of the following is considered as a high-risk condition for an IVU exam?
which of the following conditions is considered a moderate level reaction requiring medication?
with AEC, which ionization chamber(S) should be activated for an AP projection taken during an IVU?
left and right upper chambers
one of the three constricted points along each ureter is the pelvic brim. the location of this constricted point is:
where the iliac blood vessels cross over the ureters
which level of severity is the reaction of giant hives?
what is the primary purpose of the premedication procedure before an iodinated contrast media study?
reduces the risk of a contrast media reaction
venipuncture procedures may be performed by technologist only if a physician is present int the room or is in an adjoining room?
the suprarenal glands are part of the urinary system
which term describes the act of voiding under voluntary control?
the glomeruli,glomerular capsule,and proximal and distal convuluted tubules are located in the ___ of the kidney.
which of the following is true with nonionic type contrast media?
low osmoality, the inability to dissociate into two seperate ions,less chance of reaction
the rapid introduction of contrast agents into the vascular system is termed
the average adult kidney measures___ in length.
4 to 5 inches(10-13cm)
which of the following functions is not performed by the urinary system?
producing and releasing adrenaline
which of the following conditions is considered to be high risk for a contrast media study of the urinary system?
what is the structure labeled 6(picture)?
nonionic contrast agents create a hypertonic condition in the blood plasma
if a patient experiences bradycardia(<50 beats/min) following a contrast media injection, he/she is experiencing a ____ reaction
nonionic contrast agents may increase the severity of side effects
if both procedures are ordered on the same day, a barium enema must be performed before an IVU.