Chapter 10

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1) Which of the following statements about archaea is FALSE?

A) They are prokaryotes.

B) They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.

C) Some are thermoacidophiles; others are extreme halophiles.

D) They evolved before bacteria.

E) Some produce methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

Answer: D


2) Which of the following characterizes the Domain Bacteria?

A) prokaryotic cells; ether linkages in phospholipids

B) eukaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids

C) prokaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids

D) complex cellular structures

E) multicellular

Answer: C


3) If two organisms have similar rRNA sequences, you can conclude that they

A) live in the same place.

B) evolved from a common ancestor.

C) will have different G-C ratios.

D) will both ferment lactose.

E) mated with each other.

Answer: B


4) What is the outstanding characteristic of the Kingdom Fungi?

A) All members are photosynthetic.

B) Members absorb dissolved organic matter.

C) Members absorb dissolved inorganic matter.

D) All members are microscopic.

E) All members are macroscopic.

Answer: B


5) Which of the following statements about members of the Kingdom Plantae is FALSE?

A) They are multicellular.

B) They are composed of eukaryotic cells.

C) They undergo photosynthesis.

D) They use organic carbon sources.

E) They synthesize organic molecules.

Answer: D


6) Which of the following statements about the members of the Kingdom Animalia is FALSE?

A) They are multicellular.

B) They are composed of eukaryotic cells.

C) They undergo photosynthesis.

D) They ingest nutrients through a mouth.

E) They are heterotrophs.

Answer: C


7) A genus can best be defined as

A) a taxon composed of families.

B) a taxon composed of one or more species and a classification level lying below family.

C) a taxon belonging to a species.

D) a taxon comprised of classes.

E) the most specific taxon.

Answer: B


8) A bacterial species differs from a species of eukaryotic organisms in that a bacterial species

A) does not breed with other species.

B) has a limited geographical distribution.

C) can be distinguished from other bacterial species.

D) is a population of cells with similar characteristics.

E) breeds with its own species.

Answer: D


9) Which of the following is the best evidence for a three-domain system?

A) Nucleotide sequences in ribosomal RNA vary between all three domains.

B) There are three distinctly different sets of metabolic reactions.

C) There are three distinctly different Gram reactions.

D) Some bacteria live in extreme environments.

E) There are three distinctly different types of nuclei.

Answer: A


10) A biochemical test, in the microbiology world, is used to determine

A) staining characteristics.

B) amino acid sequences of enzymes.

C) nucleic acid-base composition of DNA sequences.

D) capability of a microbe to perform a specific enzymatic activity.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: D


11) Which of the following is NOT based on nucleic-acid hybridization?

A) DNA chip



D) Southern blotting

E) Western blotting

Answer: E


12) The phylogenetic classification of bacteria is based on

A) cell morphology.

B) Gram reaction.

C) rRNA sequences.

D) habitat.

E) diseases.

Answer: C


13) Which of the following statements is a reason for NOT classifying viruses in one of the three

domains of life (Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya) rather than in a fourth separate domain?

A) Some viruses can incorporate their genome into a host's genome.

B) Viruses direct anabolic pathways of host cells.

C) Viruses are obligate parasites.

D) Viruses are not composed of cells.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: D


14) Which of the following provides taxonomic information that includes the information obtained in the others listed?

A) nucleic acid hybridization

B) nucleic acid-base composition

C) amino acid sequencing

D) biochemical tests

E) cladogram

Answer: E


15) Fossil evidence indicates that prokaryotic cells first existed on the Earth

A) 350 years ago.

B) 3500 years ago.

C) 35000 years ago.

D) 3.5 billion years ago.

E) 3.5 × 1012years ago.

Answer: D

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16) In Figure 10.1, species "c." is most closely related to which of the following?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer: D

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17) In Figure 10.1, the closest ancestor for both species "a." and species "b." would be which of the following?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

Answer: E


18) Protists are a diverse group of organisms that are similar in

A) rRNA sequences.

B) metabolic type.

C) motility.

D) ecology.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer: A


19) In the scientific name Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter is the

A) specific epithet.

B) genus.

C) family.

D) order.

E) kingdom.

Answer: B


20) The arrangement of organisms into taxa

A) shows degrees of relatedness between organisms.

B) shows relationships to common ancestors.

C) was designed by Charles Darwin.

D) is arbitrary.

E) is based on evolution.

Answer: A


21) Bacteria and Archaea are similar in which of the following?

A) peptidoglycan cell walls

B) methionine as the start signal for protein synthesis

C) sensitivity to antibiotics

D) considered prokaryotic cells

E) plasma membrane ester linkage

Answer: D


22) Which of the following best defines a strain in microbiological terms?

A) a pure culture that is not totally identical to other cultures of the same species

B) a group of organisms with a limited geographical distribution

C) a mixed population of cells,genetically distinct, but with highly similar phenotypic characteristics

D) groups of cells all derived from and identical to a single parent species

E) same as a species

Answer: A


23) Serological testing is based on the fact that

A) all bacteria have the same antigens.

B) antibodies react specifically with an antigen.

C) the human body makes antibodies against bacteria.

D) antibodies cause the formation of antigens.

E) bacteria clump together when mixed with any antibodies.

Answer: B


24) Phage typing is based on the fact that

A) bacteria are destroyed by viruses.

B) viruses cause disease.

C) bacterial viruses attack only members of a specific species.

D) Staphylococcus causes infections.

E) phages and bacteria are related.

Answer: C


25) Organism A has 70 moles % G+C, and organism B has 40 moles % G+C. Which of the following can be concluded from these data?

A) The two organisms are related.

B) The two organisms are unrelated.

C) The organisms make entirely different enzymes.

D) Their nucleic acids will completely hybridize.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer: B


26) Nucleic acid hybridization is based on the fact that

A) the strands of DNA can be separated.

B) a chromosome is composed of complementary strands.

C) pairing between complementary bases occurs.

D) DNA is composed of genes.

E) all cells have DNA.

Answer: C


27) One of the most popular taxonomic tools is DNA fingerprinting to develop profiles of organisms. These profiles provide direct information about

A) enzymatic activities.

B) protein composition.

C) the presence of specific genes.

D) antigenic composition.

E) the similarities between nucleotide sequences.

Answer: E


28) All of the following statements are reasons why fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a valuable tool for environmental microbiologists EXCEPT

A) it allows for detection of uncultured microbes.

B) it demonstrates the diversity of microbes in an environment.

C) it allows observation of microbes in their natural environment in association with other microbes.

D) it allows one to obtain pure cultures of microbes.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer: D


29) Which of the following criteria is most useful in determining whether two organisms are related?

A) Both ferment lactose.

B) Both are gram-positive.

C) Both are motile.

D) Both are aerobic.

E) Each answer is equally important.

Answer: B


30) A clone is

A) genetically identical cells derived from a single cell.

B) a genetically engineered cell.

C) a taxon composed of species.

D) a mound of cells on an agar medium.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer: A

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In Figure 10.2, which figure shows the most closely related organisms?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer: B

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32) In Table 10.1, which features are found in nearly all eukarya?

A) 2, 3, 5

B) 1, 4, 6

C) 3, 5

D) 2, 3

E) 1, 2, 5

Answer: A

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33) In Table 10.1, which feature(s) is (are) found only in prokaryotes?

A) 1, 2, 3

B) 4, 6

C) 2

D) 1

E) 2, 4, 5

Answer: B


34) Into which group would you place a multicellular heterotroph with chitin cell walls?

A) Animalia

B) Archaea

C) Bacteria

D) Fungi

E) Plantae

Answer: D

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In Figure 10.3, which two are most closely related?

A) 1 and 3

B) 2 and 4

C) 3 and 5

D) 2 and 5

E) 4 and 5

Answer: A


36) Into which group would you place a photosynthetic cell that lacks a nucleus?

A) Animalia

B) Bacteria

C) Fungi

D) Plantae

E) Protista

Answer: B


37) You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and peptidoglycan. You suspect the organism is in the group

A) Animalia.

B) Archaea.

C) Bacteria.

D) Fungi.

E) Plantae.

Answer: B


38) Into which group would you place a unicellular organism that has 70S ribosomes and a peptidoglycan cell wall?

A) Animalia

B) Bacteria

C) Fungi

D) Plantae

E) Protist

Answer: B

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39) Use the dichotomous key in Table 10.2 to identify a gram-negative cell that ferments lactose and uses citric acid as its sole carbon source.

A) Citrobacter

B) Escherichia

C) Lactobacillus

D) Pseudomonas

E) Staphylococcus

Answer: A

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40) Use the dichotomous key in Table 10.2 to identify a gram-negative coccus.

A) Neisseria

B) Pseudomonas

C) Staphylococcus

D) Streptococcus

E) Micrococcus

Answer: A


41) Into which group would you place a multicellular organism that has a mouth and lives inside the human liver?

A) Animalia

B) Fungi

C) Plantae

D) Firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria)

E) Proteobacteria (gram-negative bacteria)

Answer: A


42) Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan wall surrounded by an outer membrane?

A) Animalia

B) Fungi

C) Plantae

D) Firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria)

E) Proteobacteria (gram-negative bacteria)

Answer: E

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In the cladogram shown in Figure 10.4, which two organisms are most closely related?

A) Streptomyces and Micrococcus

B) Micrococcus and Mycobacterium

C) Mycobacterium and Lactobacillus

D) Streptomyces and Lactobacillus

E) Streptomyces and Mycobacterium

Answer: B


44) Which of the following characteristics indicates that two organisms are closely related?

A) Both are cocci.

B) Both ferment lactose.

C) Their DNA can hybridize together.

D) Both normally live in clams.

E) Both are motile.

Answer: C


45) Data collected to date indicate that

A) humans and marine mammals cannot be infected by the same pathogens.

B) marine mammals do not get infectious diseases.

C) new species of bacteria will not be discovered in wild animals.

D) marine mammals don't have an immune system.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer: E

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