HART 1105 - Exam 1

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1

Tempera

Early Renaissance in Italy

Method of painting using pigment and egg yolk

Cimabue, Virgin and Child Enthroned, ca. 1280 tempera on panel

2
card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Bonaventura Berlinghieri, Saint Francis Altarpiece, c. 1235 (Italo-Byzantine)

3
card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Cimabue, Virgin and Child Enthroned, ca. 1280 tempera on panel

4
card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Giotto, Scrovengi Chapel, 1305-1306 Fresco, Padua

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card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Giotto, Lamentation, 1305-1306 Fresco in Scrovegni Chapel, Padua

6

Maniera Greca

Early Renaissance in Italy

Italian-Byzantine style/manner

Bonaventura Berlinghieri, Saint Francis Altarpiece, c. 1235 (Italo-Byzantine)

7

Maesta

Early Renaissance in Italy

Majesty - used to described the representation of Madonna and Child

Cimabue, Virgin and Child Enthroned, ca. 1280 tempera on panel

8

Fresco

Early Renaissance in Italy

Painting done on wet plaster

Giotto, Scrovengi Chapel, 1305-1306 Fresco, Padua

9

Naturalism/Realism

Early Renaissance in Italy

depiction of realistic objects in a natural setting

Giotto, Scrovengi Chapel, 1305-1306 Fresco, Padua

10

Patron

Early Renaissance in Italy

refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists such as musicians, painters, and sculptors.

Giotto, Scrovengi Chapel, 1305-1306 Fresco, Padua

11

Barrel Vault

Early Renaissance in Italy

in architecture, vaulting form of a half cylinder

Giotto, Scrovengi Chapel, 1305-1306 Fresco, Padua

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typology

Early Renaissance in Italy

the study and interpretation of type and symbols

Giotto, Scrovengi Chapel, 1305-1306 Fresco, Padua

13

Registers

Early Renaissance in Italy

A horizontal band containing decoration, such as a relief sculpture or a fresco painting. registers are useful in distinguishing between different visual planes and different time periods in visual narration.

Giotto, Lamentation, 1305-1306 Fresco in Scrovegni Chapel, Padua

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card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-02, Bronze Relief Panel

15

Foreshortening

Early Renaissance in Italy

portray or show (an object or view) as closer than it is or as having less depth or distance, as an effect of perspective or the angle of vision.

Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-02, Bronze Relief Panel

16

Linear Perspective

Early Renaissance in Italy

a type of perspective used by artists in which the relative size, shape, and position of objects are determined by drawn or imagined lines converging at a point on the horizon.

Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-02, Bronze Relief Panel

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card image

Quatrefoil

Early Renaissance in Italy

an ornamental design of four lobes or leaves as used in architectural tracery, resembling a flower or four-leaf clover.

Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-02, Bronze Relief Panel

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card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Brunelleschi, Dome of the Florence Cathedral, 1420-1436

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Oculus

Early Renaissance in Italy

circular opening in the center of a dome or wall

Brunelleschi, Dome of the Florence Cathedral, 1420-1436

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Buttress

Early Renaissance in Italy

a projecting support of stone or brick built against a wall.

Brunelleschi, Dome of the Florence Cathedral, 1420-1436

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Lantern

Early Renaissance in Italy

the small cupola-like structure, usually with decorative arcades, mounted on top of a dome.

Brunelleschi, Dome of the Florence Cathedral, 1420-1436

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card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Brunelleschi, Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444, Florence

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Module

Early Renaissance in Italy

joining together standardized units to form larger, more complex compositions.

Brunelleschi, Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444, Florence

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Pietra Serena

Early Renaissance in Italy

Dark, slippery, greenish-grey Florentine stone used for the interior pilasters, entablatures, and architectural elements

Brunelleschi, Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444, Florence

25

Loggia

Early Renaissance in Italy

covered exterior gallery or corridor usually on an upper level, or sometimes ground level

Brunelleschi, Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444, Florence

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arcade

Early Renaissance in Italy

succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides

Brunelleschi, Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444, Florence

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card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, begun 1446

28

Rustication

Early Renaissance in Italy

type of decorative masonry achieved by cutting back the edges of stones to a plane surface while leaving the central portion of the face either rough or projecting markedly

Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, begun 1446

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card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Ghiberti, Jacob and Esau” panel from “Gates of Paradise,” Gilded Bronze, 1425-1452

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card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Nanni di Banco, The Four Crowned Martyrs, exterior of Or San Michele, Florence, 1409-17

31

Guild system

Early Renaissance in Italy

an organization of persons with related interests, goals, etc., especially one formed for mutual aid or protection.

Nanni di Banco, The Four Crowned Martyrs, exterior of Or San Michele, Florence, 1409-17

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card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Donatello, David, bronze c. 1446-1460

33

Controposto

Early Renaissance in Italy

an asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure in which the line of the arms and shoulders contrasts with while balancing those of the hips and legs.

Donatello, David, bronze c. 1446-1460

34
card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, ca. 1426 Fresco (Holy Trinity)

35

Vanishing Point

Early Renaissance in Italy

the point at which receding parallel lines viewed in perspective appear to converge

Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, ca. 1426 Fresco (Holy Trinity)

36

Trompe l’oeil

Early Renaissance in Italy

visual illusion in art, especially as used to trick the eye into perceiving a painted detail as a three-dimensional object.

Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, ca. 1426 Fresco (Holy Trinity)

37

coffers

Early Renaissance in Italy

series of sunken panels in the shape of a square, rectangle, or octagon in a ceiling, soffit or vault.

Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, ca. 1426 Fresco (Holy Trinity)

38

barrel vault

Early Renaissance in Italy

n architecture, vaulting form of a half cylinder

Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, ca. 1426 Fresco (Holy Trinity)

39

Holy Trinity

Early Renaissance in Italy

Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, ca. 1426 Fresco (Holy Trinity)

40

Eucharist

Early Renaissance in Italy

the Christian ceremony commemorating the Last Supper

Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, ca. 1426 Fresco (Holy Trinity)

41

Aedicula

Early Renaissance in Italy

A small shrine

Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, ca. 1426 Fresco (Holy Trinity)

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card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Masaccio, Tribute Money, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, 1424-1427

43

Continuous Narration

Early Renaissance in Italy

illustrates multiple scenes of a narrative within a single frame.

Masaccio, Tribute Money, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, 1424-1427

44
card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Masaccio, Explusion of Adam and Eve, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, 1424-1427

45
card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Fra Angelico, The Annunciation, ca. 1441-1445 Fresco, Monastery of San Marco Florence

46
card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Ucello, Battle of San Romano, ca. 1455 Tempera on Wood

47
card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, c. 1484-1486 Tempera on Canvas

48
card image

Early Renaissance in Italy

Perugino, Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter, Sistine Chapel, Vatican

Rome 1481-1483 Fresco

49

Linear Perspective

Early Renaissance in Italy

creating sense Of depth in architectural space using Orthogonals and a vanishing point

Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-02, Bronze Relief Panel

50
card image

14th Century Northern European Renaissance

Melchior Broederlam, Dijon Altarpiece (outer panels), 1393-1399 Tempera on Wood

51

International Gothic

14th Century Northern European Renaissance

characterized by elegant stylization of illuminated manuscripts, mosaics, stained glass, etc, and by increased interest in secular themes.

Melchior Broederlam, Dijon Altarpiece (outer panels), 1393-1399 Tempera on Wood

52

Altarpiece

14th Century Northern European Renaissance

a work of art, especially a painting on wood, set above and behind an altar.

Melchior Broederlam, Dijon Altarpiece (outer panels), 1393-1399 Tempera on Wood

53
card image

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

Limbourg Brothers, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (The Most Riches Hours of Duke de Berry), 1413-16; illuminated manuscript

54

Atmospheric Perspective

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

method of creating the illusion of depth, or recession, in a painting or drawing by modulating colour to simulate changes effected by the atmosphere on the colours of things seen at a distance.

Limbourg Brothers, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (The Most Riches Hours of Duke de Berry), 1413-16; illuminated manuscript

55

Illuminated Manuscripts

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.

Limbourg Brothers, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (The Most Riches Hours of Duke de Berry), 1413-16; illuminated manuscript

56

Book of Hours

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

Limbourg Brothers, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (The Most Riches Hours of Duke de Berry), 1413-16; illuminated manuscript

57
card image

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

Robert Campin, Mérode Altarpiece, 1425-1428 oil on panel

58

Triptych

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

Panel divided into three sections

Robert Campin, Mérode Altarpiece, 1425-1428 oil on panel

59

Symbolism

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

use of symbols to signify ideas and qualities by giving themsymbolic meanings that are different from their literal sense

Robert Campin, Mérode Altarpiece, 1425-1428 oil on panel

60

Patron/Donor

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

a person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, cause, or activity.

Robert Campin, Mérode Altarpiece, 1425-1428 oil on panel

61
card image

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece, 1432 oil on panel (closed)

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card image

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece, 1432 oil on panel (open)

63

Polyptych

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

a painting, typically an altarpiece, consisting of more than three leaves or panels joined by hinges or folds.

Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece, 1432 oil on panel

64

Grisaille

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

a method of painting in gray monochrome, typically to imitate sculpture.

Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece, 1432 oil on panel

65

Aerial Perspective

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

technique of representing more distant objects as fainter and more blue.

Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece, 1432 oil on panel

66
card image

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Wedding Portrait, 1434 oil on panel

67

Secular

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

Not concerned with religion or religious matters.

Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Wedding Portrait, 1434 oil on panel

68
card image

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

Jan van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban, 1433

69

Self portrait

15th Century Northern European Renaissance

representation of an artist that is drawn, painted, photographed, or sculpted by that artist

Jan van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban, 1433

70
card image

Rogier van der Weyden, Deposition, ca. 1442, oil on wood panel

71
card image

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man, Pen and Ink, 1490

72
card image

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, 1503 Oil on Panel

73

sfumato

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

the technique of allowing tones and colors to shade gradually into one another, producing softened outlines or hazy forms.

Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, 1503 Oil on Panel

74
card image

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, 1495-1498 St. Maria delle Grazie (Milan) Oil + Tempera on Wall

75
card image

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Raphael, School of Athens, Fresco in Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, ca. 1510-1511

76

Humanism

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought.

Raphael, School of Athens, Fresco in Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, ca. 1510-1511

77
card image

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Bramante, The Tempietto, San Pietro, Rome 1502-1511

78
card image

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Bramante, Plan for St. Peters, Vatican, Rome, 1505 floor plan

79

Greek Cross

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

a cross of which all four arms are of equal length.

Bramante, The Tempietto, San Pietro, Rome 1502-1511

80
card image

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Fresco Rome ca. 1508-1512

81

Ignudi

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Nude

Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Fresco Rome ca. 1508-1512

82

Spandrels

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

the almost triangular space between one side of the outer curve of an arch, a wall, and the ceiling or framework.

Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Fresco Rome ca. 1508-1512

83

Lunettes

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

is a half-moon shaped space

Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Fresco Rome ca. 1508-1512

84
card image

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Michelangelo, Moses, ca. 1513-1515 Marble S. Pietro in Vincoli Rome

85

Terribilitia

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

emotional intensity of conception and execution in an artist or work of art

Michelangelo, Moses, ca. 1513-1515 Marble S. Pietro in Vincoli Rome

86
card image

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Michelangelo, David, ca. 1501-1504 Florence Marble

87
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16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Michelangelo, Pieta, ca. 1498 St. Peter’s Rome, Marble

88
card image

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

Michelangelo, Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, Monastery of San Lorenzo, Florence, 1524-1533, staircase completed in 1559 (Mannerism-High Renaissance)

89

Volute

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

forming a spiral curve or curves.

Michelangelo, Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, Monastery of San Lorenzo, Florence, 1524-1533, staircase completed in 1559 (Mannerism-High Renaissance)

90

pilasters

16th Century Italy - High Renaissance

a rectangular column, especially one projecting from a wall.

Michelangelo, Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, Monastery of San Lorenzo, Florence, 1524-1533, staircase completed in 1559 (Mannerism-High Renaissance)

91
card image

16th Century Italy - Mannerism

Parmigianino, Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror, 1524 oil on wood Mannerism

92
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16th Century Italy - Mannerism

Pontormo, Entombment of Christ, 1525-1528 oil on wood Florence Mannerism

93
card image

16th Century Italy - Mannerism

Rosso Fiorentino, The Descent from the Cross, 1521 oil on panel Mannerism

94
card image

16th Century Italy - Mannerism

Veronese, Christ in the House of Levi, 1573 Oil on Canvas Venetian

95

Propaganda

16th Century Italy - Mannerism

information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc

Veronese, Christ in the House of Levi, 1573 Oil on Canvas Venetian

96

counter reformation

16th Century Italy - Mannerism

the reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church

Veronese, Christ in the House of Levi, 1573 Oil on Canvas Venetian

97

council of trent

16th Century Italy - Mannerism

Embodiment of the counter reformation

Veronese, Christ in the House of Levi, 1573 Oil on Canvas Venetian

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card image

16th Century Italy - Mannerism

Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1536-1538 oil on canvas Venetian

99
card image

16th Century Italy - Mannerism

Giorgione and Titian, Pastoral Symphony, ca. 1508-1511 Venetian

100
card image

16th Century Italy - Mannerism

Palladio, San Giorgio Maggiore, begun 1566 Venice

101
card image

16th Century Europe High Renaissance & Mannerism

Lucas Cranach the Elder, Martin Luther as “Junker Jörg,” 1521 oil on panel

102
card image

16th Century Europe High Renaissance & Mannerism

Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, 1515 oil on panel, chapel of the Hospital of Saint Anthony, Isenheim, Germany

103
card image

16th Century Europe High Renaissance & Mannerism

Albrecht Dürer, Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504 Engraving, Germany

104

Stipple

16th Century Europe High Renaissance & Mannerism

the creation of a pattern simulating varying degrees of solidity or shading by using small dots

Albrecht Dürer, Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504 Engraving, Germany

105
card image

16th Century Europe High Renaissance & Mannerism

Albercht Dürer, Self-Portrait, 1500 oil on wood

106
card image

16th Century Europe High Renaissance & Mannerism

Hans Holbein the Younger, Henry VIII, 1540 oil on wood, Britain

107
card image

16th Century Europe High Renaissance & Mannerism

Hieronymous Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, ca. 1510 oil on panel Netherlands

108

Folly

16th Century Europe High Renaissance & Mannerism

a costly ornamental work of art with no practical purpose,

Hieronymous Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, ca. 1510 oil on panel Netherlands


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