All bones of the body inferior to the skull, except for the ____, form in the embryo by the process of ____.
What are the 4 major steps of endochondral ossification?
1. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium covering the hyaline cartilage model and converts it to periosteum.
2. Osteoblasts at the inner surface of the periosteum secrete bone matrix around the hyaline cartilage model, forming bone collar.
3. Cartilage in the shaft center calcifies and then hollows out, forming an internal cavity.
4. A periosteal bud invades the cavity and forms spongy bone, which is removed by osteoclasts, thus producing the medullary cavity. Chondroblasts then lay down new cartilage matrix on the epiphyseal face of the epiphyseal plate, and it is eroded away and replaced by bony spicules on the diaphyseal face.
A periosteal bud is composed of what 5 structural components?
The "periosteal bud" process proceeds in how many directions and from what center?
The process of chondroblasts laying down new cartilage matrix on the epiphyseal plate and having it eroded away and replaced by bone continues until when?
What 2 things happen to the medullary cavity as bones grow longer?
What are osteoblasts?
What are osteoclasts?
Which 3 cells produce or help maintain bone tissue?
If osteocytes die or are destroyed, what happens to the bone matrix?
The side of the epiphyseal plate facing the epiphysis contains what type of cells?
Cells proximal to the resting area of the cartilage cells are arranged in what 4 zones?
Of the 4 zones that are arranged proximally to the resting cartilage cells, which is the youngest, and which is the oldest stage of growth?
What happens in the proliferation zone in regards to cartilage cells?
What 3 things happen in the calcification zone in regards to the matrix and cartilage cells?