Activity 5: Types of Synovial Joints and Demonstrating Movements of Synovial Joints

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1

What determines the types of movements that can occur at synovial joints?

Shape of the articular surfaces

2

The shape of articular surfaces of synovial joints also determine what type of classification?

Structural classification

3

Every muscle of the body is attached to what 2 things?

1. Bone

OR

2. Other connective tissue

4

Every muscle of the body is attached to bone or other connective tissue at how many points?

2

5

What are the 2 points of attachment for every muscle?

1. Origin

2. Insertion

6

Describe the origin attachment point in term of mobility.

Immovable or less movable.

7

Describe the insertion attachment point in term of mobility.

More movable attachment

8

Body movement occurs when muscles contract across what specific type of joints?

Diarthrotic synovial joints.

9

When the muscle contracts, what happens to the fibers?

They shorten.

10

When the muscle contracts, and the fibers shorten, how does the origin and insertion move?

The insertion moves toward the origin.

11

The movement type depends on what 2 principles in regard to joint and muscle?

1. Construction of the joint

2. Placement of the muscle relative to the joint.

12

Describe the articulating surfaces of a plane synovial joint (Hint: involving what type of bones?).

Involves flat or slightly curved bones.

13

What is the type of movement (hint: axial type) in a plane synovial joint?

Nonaxial

14

A plane nonaxial synovial joint provides what type of movement?

Gliding

15

Describe the articulating surfaces of a hinge synovial joint.

Cylindrical bone fits into a concave surface on the other bone.

16

What is the type of movement (hint: axial type) in a hinge synovial joint?

Uniaxial

17

A hinge uniaxial synovial joint provides what 2 type of movement?

1. Flexion

2. Extension

18

Describe the articulating surfaces of a pivot synovial joint.

Rounded bone fits into a concave bone plus a ligament

19

What is the type of movement (hint: axial type) in a pivot synovial joint?

Uniaxial

20

A pivot uniaxial synovial joint provides what type of movement?

Rotation

21

Describe the articulating surfaces of a condylar synovial joint.

An oval condyle fits into an oval depression on the other bone.

22

What is the type of movement (hint: axial type) in a condylar synovial joint?

biaxial

23

A condylar biaxial synovial joint provides what 4 types of movement?

1. Flexion

2. Extension

3. Adduction

4. Abduction

24

Describe the articulating surfaces of a saddle synovial joint.

Saddle-shaped articulating surfaces. One surface is convex and the other surface is concave.

25

What is the type of movement (hint: axial type) in a saddle synovial joint?

biaxial

26

A saddle biaxial synovial joint provides what 4 types of movement?

1. Flexion

2. Extension

3. Adduction

4. Abduction

27

Describe the articulating surfaces of a ball and socket synovial joint.

The ball-shaped head of one bone fits into the cup-like depression of another bone.

28

What is the type of movement (hint: axial type) in a ball and socket synovial joint?

Multiaxial

29

A ball and socket multiaxial synovial joint provides what 5 type of movement?

1. Flexion

2. Extension

3. Adduction

4. Abduction

5. Rotation

30

1. Flexion is movement in which plane?

2. Flexion does what to the angle of the joint?

3. Flexion does what to the distance between the two bones?

1. Movement in the sagittal plane.

2. Decreases the angle of the joint.

3. Reduces the distance between the two bones.

31

Flexion can be found in which 2 structural types of synovial joints?

1. Hinge joints

2. Ball and socket joints

32

1. Extension is movement that does what to the angle of a joint.

2. Extension does what to the distance between two bones.

1. Increases the angle.

2. Increases the distance.

33

If extension proceeds beyond anatomical position, what is it called?

Hyperextension

34

Describe abduction.

Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body or fanning of fingers or toes.

35

Describe adduction.

Movement of a limb towards the midline of the body or drawing of the fingers or toes together.

36

Rotation is movement of a bone around what axis and lacks what 2 types of displacement?

Movement around its longitudinal axis and lacks lateral or medial displacement.

37

Rotation is a common movement in which structural type of synovial joints?

Ball and socket joints

38

Circumduction is a combination of what 4 movement types?

1. Flexion

2. Extension

3. Abduction

4. Adduction

39

Circumduction is commonly seen in which structural type of synovial joints?

Ball and socket joints such as the shoulder

40

Describe pronation in regard to the movement of the palm.

The palm moves from an upward-facing position to downward-facing position.

41

In pronation, how does the radius rotate with the ulna?

The distal end of the radius rotates over the ulna.

42

Describe supination in regard to the movement of the palm.

The palm moves from a downward-facing position to an upward-facing position.

43

In supination, how are the radius and ulna positioned?

They are parallel.

44

Describe dorsiflexion movement in regard to the ankle joint and how the foot moves.

The ankle joint moves and lifts the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin.

45

Describe plantar flexion movement in regard to the ankle joint and how the foot moves.

The ankle joint moves and flexes the foot downward, as in pointing the toes.

46

Describe inversion movement in regard to how the foot moves.

A movement that turns the sole of the foot medially.

47

Describe eversion movement in regard to how the foot moves.

A movement that turns the sole of the foot laterally.

48

What structural type is the hip joint?

ball and socket joint

49

A ball and socket joint allows movement in how many planes?

All planes.

50

The hip joint, as free as it is, however, is limited by what 2 of its features?

1. Deep socket

2. Ligaments.

51

Which bone marking of the hip bone receives the head of the femur?

Acetabulum of the hip bone

52

The acetabulum of the hip bone that receives the head of the femur is enhanced by what specific structure?

Acetabular labrum

53

The acetabular labrum is what type of cartilage?

fibrocartilage

54

Why are dislocations of the hips rare?

The diameter of the labrum is smaller than that of the femur's head.

55

Which ligament helps to further secure the femur to the acetabulum?

Ligament of the head of the femur

56

The ligament of the head of the femur runs from what bone marking on the femur head to the acetabulum?

Runs from the fovea capitis on the femur head to the acetabulum.

57

What are the 3 ligaments that limit movement in the hip joint (Hint: think of the ilium, pubis, ischium)?

1. Iliofemoral ligament

2. pubofemoral ligament

3. ischiofemoral ligament

58

How does the 3 ligaments that limit movement at the hip joint function when a person is standing up?

When a person stands upright, the 3 ligaments "screw" the femur head into the socket.

59
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