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Articulation and Body Movement A&P 1 Lab Quiz 3

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Structural Categories of Joints

Fibrous

Adjoining bones connected by dense regular connective, no joint cavity.
Types
-suture; between parietal and temporal bone
-syndesmosis (long fibers) : between tibia and fibula
-gomphosis: Tooth in bony sockets

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Cartilaginous

adjoining bones united by cartilage, no joint cavity. synchondrosis (hyaline cartilage)- between the coastal cartilage of rib 1 and the sternum and the epiphyseal plate in growing long bones

symphysis - .Inter vertebral discs between adjacent vertebrae and the anterior connection between the pubic bones.

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Symphysis (fibrocartilage)

Inter vertebral discs between adjacent vertebrae and the anterior connection between the pubic bones.

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synovial (covered in articular cartilage)

Adjoining bones covered in articular cartilage; separated by a joint cavity and enclosed in an articular capsule lined with a synovial membranes.

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Structural Features of Synovial Joint

joint cavity- space between the articulating bones.
ligament-located on outsides of articular capsule. reinforces the joint.
articular cartilage- hyaline cartilage that covers the surface of the bones forming the joints
articular capsule - composed of fibrous layer and synovial membrane- secretes the synovial fluid
synovial fluid- a viscous fluid located in joint cavity. acts as a lubricant to reduce friction.

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plane

between the carpals of the wrist. Flat or slightly curved bones. Non axial;gliding

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hinge

elbow, a rounded or cylindrical bone fits into a concave surface on the other bone. uni axial; flexion and extension

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pivot

proximal radio ulnar. a rounded bone fits into a sleeve ( a concave bones plus a ligament)

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condylar

between the metacarpals and proximal phalanx. An oval condyle fits into an oval depression on the other bone. Bi axial; flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction

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saddle joint

between the trapezium (carpal) and metatarsal 1. articulating surfaces are saddle shaped; one surface concave, the other surface is convex.

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ball and socket

shoulder, and hip joints. The ball shaped head of the bone fits into the cup like depression of the other bone. multi axial. flexion extension, adduction, abduction, rotation

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insertion

the more movable attachment, moves toward origin during muscle contraction.

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origin

the stationary, immovable, or less movable attachment

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flexion

A movement, generally in the sagittal plane, that decrease the angle of the joint and reduces the distance between 2 bones. Common in hinge joints and ball and socket.

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extension

increases the angle of a joint and the distance between 2 bones or parts of the body, opposite of flexion. if extension exceeds beyond anatomical position it is considered hyper extension.

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abduction

movement of a limb away from the mid-line of the body, along the frontal plane or the fanning movement of fingers or toes when they're spread.

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adduction

movement of limb toward the mid line of the body or drawing the fingers or toes together. opposite of abduction

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rotation

Bone around its longitudinal axis without lateral or medial displacement. common in ball and socket joints

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circumduction

A combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction. common in ball and socket joints

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pronation

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Movement of palm of the hand from an anterior / upward facing position to a posterior/ downward position.distal end of radius and ulna cross to form a X.

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supination

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Movement of palm from a posterior position to an anterior position the anatomical position the opposite of pronation. the radius and ulna are parallel.

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dorsi flexion

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a movement of the ankle joint that lifts the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin.

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plantar flexion

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ankle joint in which the foot is flexed downwards as if standing on ones toes or pointing the toes.

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inversion

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turns the sole of the foot medially

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eversion

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turns the sole of the foot laterally; opposite of inversion


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