antimicrobial drugs

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Microbiology
Chapter 20
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1

isoniazid is a particular value

for treating tuberculosis

2

the two major drawbacks to the use of penicillin are

allergic reactions and development of drug-resistant bacteria

3

a common feature of bacitracin and polymyxin B is that both antibiotics

are produced by bacillus species

4

both the cephalosporin and penicillin antibiotic

act on the cell wall of bacteria

5

chloroquine, primaquine, and quinine are of value for the treatment of

cases of malaria

6

the tubercle bacillus is usually susceptible to

streptomycin but not penicillin

7

the Kirby-Bauer test is useful for determining

which antibiotic may be employed to treat an infection

8

cephalosporin antibiotics may be used

as alternatives to penicillin

9

all aminoglycoside antibiotics function by

attaching irreversibility to bacterial ribosomes

10

the range of activity of tetracycline antibiotics

includes viruses, protozoa, and fungi

11

flucytosine, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole typify the

antifungal antibiotics

12

pseudomembranous colitis is a condition of the intestine that may be related to

overuse of lincomycin and clindamycin

13

carbenicillin and methicillin should not be used to treat disease if

a person has penicillin allergy

14

In competitive inhibition, sulfanilamide is used by a bacterium in an aborted attempt to

form folic acid

15

the beta lactam nucleus is the basic structure of the

penicillin

16

first generationo cephalosporins must be injected because

they have variable absorption in the GI tract

17

ampicillin is preferable to penicillin because it

is absorbed more easily from the intestine when taken orally

18

cephalosporins act by

interfering with cell-wall biosynthesis

19

a physician has determined that he must prescribe chloramphenicol to treat an infection. He should

monitor for development of aplastic anemia

20

tetracycline antibiotics interfere with

protein synthesis

21

penicillin is most effective against

log phase gram positive bacteria

22

carbenicillin is best classified as a

semisynthetic antibiotic

23

chloramphenicol

interferes with protein synthesis in microorganisms

24

MRSA is resistant to

methicillin

25

both vancomycin and rifampin interfere with aspects of folic acid metabolism in bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

false

26

penicillinase-producing bacteria convert penicillin to penicilloic acid, which has no effect on the bacterial cell wall

true

27

aplastic anemia, which is related to chloramphenicol therapy, arises from activity in the bone marrow that prevents hemoglobin incorporation into red blood cells

true

28

pseudomembranous colitis, a side effect of clindamycin and linconmycin therapy, is accompanied by membranous lesions on the intestinal wall

true

29

the antituberculosis drug isoniazid presumably interferes with cell wall synthesis in Mycobacterium by inhibiting production of sulfanic acid

false

30

antibiotic abuse encourages the emergence of resistant species of microorganisms

true

31

penicillin antibiotics are used primarily against gram-positive bacteria, but in high concentrations they are also inhibitory to gram-negative bacteria

true

32

most of the available antimicrobial agents are effective against

bacteria

33

in what way are semisynthetic penicillin and natural penicillin alike

both are based on lactam

34

which of the following antimicrobial agents is recommended for use against systemic fungal infections

amphotericin B

35

which of the following antibiotics does NOT interfere with cell wall synthesis

macrolides

36

the antimicrobial drugs with the broadest spectrum of activity are

tetracyclines

37

protozoan and helminthic diseases are difficult to treat because

their cells are structurally and functionally similar to human cells

38

niclosamide prevents ATP generation in mitochondria. You would expect this drug to be effective against

helminths

39

which of the following does NOT affect eukaryotic cells

semisynthetic penicillins

40

a major side effect of chloramphenicol therapy is yellowish staining teeth

false

41

antibiotic penicillin is used primarily against gram-negative bacteria

false

42

two major side effects of the use of amoxicillin are the loss of hearing and nephrotoxicity

false

43

chloroquine and quinine are the drugs of choices for the treatment of fungal disease

false

44

isoniazid is of particular value for treating tuberculous bacterial infections

true

45

the range of activity of tetracycline includes gram positive and negative bacteria, rickettsia, mycoplasma and chlamydial infections

true

46

photosensitivity is one of the side effects of the tetracycline drug

true

47

athlete foot can be treated with bacitracin

false

48

Nalidixic acid is a type of fluoroquinolone which inhibits the DNA replications. The drug is effective against urinary tract infections

true

49

clavulanic acid is a beta-lactamase inhibitor

true

50

a drug such as clotrimazole, would be more effective against

fungal infections

51

the antimicrobial drug with the broadest spectrum of activity is

tetracycline

52

protozoan and helminthic diseases are difficult to treat because

their cells are structurally and functionally similar to human cells

53

niclosamide drug is effective against

tapeworm infections

54

the tubercle bacillus is usually effective against

mycobacteria

55

the Kirby-Bauer test is useful for determining

the activity of antimicrobials

56

mebendazole is effective against

parasites

57

erythromycin antibiotics may be used when person is allergic to which antibiotic

penicillin

58

miconazole and ketoconazole typify the

anti-fungal

59

ciprofloxacin is a type of

fluoroquinolone

60

in competitive inhibition, sulfanilamide is used by a bacterium in an aborted attempt to

form folic acid

61

cephalosporins act by

interfering with cell wall biosynthesis

62

MRSA is resistant to which group of antibiotic

methicillin

63

carbenicillin is best classified as

semisynthetic antibiotic

64

which antibiotics work by inhibiting the process of translation by interfering with 50s ribosomes and inhibiting formation of peptide bond

chloramphenicol

65

which antibiotics inhibits the DNA replication and transcription processes

fluoroquinolones

66

oral penicillin

penicillin V

67

metronidazole

antiprotozoan drug

interfere with anaerobic metabolism

68

ribavirin

interferes with RNA metabolism

69

cloxacillin

interferes with the last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis

70

vancomycin

inhibits the second stage of cell wall synthesis

71

penicillin V

acts against gram-positive bacteria

72

fluconazole

inhibits fungal activity

73

ethambutol

inhibits cell wall synthesis

74

oxacillin

inhibits cell wall synthesis

75

azithromycin

inhibits protein synthesis

76

tetracycline

inhibits protein synthesis

77

aminoglycoside

protein synthesis inhibitor

78

doxycycline

protein synthesis inhibitor

acne treatment

79

neomycin

protein synthesis inhibitor

80

acyclovir

inhibits DNA or RNA synthesis

81

when the effect of two drugs together is greater than the effect of either alone, it is called

synergism

82

which antibiotic is most likely to cause bone marrow suppression in children

chloramphenicol

83

which antibiotic can be used for anaerobic clostridium prefringens infection

metronidazole

84

narrow spectrum of microbial activity

range of different microbial types of affect

85

broad spectrum antibiotics

antibiotics that affect a broad range of gram positive or gram negative bacteria

86

bacillus subtills

bacitracin

87

saccharopolispora erythraea

erythromycin

88

streptomyces griseus

streptomycin

89

superinfection

overgrowth of a target pathogen that has developed resistance to the antibiotic

90

inhibition of cell wall synthesis

penicillin, cephalosporins, bacitracin vancomycin

91

inhibition of protein synthesis

chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracyclines, streptomycin

92

inhibition of nucleic acid replication and transcription

quinolones, rifampin

93

injury to plasma membrane

polymyxin B

94

inhibition of essential metabolite synthesis

sulfanilamide, trimethoprim

95

what is the difference between bactericidal and bacteriostatic

bactericidal kills microbes while nacteriostatic prevent microbes from growing

96

chloramphenicol

binds to 50s portion and inhibits formation of peptide bond

97

tetracyclines

interfere with attachment of tRNA and mRNA

broad spectrum drug

causes rickettsia

yellow staining teeth and photosensitivity

98

streptomycin

changes shape of 30s portion, causing code on mRNA to be read incorrectly p

99

penicillin G

requires injection

against gram positive bacteria

100

Beta lactam ring

all penicillins contain this portion

101

methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

bacteria resistant to methicillin

102

penicillin plus Beta-Lactamase inhinitors

clavulanic acid

103

amoxicillin + clavulanic acid

augmentin

104

carbapenems

B-lactam antibiotics that substitute carbon atom for sulfur atom and added a bond to the penicillin nucleus.

105

bacitracin

effective against gram positive bacteria such as staphyloccoci and streptococci

106

vancomycin resistant staphyloccocus aureus

resistant to vancomycin

107

isoniazid (INH)

antimycobacterial antibiotic

very effective against tuberculosis

primary effect is to inhibit synthesis of mycolic acid

108

ethambutol

antimycobacterial antibiotic

effective only against mycobacteria

109

actions of the antibacterial synthetics trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole

card image
110

what were the first penicillins

aminopenicilllins such as ampicillin and amoxicillin

111

streptomycin

ototoxic

causes deafness

112

gentamycin

nephrotoxic

causes kidney failure

113

macrolides

erythromycin (azithromycin, clarithromycin)

114

steven johnson syndrome

disorder of the skin and mucous

115

penicillinase-resistant penicilin

oxacillin

cloxacillin

azlocillin

ticarcillin

methicillin

116

3 antibiotics in first aid ointment

neomycin

bacitracin

polymixin B s

117

streptomycin

gentacin

tobramycin

anti TB drugs

118

lincomycin

kills both harmful and friendly bacteria

119

C. difficile

anaerobic infection metronidazole

120

fluoroquinolones

UTI infection

negram

121

antifungal

have -ole suffixes

tinidazole

miconazole

clotrimazole

ketoconazole

122

antiviral

-vir suffix

famciclovir

acyclovir

ganciclovir

123

antiprotozoal

metronidazole

chloroquine

primaquine

quinine

124

anithelminth

flatworms - platyhelminths - niclosamide

round worms - nermathelminths

albendazole

mebendazole

125

anti TB drugs

pyrazinamie (PZA)

streptomycin

isoniazid (INH)

rifampicin

ethambutol


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