Chapter 7 Medical Term

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1

alveol/o

air sac (aveoli)

2

bronch/o, bronchi/o

bronchus (airway)

3

bronchiol/o

little airway (bronchiole)

4

capn/o and carb/o

co2

5

laryng/o

larynx... voice box

6

lob/o

lobe (a portion)

7

nas/o, rhin/o

nose

8

or/o

mouth

9

ox/o

oxygen

10

palat/o

palate

11

pharyng/o

pharynx (throat)

12

phren/o

diarphragm

13

pleur/o

pleura

lining of the lungs

14

pneum/o, pneumon/o

air or lung

15

pulmon/o

lung

16

sinus/o

sinus (cavity)

17

spir/o

breathing

18

-pnea

breathing

19

trachea

windpipe

20

uvul/o

uvula

21

nose

structure that warms, moistens and filters air

houses the olfactory receptors (sense of smell)

22

sinuses

air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal

23

palate

roof of mouth. btwn the oral and nasal cavity

24

hard palate

front portion. bone

25

soft palate

muscle part. posterior (back portion)

26

pharynx is a passageway for

food into esophagus and air into the larynx

27

oropharynx

central portion of pharynx

btwn the roof of the mouth and upper edge of epiglottis

28

laryngopharynx

lower part of pharynx. just below the oropharyngeal opening into the larynx and esophagus

29

adenoid

lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose. also called the pharyngeal tonsil

30

tonsils

oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx

31

uvula

small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate; named its grape-like shape

32

larynx moves air from what to what and contains what

from the pharynx to the trachea

contains the vocal chords

33

glottis

opening btwn the vocal cords in the larynx

34

epiglottis

lid like structure. covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway

35

trachea

windpipe

passageway for air from the larynx to carina

36

carina

splits into right and left bronchi (which lead to the lungs)

37

bronchial tree

branched airways leading from the trachea to the alveoli

38

lungs are enclosed by the

diaphragm and rib cage

39

lobes of the lung

two on the left, three on the right

40

pleura

membranes enclosing the lung and the thoracic cavity

41

visceral pleura

lung

visceral is organ one (ex/ visceral pericardium is closest to the heart)

42

parietal pleura

thoracic cavity

parietal pericardium is outermost!

43

pleural cavity

potential space btwn the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura

44

diaphragm

muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity

moves upward and downward to aid in respiration

45

mediastinum and what does it enclose

partition that separates the thorax into 2 compartments (right vs left lungs)

encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland

46

viscid

sticky

47

cilia and what do they do

hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as the bronchi

move mucous cell secretions UPWARD

48

parenchyma

functional tissues of any organ (i.e. bronchioles are functional of respiration)

49

tachypnea

fast breathing

50

hypopnea

shallow breathing

51

hyperpnea

deep breathing

52

dyspnea

Difficulty breathing

53

apnea

inability to breathe

54

orthopnea

ability to breathe only in the upright position

55

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and, sometimes, in rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea

56

crackles

and aka

rales

popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli

57

auscultation

listening to sounds within the body

58

wheezes

and aka

high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of lungs as air flows thru a narrowed airway

such as asthma or emphysema

aka ronchi

59

ecstasis

expansion or dialation

60

stridor

high-pitched, crowing sound that occurs with an obstruction in the upper airway (trachea or larynx)

61

caseous necrosis

degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance

62

dysphonia

hoarseness

63

epistaxis

nosebleed

64

expectoration

coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs

65

sputum

material expelled from lungs by coughing

66

hemoptysis

coughing up blood from the lungs

67

hypercapnia aka

hypercarbia

68

hypoventilation causes what

hypercapnia

69

hypoxemia

deficient oxygen in the blood

70

hypoxia

deficient oxygen in tissue cells

71

obstructive lung disorder

blocks air coming OUT OF the lungs

Obstruction... Out

72

restrictive lung disorder

limits intake of air INTO the lungs

73

pulmonary edema

fluid filling spaces around and eventually into the alveoli

74

pulmonary infiltrate

density on an x-ray image representing the consolidation of matter within the air spaces of the lungs. usually bc of inflammatory

75

rhinorrhea

thin, watery discharge from the nose (runny nose)

76

asthma

caused by

symptoms

panting

obstructive pulmonary disease casued by bronchial tube spasms or mucous membrane swelling

characterized by sudden attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough

77

paroxysmal

sudden, periodic

78

atelectasis

collapse of lung tissue (alveoli)

atele=imperfect... ectasis=dialation

79

bronchiecstasis

abnormal dialation of the bronchi with mucus accumulation

80

bronchitis

bronchi inflammation

81

bronchogenic carcinoma

lung cancer... originating in the bronchi

82

what causes bronchospasms?

spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle

83

emphysema

characterized by what

results in what

obstructive pulmonary disease

characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls

results in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange

84

COPD: words and def

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema

85

cystic fibrosis

inherited condition. exocrine gland malfunction causing abnormally thick and viscous mucous that obstructs passageways in the body

commonly affects lungs and digestive tract

86

laryngotracheobronchitis and aka

inflammation of the upper airways with swelling. creates a funnel shaped elongation of the tissue that causes "seal bark" cough

aka croup

87

laryngospasm causes what

a constriction

88

nasal polyposis

presence of numerous polyps (tumor on a stalk) in the nose

89

pleural effusion

accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity

90

empyema and aka

accumulation of pus in pleural cavity

aka pyothorax

91

hemothorax

blood in the pleural cavity

92

pleuritis is aka

pleurisy

93

pneumoconiosis

chronic

restrictive pulmonary disease that results from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts, such as coal, asbestose, or silicone

conio=dust

94

pneumonia

inflammation in lung from infection of bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or aspiration of chemicals

95

pneumocystis pneumonia

caused by the Pneumocytis carinii organism. common for those who are HIV positive

96

pneumothorax

air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wal

pneumo=air or lung

97

lobectomy

removal of a lobe of the lung

98

nasal polypectomy

removal of a nasal polyp

99

pneumonectomy

removal of an entire lung

100

thoracentesis

puncture for aspiration of the chest (pleural cavity)

101

thoracoplasty is done how

fixation of the ribs

102

thoracoscopy

endoscopic examination of pleural cavity

using a thoracoscope

103

thoracostomy

creation of an opening in the chest, usually to insert a tube

104

thoracotomy

incision into the chest

105

tonsillectomy

excision of the palatine tonsils

106

T & A

tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

107

pneumohemothorax

air and blood in the pleural cavity

108

pneumonitis

-often caused by what

inflammation of the lung

often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dust

109

pulmonary TB

tuberculosis

caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis ...

formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions

110

sleep apnea

periods of breathing cessation (10 sec or more) that occurs during sleep, often resulting in snoring

111

tonsillitis can be either

acute or chronic

112

URI and def

Upper Respiratory infection

of the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi

113

pH

potential of hydrogen

114

ABG

arterial blood gas analysis. tests adequacy of lung function

115

PaO2

abbreviation for partial pressure of oxygen. measures amount of o2 in blood

116

PaCO2

abbrev for partial press of co2 and measures amount of co2 in the blood

117

endoscopy

examination inside a body cav with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes

118

bronchoscopy

of airways

flexible endoscope

119

percussion

tapping the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate size, border, or fluid content of a cavity such as the chest

120

lung Bx

lung biopsy

removal of a small piece of lung tissue

121

lung scan is aka

ventilation-perfusion scan (V/Q)

122

ventilation-perfusion scan

2 part radionuclide scan. compares the two parts, measures the ventilation and perfusion.

123

ventilation is aka

respiration

124

MRI of lungs purpose

nonionizing image... to visualize lung lesions

125

polysomnography

diagnosis of sleep disorders

126

spiromentry

direct measurement of lung volume and capacity.

a PFT (pulmonary function testing)

127

tidal volume

amount of air exhaled after normal inspiration

128

vital capacity

amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration

129

peak flow

measure of fastest flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration

130

TV or VT

tidal volume

131

VC

vital capacity

132

PF and aka

peak flow. also called PEFR (peak expiratory flow rate_)

133

pulse oximetry

noninvasive method

estimates oxygen saturaction in blood

uses oximeter probe at the site of arterial pulse, typ the finger

134

pulse oximetry is used to monitor

hypoxemia

135

PA chest x ray

back to front (posterior-anterior)

136

CT of the thorax

used to detect lung lesions (so is MRI)

137

CT of the head

used to visualize structures of nose and sinuses

138

pulmonary angiography

x-ray of blood vessels of the lungs after the injection of contrast material

139

continuous positive airway pressure therapy

device with a mask that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air thru the nasal passages. commonly used to prevent sleep apnea issues

140

endotracheal intubation

passage of a tube into the trachea via nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures into the lungs

141

incentive spirometry

common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage patient to inhale and hold an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent lung complications

142

mechanical ventilation

mechanical breathing using a ventilator

143

anticoagulant example

heparin

144

histamine.

-what is it

- causes what

compound in the body released by injured cells during allergic reactions, inflammation, and so on. causes constriction of bronchial smooth muscle and dilation of blood vessels

145

antihistamine

neutralizes or inhibits histamine effects. doesn't kill anything like antibiotics do

146

expectorant

a drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing


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