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Porifera

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created 1 year ago by Julia_Bickford
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updated 1 year ago by Julia_Bickford

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1

Porifera

"pore bearer"

sponges

called parazoa ("alongside animals") because they lack true tissues - no gap junctions and basement membranes that integrate cells...ergo cells with benefits :P

2

Pinacoderm

"platter skin"

outermost layer of cells, made up of pinacocytes

analogous to ectoderm in everything else

3

Choanoderm

"collar skin"

inner layer of cells, made up of choanocytes

analogous to endoderm in everything else

4

Choanocyte Chamber

ONLY Leucon sponges

part of aquiferous system, a chamber lined with choanoderm that lies between the incurrent and excurrent openings, used for filter feeding

5

Pinacocytes

"platter cells"

flat, contractile cells that control water flow through ostia

make up Pinacoderm

6

Choanocytes

"collar cells"

vase-shaped cells with a "collar" of fibrils and a flagellum that drives water current

make up Choanoderm

7

Oscule (osculum)

large excurrent opening

Ascon and Sycon sponges have one, Leucon sponges have several

8

Mesohyl

"middle wood"

fibrous filling of the sponge between pinacoderm and choanoderm

analogous to mesoglea in Cnidarians

9

Spongiocoel

aka atrium

Large, central cavity of sponges

Part of aquiferous system: water enters via pores (ostia) then exits via larger opening (oscule)

10

Aquiferous System

Functions: filter feeding, transport of food and waste, caries gonads to open water

Made up of porocytes, incurrent & excurrent canals, spongiocoel, and the oscule.

analogous to water vascular system of Echinoderms

*unique feature of Porifera!

11

Porocytes

pinacoderm cells that make up ostia (large pores) of a sponge, let water in

12

Spicules

skeletal rods secreted by sclerocytes, made of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide that can also double as a defensive mechanism

*all Asconoid sponges have CaCO3 spicules

13

Ostia

small pores that let water in through choanocyte chambers (aka radial canals) in all sponges

14

Ascon

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ascus = "sac" ---> ascon = "sac-like"

most primitive body type - one oscule and large spongiocoel (aka atrium)

very small (<1cm) due to small SA/vol ratio

all spicules made of CaCO3

15

Sycon

card image

from Greek sykon, "fig"

slightly more evolved than ascon - one oscule, spongiocoel, and choanocyte chambers (aka radial canals)

larger (a few cm)

ostia are made of 2 porocytes EACH

16

Leucon

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most complex body type - TONS of choanocyte chambers, multiple osculatory & excurrent canals instead of atrium & single oscule increase SA/vol ratio

largest body type

filter 12,000x their volume per day!

17

Sclerocytes

"hard cells"

specialized cells in body wall that secrete spicules

18

Totipotent cells

highly flexible cells with the potential to become anything

all Porifera cells are totipotent - this is why they can regenerate!

*unique feature of Porifera!

19

Amoebocyte/Archeocyte

versatile, mobile cells

digest food caught by the choanocyte collars and transport nutrients throughout sponge via aquiferous system

20

Spongin

fibers made from a silk like scleroprotein that helps make up the structural support system of the sponge

this is what spongiocoel is made of

21

Incurrent canals

canals where water enters choanocyte chambers in Leucon sponges and radial canals in Sycon sponges

22

Excurrent canals

canals where water exits choanocyte chambers in Sycon sponges

23

Prosopyle

"forward gate"

name of pore that leads into choanocyte chamber from the incurrent canal (leucon sponges only)

24

Apopyle

"away gate"

name of the pore where water passes out of the choanocyte chamber into the excurrent canal (leucon sponges only)

25

Gemmule

spore that forms a new sponge via asexual reproduction

all freshwater sponges and some marine

26

Amphiblastula

planktonic (free swimming) larva of some sponges

small flagellated cells on one side and large non-flagellated cells on the other with a blastocoel in the middle

27

Paranchymella

planktonic (free swimming) larva of some sponges formed via sexual reproduction

A solid ball of flagellated cells containing more cells. No blastocoel.


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