called parazoa ("alongside animals") because they lack true tissues - no gap junctions and basement membranes that integrate cells...ergo cells with benefits :P
outermost layer of cells, made up of pinacocytes
analogous to ectoderm in everything else
inner layer of cells, made up of choanocytes
analogous to endoderm in everything else
ONLY Leucon sponges
part of aquiferous system, a chamber lined with choanoderm that lies between the incurrent and excurrent openings, used for filter feeding
flat, contractile cells that control water flow through ostia
make up Pinacoderm
vase-shaped cells with a "collar" of fibrils and a flagellum that drives water current
make up Choanoderm
large excurrent opening
Ascon and Sycon sponges have one, Leucon sponges have several
fibrous filling of the sponge between pinacoderm and choanoderm
analogous to mesoglea in Cnidarians
Large, central cavity of sponges
Part of aquiferous system: water enters via pores (ostia) then exits via larger opening (oscule)
Functions: filter feeding, transport of food and waste, caries gonads to open water
Made up of porocytes, incurrent & excurrent canals, spongiocoel, and the oscule.
analogous to water vascular system of Echinoderms
*unique feature of Porifera!
pinacoderm cells that make up ostia (large pores) of a sponge, let water in
skeletal rods secreted by sclerocytes, made of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide that can also double as a defensive mechanism
*all Asconoid sponges have CaCO3 spicules
small pores that let water in through choanocyte chambers (aka radial canals) in all sponges
ascus = "sac" ---> ascon = "sac-like"
most primitive body type - one oscule and large spongiocoel (aka atrium)
very small (<1cm) due to small SA/vol ratio
all spicules made of CaCO3
from Greek sykon, "fig"
slightly more evolved than ascon - one oscule, spongiocoel, and choanocyte chambers (aka radial canals)
larger (a few cm)
ostia are made of 2 porocytes EACH
most complex body type - TONS of choanocyte chambers, multiple osculatory & excurrent canals instead of atrium & single oscule increase SA/vol ratio
largest body type
filter 12,000x their volume per day!
specialized cells in body wall that secrete spicules
highly flexible cells with the potential to become anything
all Porifera cells are totipotent - this is why they can regenerate!
*unique feature of Porifera!
versatile, mobile cells
digest food caught by the choanocyte collars and transport nutrients throughout sponge via aquiferous system
fibers made from a silk like scleroprotein that helps make up the structural support system of the sponge
this is what spongiocoel is made of
canals where water enters choanocyte chambers in Leucon sponges and radial canals in Sycon sponges
canals where water exits choanocyte chambers in Sycon sponges
name of pore that leads into choanocyte chamber from the incurrent canal (leucon sponges only)
name of the pore where water passes out of the choanocyte chamber into the excurrent canal (leucon sponges only)
spore that forms a new sponge via asexual reproduction
all freshwater sponges and some marine
planktonic (free swimming) larva of some sponges
small flagellated cells on one side and large non-flagellated cells on the other with a blastocoel in the middle
planktonic (free swimming) larva of some sponges formed via sexual reproduction
A solid ball of flagellated cells containing more cells. No blastocoel.