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The respiratory system Pg.3

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created 1 year ago by Michelle_Madaras
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updated 1 year ago by Michelle_Madaras

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1

Airways go through about 23 orders of branching (bifurcations) known collectively as what?

Airways go through about 23 orders of branching (bifurcations) known collectively as the bronchial tree.

2

The trachea splits into what?

The trachea splits into the left and right primary bronchi.

3

The right and left primary bronchi each supply what?

The right and left primary bronchi each supply a lung.

4

At the split, what primary bronchus is angled more acutely?

Why?

At the split, the left primary bronchus is angled more acutely than the right to bypass the heart.

5

What lobe is susceptible to aspiration pneumonia?

The right lung, specifically the right middle lobe is susceptible to aspiration pneumonia.

6

Each primary bronchus divides into what?

Each primary bronchus divides into secondary bronchi.

7

Each secondary bronchus supplies what?

Each secondary bronchus supplies a lung lobe.

8

How many secondary bronchi are on the right? The left?

There are 3 secondary bronchi on the right

2 on the left

9

Secondary bronchus split into what?

Secondary bronchus split into tertiary bronchi.

10

Tertiary bronchi supply what?

Tertiary bronchi supply the bronchopulmonary segments.

11

Tertiary bronchi split to yield what?

Tertiary bronchi split to yield smaller and smaller and smaller bronchi.

12

Bronchi are supported by what?

Bronchi are supported by cartilage plates of decreasing size (the rings become discontinuous).

13

Bronchioles branch from what?

Bronchioles branch from the smallest bronchi.

14

Bronchioles are <1mm in diameter and have no what?

Bronchioles are <1mm in diameter and have no cartilage in their walls

15

Bronchioles have a relatively large amount of what?

Bronchioles have a relatively large amount of smooth muscle in their walls.

16

Smooth muscle contraction yields what?

Smooth muscle contraction yields bronchoconstriction.

17

When does bronchoconstriction occur? (2)

bronchoconstriction occurs during

the parasympathetic response

and during allergic reactions

(thus these responses can be normal adjustments or in response to irritants).

18

Smooth muscle relaxation yields what?

Smooth muscle relaxation yields bronchodialation.

19

bronchodialation occurs when?

bronchodialation occurs during the sympathetic response.

20

What are the last bronchioles without alveoli?

Terminal bronchioles are the last bronchioles without alveoli.

21

What is the name of bronchioles with alveoli budding from them?

Respiratory bronchioles are bronchioles with alveoli budding from them.

22

Bronchioles mark the beginning of what?

and they give rise to what?

Bronchioles mark the beginning of the respiratoy zone

and they give rise to alveolar ducts.

23

Alveolar ducts definition:

Alveolar ducts are tubes made of side-by-side alveoli.

24

Alveolar ducts terminate in what?

Alveolar ducts terminate in alveolar sacs.

25

Alveolar sacs are what?

Alveolar sacs are dead-end clusters of alveoli.

There are about 300 million alveoli in the lungs.

26

Alveolar walls are made of what?

Known as what?

Alveolar walls are made of simple squamous epithelial cells

known as type 1 alveolar cells.

27

"Cobwebbing" the external surface of the alveoli are what?

"Cobwebbing" the external surface of the alveoli are pulmonary capillaries.

28

O2 and CO2 are exchanged through both sets of simple squamous epithelia (alveolar and capillary) as well as the basement membrane between the 2. This structure is collectively known as what?

This structure is collectively known as the respiratory membrane.

29

The thinness of the respiratory membrane facilitates what?

The thinness of the respiratory membrane facilitates gas diffusion i.e. O2 and CO2.

30

Interspersed among the type 1 alveolar cells are what?

Interspersed among the type 1 alveolar cells are type 2 alveolar cells.

31

Type 2 alveolar cells function primarily in what?

Type 2 alveolar cells function primarily in the production of surfactant.

32

What is surfactant?

Surfactant is a chemical that helps prevent alveolar collapse.

33

Alveolar macrophages (dust cells) definition:

Alveolar macrophages (dust cells) patrol the surface of the alveoli for debris or pathogens.

34

Alveoli are also covered by a network of what?

Alveoli are also covered by a network of elastic fibers giving lung tissue elasticity.

(which assist with normal expiration).

35

Pleurae definition:

The Pleurae is a thin serous membrane that covers each lung and lines the pleural cavity.

36

What does the parietal pleura cover? (3)

the parietal pleura covers the:

1. thoracic wall

2. superior surface of the diaphragm

3. mediastinum

37

At the hilum, the parietal pleura is continuous with what?

At the hilum, the parietal pleura is continuous with the visceral pleura.

38

What does the visceral pleura cover?

the visceral pleura covers the external surface of the lungs themselves.

39

The pleurae produce what?

Which fills the slit-like what?

The pleurae produce pleural fluid

Which fills the slit-like pleural cavity between them.

(10-20 ml is normal)

40

What does pleural fluid do? (2)

pleural fluid:

1. reduces friction

2. helps the parital and visceral pleurae adhere to one another.

41

What is the 2 basic mechanisms of breathing?

the 2 basic mechanisms of breathing is:

1. inspiration

2. expiration

42

When does air movement occur?

air movement occurs when a pressure gradient exists between the air within the lung (airways and alveoli) and the air in the surround atmosphere.

43

What are the 3 pressure vital for lung function?

the 3 pressure vital for lung function are:

1. atmospheric pressure

2. intrapulmonary pressure

3. intrapleural pressure

44

Atmospheric pressure definition:

What is it at sea level?

Atmospheric pressure is pressure exerted by air surrounding the body.

760 mmHg at sea level

45

Intrapulmonary pressure definition:

Intrapulmonary pressure is pressure exerted by air within the lungs.

It changes during each cycle of respiration.

46

Intrapleural pressure definition:

Intrapleural pressure is pressure within the pleural cavity.

47

Intrapleural pressure is always about how much less then ____ pressure.

Thus it is a ____ pressure

Intrapleural pressure is always about 4 mmHg less then intrapulmonary pressure.

Thus it is a negative pressure.

48

The lungs want to recoil due to their elasticity. What keeps the lungs "open" (2)

1. The position of the thoracic cage

2. the presents of intraplural negative pressure

will oppose the inward recoil force, keeping the lungs "open"


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