The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths

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Microbiology
Chapter 12
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1

Which of the following statements regarding fungi is false

most fungi are pathogenic for humans

2

Which of the following statements about helminths is false

all are parasites

3

which of the following pairs is mismatched

coenocytic hyphae - hyphae with cross-walls

4

which of the following statements regarding protozoa is false

nearly all protozoa causes disease

5

In mid December, a woman with insulin dependent diabetes which had been in prednisone fell and received an abrasion on the dorsal side of her right hand. She was placed on penicillin. By the end of January, the ulcer had not healed, and she was referred to a plastic surgeon. On January 30, a swab of wound was cultured at 35 degrees on agar. On the same day, a smear was made for gram staining. Slid cultures set up on February 1 and incubated at 25 degrees showed septate hypae and single conidia. The most likely cause of the infection is a

dimorphic fungus

6

which of the following tends to be more complex in a parasitic helminth than in a free living helminths

reproductive system

7

Which of the following is false

fungal spores are highly resistant to heat and chemical agents

8

helminthic diseases are usually transmitted to humans by

gastrointestinal route

9

All of the following are characteristic of the platyhelminthes except that they

have highly developed digestive and nervous systems

10

in the malaria parasite life cycle, humans are the ____ host, while mosquitoes are the ___ host as well as the vector

intermediate; definitive

11

Three weeks after a river rafting trip, three family members experienced symptoms of coughing, fever, and chest pain. During the rafting trip, the family had consumed crayfish that they caught along the river banks. An examination of the patients' sputum revealed helminth eggs, and serum samples were positive for antibodies to Paragonimus. All of the family members recovered following treatment with praziquantel. In the Paragonimus life cycle,

Humans are the definitive host and crayfish are the intermediate host

12

The encysted larva of the beef tapeworm is called

cysticercus

13

Which of the following arthropods does not transmit diseases by sucking blood from human host

houseflies

14

a definitive host harbors which stage of a parasite

adult

15

what do tapeworms eat

intestinal contents

16

Giardia and Trichomonas are unusual eukaryotes because they

lack mitochondria

17

The life cycle of the fish tapeworm is similar to that of the beef tapeworm. Which of the following is the most effective preventive measure?

cooking fish before eating

18

Which of the following is the most effective control for malaria

eliminate Anopheles mosquitoes

19

In the microscope, you observe multinucleated amoebid cells with sporangia that form spores. This is a

plasmodial slime mold

20

Which of the following pairs is mismatched

cestodes - all are free living

21

which of the following is a nucleated, unicecullar organism that, if you changed the incubation temperature, would form filaments with conidiospores

ascomycete

22

which of the following organisms is photoautotrophic protozoan

Euglena

23

if a larva of Echinococcus granulosus is found in humans, humans are the

intermediate host

24

ringworm is caused by

fungus

25

yeast infections are caused by

candida albicans

26

plasmogamy, karyogamy, and meiosis are stages of the fungal sexual life cycle

true

27

arthropod vectors are blood sucking animals such as ticks, lice and fleas that transmit microbial pathogens

true

28

cercariae, metacercaria, redia, and sporocysts are all life cycle stages of trematodes

true

29

the platyhelminths group includes roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes

false

30

some species of dinoflagellates produce neurotoxins that cause fish kills and red tides.

true

31

both the cellular slime molds and the plasmodial slime molds are members of the phylum amoebozoa

true

32

In helminth life cycles, the organism that harbors the adult sexually reproductive phase of the parasite is called the intermediate host.

false

33

The sporozoite, merozoite, gametocyte, and ring stages are all part of the Plasmodium life cycle.

true

34

The insect vectors have six legs and include spiders, ticks, mosquitoes, and lice.

false

35

Most cases of hookworm infection are acquired by ingestion of adult forms in contaminated food or water.

false

36

Protozoa are unicellular, eukaryotic chemoheterotrophs

true

37

organisms belonging to apicomplexa are plasmodium and cryptosporidium

true

38

Parasitic flatworms belong to the Phylum Nematoda and Parasitic roundworms belong to the Phylum Platyhelminthes

false

39

The adult stage of a parasitic helminth is found in the definitive host

true

40

The nematodes that infect humans with their larvae include Ancylostoma duodenale and Trichinella spiralis

true

41

Fungi are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic chemoheterotrophs

true

42

Zygospores are produced asexually

false

43

the portion of a hypha that obtains nutrient is called the aerial hypha

false

44

the cestode, or tapeworm, consists of the scolex and proglottids

true

45

tapeworms and flukes are similar due to their incomplete digestive system and larval stage

true

46

protozoan and helminthic diseases are difficult to treat because

their cells are structurally and functionally similar to human cells

47

Which of the following tends to be more complex in a parasitic helminth than in free living helminths

reproductive system

48

helminthic diseases are usually transmitted to humans by

gastrointestinal route

49

which of the following is not a characteristic of parasitic platyhelminths

They have a complete digestive system

50

cercariae, metacercaria, miracidia, and rediae are stages in the life cycle of

nematodes

51

the encysted larva of the beef tapeworm is

cysticercus

52

which of the following arthropods does not transmit diseases by sucking blood from human host

houseflies

53

what is common between cestodes and trematodes

cuticle

54

which of the following pairs is mismatched

lice - pneumocystis

55

which of the following statements is false

fungal spores are resting spores to protect the fungus from adverse environmental conditions

56

which of the following pair is mismatched

sporangiospore - formed within hyphae

chlamydoconidium - formed in a sac

57

which of the following is not a characteristic of parasitic platyhelminths

they have a complete digestive system

58

what do tapeworms eat

intestinal contents

59

The lifestyle of the fish tapeworm is similar to that of the beef tapeworm.Which of the following is the most effective preventive measure

cooking fish before eating

60

multinucleated amoebalike cells that produce funguslike spores

plasmodial slime mold

61

amoebalike vegetatie structures that produce sporangia

cellular slime mold

62

a multicellular organism; the digestive tract has one opening

tapeworm

63

an organism that can grow photoautotrophically in the light and chemoheterotrophically in the dark

euglena

64

the cells of plasmodial slime molds can grow to several centimeters in diameter because

they distribute nutrients by cytoplasmic streaming

65

ringworm is caused by

ascomycete

66

why are fungal colonies described as vegetative structures?

because they're composed of the cells involved in catabolism and growth.

67

what is the thallus

it is the body which consist of long filaments

68

hyphae

long filaments which contains septa

69

septa

divides fungi into distinct, uninucleate cell-like units.

70

conenocytic hyphae

long continuous cells with many nuclei

71

vegetative hypha

portion of the hypha that obtains nutrient

72

aerial hyphae

concerned with reproduction

73

fission yeasts

divides evenly to produce two new cells. parent cell elongates, nucleus divides and 2 offspring cells are produced.

capable of facultative anaerobic growth.

74

dimorphic fungi

can grow either as mold or yeast

75

life cycle of fungi

filamentous fungi can reproduce asexually by fragmentation of the hyphae

76

spores

formation of fungi reproduction, both sexually and asexually

77

asexual spores

formed by the hyphae of one organism. produced through mitoses and cell division

78

condiospore

unicellular or multicellular spore that is not enclosed in a sac

79

conidia/conidiophore

card image

asexual spore

conidia are produced in a chain at the end of conidiophore

80

sporangiospore/sporangiophore

card image

asexual spore

sporangiospore is formed within a sporangium

81

sexual spore

results from sexual reproduction

3 stages: phasmogamy, karyogamy, meiosis

82

phasmogamy

haploid nucleus of donor cells (+) penetrates the cytoplasm of recipient (-)

83

karyogamy

the (+) and (-) nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote nucleus

84

Meiosis

diploid give rise to haploid nuclei

85

mycosis

fungal infection. it is classified into five groups based on degree of tissue involvement and mode of entry into the host

86

systemic mycoses

fungal infection deep within the body. It is caused by fungi that live in the soil, it is spread by inhalation

87

subcutaneous mycoses

fungal infections beneath the skin. It is caused by saprophytic fungi that live in soil and vegetation. Occurs by direct implantation into a wound

88

cutaneous mycoses

fungi that only infect epidermis, hair, and nails. transmitted by direct contact with infected areas

89

superficial mycoses

localized along hair shafts and in superficial epidermal cells

90

opportunistic pathogen

generally harmless in its normal habitat but can become pathogenic in a host who is seriously traumatized.

91

protozoa

unicellular eukaryotes and inhabits water and soil

mostly aerobic heterotrophs and live in areas with large supply of water

92

what is the stage of feeding of protozoa called what do they feed upon

trophozoite. They feed upon bacteria and small particle nutrients

93

life cycle of protozoa

they reproduce asexually by fission, budding or schizogony

94

what is schizogony

multiple fission. Nucleus undergoes multiple divisions before cell divides

95

cyst

protective capsule that protozoa produce in adverse conditions.

it permits the organism to survive when food, moisture or oxygen are lacking, temperature are not suitable, or when toxic chemicals are present.

96

oocyst

cyst formed in members of the phylum apicomplexa.

a reproductive structure in which new cells are produced asexually.

97

Euglenozoa

2 groups based on rRNA sequences, disk-shaped mitochondria, and absence of sexual reproduction. Euglenoids and hemoflagellates

98

Amebae

move by extending blunt, lobelike projections of pseudopods

99

entamoeba histolytica

only pathogenic ameba found in human intestine.

causes dysentery

uses lectin to attache to galactose of plasma membrane and causes cell lysis

100

aplicomplexa

not motile in their mature forms.

obligate intracellular parasites

101

sporozoite

an anopheles carrying the infective stage of plasmodium m

102

merozoites

what is produced when sporozoites undergo schizogony

103

what is the ring stage

when young trophozoite looks like a ring in which nucleus and cytoplasm are visible.

104

definitve host

harbors the sexual reproducing stage of plasmodium

105

intermediate host

host in which the parasite undergoes asexual reproduction

106

what are the two phyla of helminths

platyhelminths (flatworms)

nematodes (roundworms)

107

what are some of the characteristics of helminths

they are multicellular eukaryotic animals

they may lack digestive system

their nervous system is reduced

their means of movement is reduced or lacking

reproductive system often complex

108

larval

developmental stage of parasites

109

dioecious

male reproductive organs are in one individual while the female reproductive organ is in another

110

monoecious/hermaphroditic

one animal has both male and female reproductive organs

111

trematodes (Flukes)

have flat, leaf-shaped bodies with ventral sucker and oral sucker. obtain food by absorbing it thought their cuticle

112

paragonimus

lung fluke.

occurs through the world

113

cestodes (Tapeworm)

card image

interstinal parasite.

they lack a digestive system and absorb food through their cuticle

114

taenia saginata

the beef tapeworm, lives in humans.

115

taenia solium

pork tapeworm

humans are the only definitive host

116

echinococcus granulosus

humans are the intermediate hosts

117

nematodes

roundworms

they have complete digestive system

the males are smaller than the females

118

ascaris lumbricoides

a large nematode.

it is dioecius with sexual diphormism

119

define sexual dephormism

the male and female worms look distinctly different, the male being smaller with a curled tail

120

ancylostoma duodenale

live in the small intestine of humans. eggs are excreted in feces.

121

how does a larva enter its host

it penetrates the host's skin. it enters the blood or lymph vessel which carries it to the lungs.


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