Activity 3: Cranial Nerves and Identifying and Testing Cranial Nerves

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1

The cranial nerves are part of which nervous system and not the other?

Part of the PNS and not the CNS

2

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12 pairs of cranial nerves

3

The 12 pairs of the cranial nerves serve what 2 body parts?

1. Head

2. Neck

4

What is unique about the vagus nerves (X) in regard to the other nerves?

It extends into the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

5

What are the only 2 nerves that do not arise from the brain stem and do not pass through the foramina to reach their destination?

1. Olfactory nerves (I)

2. Optic nerves (II)

6

What does OO, OTTAF-VGVAH stand for?

On Occasion, Our Trusty Truck Acts Funny-Very Good Vehicle AnyHow

7

On Occasion, Our Trusty Truck Acts Funny-Very Good Vehicle AnyHow

List the cranial nerves based on this mnemonic.

I. Olfactory nerve

II. Optic nerve

III. Oculomotor nerve

IV. Trochlear nerve

V. Trigeminal nerve

VI. Abducens nerve

VII. Facial nerve

VIII. Vestibulocochlear nerve

IX. Glossopharyngeal nerve

X. Vagus nerve

XI. Accessory nerve

XII. Hypoglossal nerve

8

Most cranial nerves are what kind of nerves?

Mixed nerves

9

What are mixed nerves?

Containing both motor and sensory fibers

10

What are 3 pairs of cranial nerves that are primarily or exclusively sensory in function?

1. Olfactory nerve (I)

2. Optic nerve (II)

3. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

11

How come the olfactory nerves (I) are not visible on the brain model?

They consist of only short axons that run from the nasal mucossa through the cibriform foramina of the ethmoid bone.

12

What from the olfactory nerves (I) is visible on the brain model, and what kind of points do they act as?

Olfactory bulbs which act as synapse points

13

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Compare the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum. Which of these structures is obviously much larger in the human brain?

The cerebrum

14

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Axons of olfactory neurons run from the nasal mucosa through the cibriform foramina of the ethmoid bone to synapse with what?

Olfactory bulbs

15

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

How does the size of the sheep's olfactory bulbs compare with those of humans?

Sheep=shorter and thicker (larger)

16

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Is the sense of smell more important for protection and foraging in sheep or humans?

More important for sheeps

17

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

The optic nerve (II) carries sensory impulses from which part of the eye?

Retina of the eye

18

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Which nerve is involved in the sense of vision?

Optic nerve (II)

19

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

What 2 structures protrude from the ventral aspect of the hypothalamus? (Hint: posterior to the optic chiasma)

1. Infundibulum (immediately posterior to the optic chiasma)

2. Mammillary body

20

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

What is different with the sheep's mammillary body versus that of a human's?

The sheep's mammillary body is a single rounded eminence, whereas in humans, it is a double structure.

21

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

What are cerebral peduncles?

Fiber tracts

22

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Cerebral peduncles connect what 2 brain parts?

1. Cerebrum

2. Medulla oblongata

23

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

The large oculomotor nerves (III) and trochlear nerves (IV) provide motor fibers to what muscles of what body part?

To extrinsic muscles of the eyeball.

24

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

The pons and the medulla oblongata are composed primarily of what?

Ascending and descending fiber tracts.

25

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

What are the 2 functions of trigeminal nerves (V)?

1. Involved in chewing

2. Involved in sensations of the head and face

26

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Abducens nerves (VI) do what to the eye?

Abduct the eye

27

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Facial nerves (VII) are involved in what 3 functions?

1. Taste sensation

2. Gland function (i.e. salivary and lacrimal glands)

3. Facial expression

28

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Vestibulocochlear nerves (VIII) are involved in what 2 functions?

1. Hearing

2. equilibrium

29

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Vestibulocochlear nerves (VIII) are mostly what type of nerves?

Sensory nerves

30

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Glossopharyngeal nerves (IX) contain ____ fibers that innervate throat structures and sensory fibers that transmit ____ stimuli.

Motor fibers that innervate throat structures and sensory fibers that transmit taste stimuli.

31

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Vagus nerves (X) serve what 3 body parts?

1. head

2. thorax

3. abdominal cavity

32

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Accesssory nerves (XI) serve muscles of what 3 body parts?

1. Neck

2. Larynx

3. Shoulders

33

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Hypoglossal nerves (XII) stimulate muscles of what 2 body parts?

1. tongue muscles

2. neck muscles

34

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

How does the depth of the fissures in the sheep's cerebral hemispheres compare to that in the human brain?

Sheep brain has less deep fissures.

35

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

How does the cerebellum of the sheep and human differ?

The sheep's cerebellum is not divided longitudinally.

36

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

What dural fold is missing in the sheep brain that is present in humans?

The falx cerebelli is missing in sheep brains, because in humans, this structure separates the cerebellar hemispheres.

37

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

In the sheep brain, what connects the cerebellum to the medulla?

The inferior cerebellar peduncles.

38

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

In the sheep brain, what connects the cerebellum to the pons?

The middle cerebellar peduncles.

39

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

In the sheep brain, what connects the cerebellum to the midbrain?

The superior cerebellar peduncles.

40

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

What is the function of the corpora quadrigemina?

Act as reflex centers for vision and hearing.

41

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

In both brains, what is the thin nervous tissue membrane that is ventral to the corpus callosum and separates the lateral ventricles?

Septum pellucidum

42

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

How does the size of the fornix in the sheep brain compare with the human fornix?

The sheep fornix is larger.

43

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

Why is the sheep fornix larger than the human fornix?

The fornix in sheeps is involved in the memory of smell, a sense that is more important in sheeps.

44

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

In both brains, what forms the floor of the third ventricle?

The hypothalamus

45

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

In both brains, what forms the anterior walls of the fourth ventricle?

Cerebral peduncles

46

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

T/F. In both brains, the medulla oblongata continues into the spinal cord without any obvious anatomical change.

True.

47

Sheep Brain vs Human Brain

In both brains, when does the spinal cord begin?

When the fourth ventricle narrows to a small canal.

48

What is the origin of the olfactory nerve (I)

Olfactory epithelium

49

The olfactory nerve (I) is purely what type of nerve?

Purely sensory nerve

50

What is the function of the olfactory nerve (I)?

Carries afferent impulses associated with smell

51

What is the origin of the optic nerve (II)?

Retina of eye

52

What type of nerve is the optic nerve (II)?

Purely sensory nerve

53

What is the function of the optic nerve (II)?

Carries afferent impulses associated with vision.

54

What is the origin of the oculomotor nerve (III)?

Midbrain

55

What type of nerve is the oculomotor nerve (III)?

Primarily motor nerve

56

What is the function of the oculomotor nerve (III)?

Carries somatic motor fibers to inferior oblique and superior, inferior, and medial rectus muscles to direct eyeball.

57

What is the origin of the trochlear nerve (IV)?

Midbrain

58

What type of nerve is the trochlear nerve (IV)?

Primarily motor

59

What is the function of the trochlear nerve (IV)?

Provides somatic fibers to superior oblique muscle that moves the eyeball.

60

What is the origin of the trigeminal nerve (V)?

From the face

61

What type of nerve is the trigeminal nerve (V)?

Mixed nerve

62

What are the 2 functions (sensory and motor) of the trigeminal nerve (V)?

1. Sensory fibers conduct sensory impulses from skin of face

2. Motor fibers innervate muscles of mastication

63

What is the origin of the abducens nerve (VI)?

Pons

64

What type of nerve is the abducens nerve (VI)?

Primarily motor nerve

65

What is the function of the abducens nerve (VI)?

Carries somatic motor fibers to lateral rectus muscle that abducts the eyeball

66

What is the origin of the facial nerve (VII)?

Pons

67

What type of nerve is the facial nerve (VII)?

Mixed nerve

68

What are the 2 functions (motor and sensory) of the facial nerve (VII)?

1. Supplies motor fibers to muscles of facial expression

2. Carries sensory fibers from taste receptors to tongue

69

What is the origin of the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)?

Inner ear equilibrium and hearing apparatus

70

What type of nerve is the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)?

Mostly sensory nerve

71

What is the 2 functions (vestibular and cochlear branches) of the vestibulochochlear nerve (VIII)?

1. Vestibular branch transmits impulses associated with sense of equilibrium

2. Cochlear branch transmits impulses associated with hearing

72

What is the origin of the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)?

Medulla oblongata

73

What type of nerve is the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)?

Mixed nerve

74

What are the 2 functions (motor and sensory) of the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)?

1. Somatic fibers serve pharyngeal muscles

2. Sensory fibers carry impulses from pharynx

75

What is the origin of the vagus nerve (X)?

Medulla oblongata

76

What type of nerve is the vagus nerve (X)?

Mixed nerve

77

What are the 2 functions (motor and sensory) of the vagus nerve (X)?

1. Somatic motor fibers carry impulses to pharynx and larynx

2. Transmits sensory impulses from viscera

78

What is the origin of the accessory nerve (XI)?

Medulla oblongata

79

What type of nerve is the accessory nerve (XI) but what is it primarily in function?

Mixed nerve but primarily motor in function

80

What are the function of the accessory nerve (XI)?

Provides somatic motor fibers to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.

81

What is the origin of the hypoglossal nerve (XII)?

Medulla oblongata

82

What type of nerve is the hypoglossal nerve (XII) but what is it primarily in function?

Mixed nerve but primarily motor in function

83

What is the function of the hypoglossal nerve (XII)?

Carries somatic motor fibers to tongue muscles

84
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Identify the blanks.

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85
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Identify the blanks.

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