Chapter 26: Fluid, Electrolyte, Acid-Base Balance
1. Dissociate in Water
2. do not dissociate
3. the fluid compartments outside the cell
4. fluid compartments located within the cells
5. spaces between cells
an atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space
a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins resulting in tissue
a disorder entailing deficient minerolcorticoid homorne production by the adreanal cortex
regulates sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid
special neurons in the hypothalamus that sense the ECF solute concentration and trigger or inhibit ADH release from the posterior pituitary gland
sodium ions are highest in ____
potassium ions are highest in ____
phosphate ions are highest in ___
bicarbonate ions are highest in ___
proteins are highest in
____ occurs when carbon dioxide is eliminated faster than it is produced
the female hormone ____ seems to decrease sodium reabsorption, thus promoting sodium and water loss by the kidneys
the preferred intracellular negative ion is ____
the most important ECF buffer of HCl is ____
the most important hormone that regulates calcium ions in the body is ___
PTH parathyroid hormone
molecules that can act reversibly as acids or bases depending upon the pH of their environment are called _____
the breakdown of phosphorus-containing proteins releases ______ acid
arterial blood pH below 7.35 is called ____
acidemia or acidosis
_____ reduces blood pressure and volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and the retention of sodium ions and water
atrial natriuretic peptide
what is the effect of acidosis on the body
wehn the body is in acute acidosis, the nervous sytem becomes so severely depressed that the person goes into a coma and death soon follows.
what is the effect of alkalosis on the body
alkalosis causes overexcitemtn of the nervous system. characteristic signs include muscle tetany, extreme nerousness, and convulsions. death often results from respiratory arrest
describe the mechanisms by which the kidneys remove hydrogen ions from the body
virtually all of the H+ that leaves the body in urine is secreted into the filtrate. the tubule cells, including collecting ducts, appear to respond directly to the pH of the ECF and to alter their rate of H+ secretion accordingly. the secreted H+ ions are obtained from the dissociation of carbonic acid within the tubule cells. for each H+ ion actively secreted into the tubule lumen, one sodium ions is reabsorbed into the tubule cell from the filtrate, thus maintainign the electrochemical balance.
describe the influence of rising PTH levels on bone, the small intestine, and the kidneys
Parathyroid hormone activates osteoclasts that break down the bone matrix, resulting in the release of Ca2+ and PO43- to the blood.
it enhances intestinal absorption of Ca2+ indirectly by stimulating the kidneys to transform vitamin D to its active form, which is necessary for calcium absorption by the small intestine.
PTH increase the reabsorption of calcium by the renal tubules, which simultaneously decreases phosphate ion reabsorption.
when the blood becomes hypertonic (too many solutes), ADH is released. what is the effect of ADH on the kidney tubules?
the release of ADH causes the kidney tubules to reabsorb excess water, resulting in the excretion of concentrated urine.
why would an infant with colic be suffering from respiratory alkalosis
if the infant is uncomfortable and crise forecefully for long perods of time, this would be similar to hyperventilation.
hyperventilation would cause respiratory alkalosis because the infant is losing carbon dioxide rapidly
how does the respiratory system influence the buffer systems of the body?
the respiratory system maintains a constant bicarbonate level in the bloodstream by outgassing carbon dioxide. in the event of a respiratory problem the bicarbonate system might not be a constant.
when does a person experience greater thirst, during periods when ADH relase is elicited or durign periods when aldosterone release is elicited?
a person experiences greater thirst during periods when ADH release is elicited.
when too much carbon dioxide is retained, hyperventilation
the body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions
the term hypotonic hydration refers to ____
a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water
hypoproteinemia is a condition of unually low levels of plasma proteins. this problem is often characterized by ____
which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?
atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. the influence of this hormone is to ______.
reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
respiratory acidosis can occur when ____
a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction
which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems
the lungs and the kidneys
which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?
anabolism of proteins
which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
the fluid link between the external and internal environment is ____
newborn infants have a relatively higher ____ content in their ECF than do adults
whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ___ is found in the intracellular fluid
which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?
potassium mainly in the cells, sodium in the body fluid
problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their ____
the single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ____
potassium ion concentration in blood plasma
the term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ____ buffer systme
a falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ____
the movement of fluids between cellular compartments ____
is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
what hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?
atrial natriuretic peptide
which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?
chemical buffer systems
which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?
extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except ___
which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greates ability to cause fluid shifts
which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?
the maintance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of _____.
the control of respiratory ventilation
which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?
excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
the regulation of sodium ____
is linked to blood pressure
select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance
kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ions
blood anaylsis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?
a patient is breathing slowly and blood pH anaylsis indicates an abnormally high value. what is the likely diagnosis?
one of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is _____
a rise in plasma osmolality
annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. how will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
there will be a temporary increase in blood volume
the most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is ____.
hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood
which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?
amount of body fat
the regulation of potassium balance ____
involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium