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Chapter 31- Fungi

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Fungi

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1

An important example of interaction between fungi and certain other organisms is mycorrhizae, in which the fungal partners _____.

help plants take up nutrients and water

2

Which term describes the fusion of cytoplasm from two individuals?

Plasmogamy

3

Which structure is not directly involved in the reproduction of at least one major group of fungi?

Mycelium

4

True or False? In most fungi, fertilization is complete after all cells fuse together.

False

5

Where does meiosis occur in a mushroom?

Basidia

6

Which structure allows the growing mushroom to nourish itself?

Mycelium

7

Which of the following events occurs first in the development of a spore into a mature mushroom?

Hyphae are produced by mitosis.

8

True or False? Most of the cells in a mushroom contain haploid nuclei.

True

9

Fungi of the phylum Ascomycota are recognized on the basis of their production of _____ during sexual reproduction.

saclike structures

10

Which of the following characteristics is unique to chytrids compared to other groups of fungi?

presence of flagella

11

What are the sporangia of the bread mold Rhizopus?

asexual structures that produce haploid spores

12

You are given an organism to identify. It has a fruiting body that contains many structures with eight haploid spores lined up in a row. What kind of a fungus is this?

ascomycete

13

Arrange the following from largest to smallest:
1. ascospore
2. ascocarp
3. ascomycete
4. ascus

3 → 2 → 4 → 1

14

Among sac fungi, which of these correctly distinguishes ascospores from conidia?

Ascospores have undergone genetic recombination during their production, whereas conidia have not.

15

In what structures do both Penicillium and Aspergillus produce asexual spores?

conidiophores

16

For several decades now, amphibian species worldwide have been in decline. A significant proportion of the decline seems to be due to the spread of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Chytrid sporangia reside within the epidermal cells of infected animals, animals that consequently show areas of sloughed skin. They can also be lethargic, which is expressed through failure to hide and failure to flee. The infection cycle typically takes four to five days, at the end of which zoospores are released from sporangia into the environment. In some amphibian species, mortality rates approach 100%; other species seem able to survive the infection.

Apart from direct amphibian-to-amphibian contact, what is the most likely means by which the zoospores spread from one free-living amphibian to another?

by flagella

17

Chemicals, secreted by soil fungi, that inhibit the growth of bacteria are known as

antibiotics

18

Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and

cyanobacteria and green algae

19

In both lichens and mycorrhizae, what does the fungal partner provide to its photosynthetic partner?

water and minerals

20

Which of the following best describes the physical relationship of the partners involved in lichens?

Photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae

21

When pathogenic fungi are found growing on the roots of grape vines, grape farmers sometimes respond by covering the ground around their vines with plastic sheeting and pumping a gaseous fungicide into the soil. The most important concern of grape farmers who engage in this practice should be that the

fungicide might also kill mychorrhizae

22

Sexual reproduction has never been observed among the fungi that produce the blue-green marbling of blue cheeses. What is true of these fungi and others that do not have a sexual stage?
1) They are currently classified among the ascomycetes.
2) They do not form heterokaryons.
3) Their spores are probably produced by mitosis.
4) They form dikaryotic mycelium.
5) The spores undergo crossing over during meiosis.

2,3

23

A billionaire buys a sterile volcanic island that recently emerged from the sea. To speed the arrival of conditions necessary for plant growth, the billionaire might be advised to aerially sow what over the island?

soredia

24

Which of the following cells or structures are associated with asexual reproduction in fungi?

conidiophores

25

The photosynthetic symbiont of a lichen is often

a green alga

26

Among the organisms listed here, which are thought to be the closest relatives of fungi?

animals

27

The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to

an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition

28

Most fungi are _____.

decomposers

29

Fungi release digestive enzymes into their

surroundings

30

Basidia produce spores by a process known as _____.

meiosis

31

Fungi obtain nutrients through _____.

absorption

32

The body of most fungi consists of threadlike _____, which form a network called a _____.

hyphae ... mycelium

33

Some fungal species can kill herbivores while feeding off of sugars from its plant host. What type of relationship does this fungus have with its host?

Mututalistic

34

What sexual processes in fungi generate genetic variation?

karyogamy and meiosis

35

At which stage of a basidiomycete's life cycle would reproduction be halted if an enzyme that prevented the fusion of hyphae was introduced?

plasmogamy

36

Which feature seen in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they diverged earliest in fungal evolution?

flagellated spores

37

Which of the following best describes the physical relationship of the partners involved in lichens?

Photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae.


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