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Activity 1: Examning the Microscopic Structure of Arteries and Veins

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created 10 months ago by Zajdab
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1

What is the general function of arteries?

Carry blood away from the heart

2

What is the general function of veins?

Drain tissues and return blood to the heart

3

What 2 blood vessels act as conducting vessels?

1. Arteries

2. Veins

4

Capillaries connect which 2 types of blood vessels?

1. Arterioles

2. Venules

5

Which group of blood vessels directly serve the needs of the body's cells?

Capillaries

6

Exchanges between what 2 things happen at the capillary walls?

Exchanges between tissue cells and blood

7

Do capillaries have 3 tunics/coats?

No

8

Except for capillaries, all blood vessels are constructed of how many coats or tunics?

3

9

What are the 3 coats or tunics that make up all blood vessels except for capillaries? (Hint: from innnermost to outermost)

1. Tunica intima

2. Tunica media

3. Tunica externa

10

Tunica intima lines what of a vessel?

Lines the lumen of a vessel

11

Tunica intima is composed of how many layers?

3

12

What are the 3 layers of a tunica intima? (Hint: from innermost to outermost)

1. Endothelium

2. Subendothelial layer

3. Internal elastic membrane

13

What is the tunica intima's function?

Form a smooth lining that decreases resistance to blood flow

14

Tunica intima is composed of what type of cells?

Squamous epithelium

15

The tunica media is composed primarily of what 2 substances? (Hint: a type of muscle and a type of protein)

1. Smooth muscle

2. Elastin

16

What is the function of smooth muscle in regards to blood vessels?

Regulates the diameter of blood vessels

17

What are the 2 main reasons to smooth muscle regulating the diameter of blood vessels?

1. Alter resistance to blood flow

2. Alter blood pressure

18

Tunica externa may be composed of what 2 tissue types?

1. Areolar connective tissue

2. Fibrous connective tissue

19

What are the 2 general functions of tunica externa?

1. Support

2. Protection

20

In larger vessels, the tunica externa contains what system of tiny blood vessels?

Vasa vasorum

21

Compare the walls of arteries and veins.

In general, the walls of arteries are thicker than those of veins

22

Which coat is particularly thicker in arteries compared to veins?

Tunica media

23

The tunica media is thicker in arteries for what 2 structural reasons?

1. Contains more smooth muscle

2. Contains more elastic tissue

24

Generally, why are arteries thicker than veins? (Hint: pumping action)

More pressure is exerted on them since they are closer to the pumping action of the heart.

25

What happens to arteries during systole?

Blood is pumped into them

26

What are the largest, most elastic arteries (with the most elastic tissue)?

Elastic arteries

27

1. Elastic arteries are best at being which type of reservoir?

2. Elastic arteries are also best for what 2 actions that will provide what type of flow?

1. Best at being a presssure reservoir

2. Best at expanding and recoiling for continuous blood flow

28

What are 3 examples of elastic arteries?

1. Aorta

2. Brachiocephalic artery

3. Common carotid artery

29

What are medium-sized arteries and account for most of the arteries found in the body?

Muscular arteries

30

Which type of arteries have less elastic tissue and the most smooth muscle?

Muscular arteries

31

1. Compared to elastic arteries, muscular arteries are better at what ability?

2. However, they are less ____ than elastic arteries.

1. Better at constricting

2. Less stretchable

32

Muscular arteries distribute blood to what areas of the body?

Specific areas

33

What are 2 examples of muscular arteries?

1. Brachial artery

2. Radial artery

34

What are the smallest arteries?

Arterioles

35

Arterioles have the thinnest layer of what tunic?

Tunica externa

36

Describe the number of layers of smooth muscle in the tunica media of arterioles.

Only a few layers of smooth muscle

37

Blood flows from arterioles into what?

Capillary beds

38

Arterioles play a role in regulating blood flow to what areas of the body?

Specific areas of the body

39

Which blood vessel contains only a tunica intima?

Capillaries

40

What is the function of capillaries?

Gas exchange of materials between the blood and tissue cells

41

What 2 general substances are exchanged at the capillaries?

1. Gases

2. Nutrients

42

What are the smallest veins?

Venules

43

The three tunics are all very thin for what blood vessels?

Venules

44

Which blood vessel contains at most, 2 layers of smooth muscle and no elastic tissue?

Venules

45

What are the 2 functions of venules?

1. Drain capillary beds

2. Merge to form veins

46

Veins contain more of what tissue in the tunica externa than arteries?

Fibrous tissue

47

However, which blood vessel contains thinner tunica media compared to arteries?

Veins

48

Which blood vessel has a larger lumen than the corresponding arteries as well?

Veins

49

Veins are what type of vessels in regards to pressure?

Low-pressure vessels

50

What is the general function of veins?

Return blood back to the heart

51

Veins have what to prevent the backflow of blood?

Valves

52

What happens to arteries during diastole?

Blood flows through them into circulation

53

What is the function of valves in veins?

Prevent backflow of blood

54

The skeletal muscle "pump" also promotes what function?

Promote venous return

55

How does the skeletal muscle "pump" promote venous return?

As the skeletal muscles around the veins contract and relax, the blood is pushed through the veins toward the heart

56

When you stand still for an extended time, why do the ankles swell?

Blood pools up in the feet

57

What also aids in the return of blood to the heart?

Pressure changes in the thorax during breathing

58
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