##### Final Exam

What is the causative organism for Strep throat?

Streptococcus pyogenes

What is the shape of streptococcus pyogenes?

Coccus

What is the gram stain of streptococcus pyogenes?

Gram-positive

What is the general treatment of strep throat?

Antibiotics

What is the method of transmission for strep throat?

Respiratory droplets generated by shouting, coughing and sneezing.

What is the causative organism for Diphtheria?

Cornebacterium diphtheriae

What is the shape of Cornebacterium diphtheriae?

Rod, pleomorphic

What is the gram stain of Cornebacterium diphtheria?

Gram positive

What is the general treatment of Diphtheria?

Inject with antiserum as soon as possible

Is there a vaccine for Diptheria?

Yes

Is there an antitoxin for Diphtheria?

Yes

What is the causative organism for Pink Eye?

Haemophilus influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae

What is the shape of Haemophilus influenzae?

Rod

What is the gram stain of Haemophilus influenza?

Gram negative

What is the shape of Streptococcus pneumoniae?

Encapsulated diplococcus (pneumonococcus).

What is the gram stain of Streptococcus pneumoniae?

Gram positive

What is the general treatment of pink eye?

Eye drops or ointment containing an antibacterial medication.

What is the causative organism for an Ear Infection?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus

What is the organism of the common cold?

Rhinovirus - more than 100 types of strains

What is the general treatment of the common cold?

None

What is the causative organism for Pharyngitis/Advenoviral Respiratory Tract infection?

Adenovirus - more than 50 antigenic types

What is the general treatment for Advenoviral Respiratory tract infection?

No specific treatment. Most patients recover on their own. Secondary bacterial infections may occur which needs treatment from antibacterial meds.

What is the causative organism for pnenumococcal pneumonia?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

What is the general treatment of pnenumococcal pneumonia?

Antibiotic

Is there a vaccine for pnenumococcal pneumonia?

Yes

What is the causative organism for Klebisella pneumonia?

Several species cause it, but the best known species is Klebsiella pneumoniae

What gram stain is Klebsiella pneumoniae?

Gram-negative

What shape is Klebisella pneumoniae?

Rod

What is the treatment of Klebisella pneumonia?

Antibiotics

What is the causative organism of Mycoplasma pneumonia?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

What is the general treatment for Mycoplasma pneumonia?

No treatment, unless bacterial.

What is the causative organism for whooping cough/pertussis?

Bordetella pertussis

What shape is Bordetella pertussis?

Rod

What gram stain is Bordetella pertussis?

Gram negative

What is the method of transmission for pertussis?

Spread via respiratory secretions that are suspended in air

What is the treatment of pertussis?

Erythromycin

Is there a vaccine for pertussis?

Yes

What is the causative organism for Influenza?

Influenza A virus

Is there a vaccine for influenza?

Yes, short-term

What is the general treatment for influenza?

None

What is the causative organism for Tuberculosis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Is there a vaccine for TB?

yes

What is the general treatment for TB?

antitubercular medications for long period of time

What is the causative organism for RSV?

Paramyxovirus

What is the general treatment for RSV?

No effective antiviral medications

What is the causative organism for Hantavirus?

Sin Nombre and hantavirus

What is the method of transmission for the Hantavirus?

Zoonosis; mice feces to humans

What is the treatment for Hantavirus?

No treatment

What is the causative organism for Valley fever?

Coccidioides immitis

What is coccidioides immitis?

Dimorphic fungus

What is the general treatment for Valley fever?

antifungal

What is the causative organism for Acne vulgaris?

Propionibacterium acnes

What shape is propionibacterium acnes?

Rods

What gram stain is propionibacterium acnes?

Gram-positive

What is the general treatment of Acne vulgaris?

Antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide, which limit the growth

What is the causative organism for hair follicle infections?

Staphylococcus aureus

What gram stain is staphylococcus aureus?

Gram positive

What is the general treatment for hair follicle infections?

May require minor surgery to drain the pus from lesion, and then followed by oral antibiotics

What is the causative organism for Staphylococcus scalded skin syndrome?

Staphylococcus aureus; strains that produce a toxin

What is the general treatment of Staphylococcus scalded skin syndrome?

Antibiotics called methicillin; and with severe burns you have to remove the skin

What is the causative organism of Streptococcal Impetigo?

Streptococcus Pyogenes

What is the general treatment of Streptococcal impetigo?

Antibiotic

What is the causative organism of Lyme Disease?

Borrelia burgdorferi.

What is the gram stain of Borrelia burgdorferi?

Gram negative

What is the shape of Borrelia burgdorferi?

microaerophilic spirochete

What is the general treatment for Lyme Disease?

Early stages: several antibiotics, late stages: antibiotic less effective

What is the causative organism for the Chicken pox?

Varicella-zoster virus

What is the general treatment for chicken pox?

Antiviral meds

Is there a vaccine for the chicken pox?

Yes

What is the causative organism for Measles (Rubeola)?

Rubeola virus

What is the general treatment for the measles (Rubeola)?

None

Is there a vaccine for the measles (Rubeola)?

Yes

What is the causative organism for Rubella (German Measles)?

Rubella virus

What is the general treatment for Rubella (German measles)?

No specific antiviral therapy available

Is there a vaccine for Rubella (German measles)?

Yes

What is the causative organism for Fifth disease?

Parovirus B-19

What is the general treatment of Fifth disease?

For most healthy people, no treatment is necessary. If your joints hurt or you have a headache or fever, you may be advised to take acetaminophen (Tylenol) as needed to relieve these symptoms. Otherwise, youâ€™ll need to wait for your body to fight off the virus, which usually takes one to three weeks.

What is the causative organism of Warts?

Papillomaviruses

What is the general treatment of Warts?

Freezing it with liquid nitrogen, by cauterization or surgically removing it.

What is the causative organism for Superficial cutaneous mycoses?

Dermatophytes

Dermatophytes are:

fungi

What is the treatment for superficial cutaneous mycoses?

Prescription & OTC medications

What is the Shape of Staphylococcus aureus?

Cocci

What is the shape of Streptococcus pyogenes?

Cocci

What is the gram stain of Streptococcus pyogenes?

Gram positive

What is the gram stain of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

Gram-negative

What is the shape of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

Rod

What is the causative organism of Tetanus (lockjaw)?

Clostridium tetani

What is the gram stain of clostridium tetani?

gram positive

What is the shape of clostridium tetani?

rod

Is there a vaccine for Tetanus?

Yes

Is there an antitoxin for Tetanus?

yes

What is the general treatment for tetanus?

Injecting affected person with human tetanus immune globulin. Muscle relaxants and supportive care. Make sure wound is cleaned out of dead tissue and foreign material.

What is the causative organism for Gas Gangrene?

Several species of Clostridium, Clostridium perfrigens is most common.

What is the shape of Clostridium perfrigens?

Rod

What is the gram stain of Clostridium perfrigens?

Gram positive

What is the general treatment of gas gangrene?

Prompt surgical removal of all dead and infected tissues and may require amputations. Antibiotics such as penicillin are given to help stop bacterial growth and toxin production

What is the causative organism of Cat Scratch?

Bartonella henselae

What is the gram stain of Bartonella henselae?

Gram-negative

What is the method of transmission for Cat Scratch (bartonellosis)?

A zoonosis- spread among cats by fleas.

What is the shape of Bartonella henselae?

Rod

What is the general treatment of Cat Scratch?

Clean with soap and water as soon as possible and treated with antiseptic and antibacterial

What is the causative organism of Human Bite Wounds?

Aerobic and anaerobic members of normal mount microbiota, including fusiforms, spirochetes, Bacteroids, species and Staphylococcs aureus.

What is the general treatment of Human Bite Wounds?

Opening infected area with scalpel, washing the wound thoroughly with sterile fluid.

What is the causative organism for Streptobacillary Rat Bite Fever?

Streptobacillus moniliformis

What is the gram stain of Streptobacillus moniliformis?

Gram negative

What is the shape of Streptobacillus moniliformis?

Rod, that varies in shape (pleomorphic)

What is the method of transmission for Streptobacillary Rat Bite Fever?

It enters the body through a bite or scratch, and sometimes by ingestion.

What is the general treatment of Streptobacillary Rat Bite Fever?

Penicillin, given intravenously.

What is the causative organism of Sporotrichosis?

Sporothrix schenckii

What is Sporothrix schenckii?

Dimorphic fungus

What is the general treatment of sporotrichosis?

antifungal

What is the causative organism for Tooth Decay?

Streptococcus mutans

What is the gram stain of Streptococcus mutans?

Gram positive

What is the shape of Streptococcus mutans?

cocci

What is the method of transmission for Tooth decay?

Intake of dietary sucrose and access to preventive dental care. Genetics.

What is the general treatment of tooth decay?

Drilling out the cavity, filling the defect with material such as amalgam, and restoring the contour of the tooth.

What is the causative organism for Periodontal disease?

Microbes in dental plaque. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella (Bacteroides) forsythia.

What are the gram stains for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella (Bacteroides) forsythia?

Gram negative

What is the method of transmission for Periodontal disease?

Plaque and tartar that accumulates at the gum margin and gradually extends into the gingival crevice.

What is the general treatment for Periodontal disease?

Cleaning out the inflamed gingival crevice and removing plaque and tartar. In advanced cases, minor surgery is usually required to expose and clean the roots of the teeth.

What is the causative organism for Helicobacter pylori Gastritis?

Helicobacter pylori

What is the gram stain for Helicobacter pylori?

Gram negative

What is the shape of Helicobacter pylori?

Helical or spiral

What is the method of transmission for Helicobacter pylori gastritis?

Fecal-oral transmission. Incidence increases with age.

What is the general treatment of Helicobacter pylori gastritis?

Treated with a combination of two antibiotics and a medication that inhibits stomach acid production.

What is the causative organism for Herpes Simplex?

Herpes simplex virus (HSV), usually type 1.

What is the method of transmission for HSV?

Transmitted by close physical contact. The saliva of asymptomatic individuals can be infectious.

What is the general treatment for HSV?

Acyclovir, penciclovir and similar medications that target HSV DNA polymerase can shorten the duration of the symptoms or prevent recurrences.

What is the causative organism for Mumps?

Mumps virus.

What is the method of transmission for Mumps?

Humans are the only source of the virus & infections are often asymptomatic so the disease can be spread unknowingly.

What is the general treatment for Mumps?

None

Is there a vaccine for Mumps?

Yes.

What is the causative organism for Cholera?

Vibrio cholerae

What is the gram stain of Vibrio cholera?

Gram negative

What is the shape of Vibrio cholera?

Rod

What is the method of transmission for Cholera?

Ingestion of fecally contaminated food or water; sometimes associated with marine crustaceans.

What is the general treatment for Cholera?

Replacement of fluid and electrolytes using IV or oral rehydration therapy.

Is there a vaccine for Cholera?

Yes, a number of countries other than the US.

What is the causative organism for Shigellosis?

S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei.

What is the gram stain of the Shigella species?

Gram negative

What is the shape of the Shigella species?

Rod

What is the method of transmission for Shigellosis?

Fecal-oral route

What is the general treatment for Shigellosis?

Antimicrobial medications.

What is the causative organism of E. coli gastroenteritis?

Escherichia coli.

What is the gram stain of E coli?

gram negative

What is the shape of E coli?

Rod

What is the general treatment for E coli?

Depends on symptoms and infection strains, but fluid lost from vomiting and diarrhea should be replaced.

What is the method of transmission for E. Coli?

Foodborne or waterborne, fecal-oral route transmission, some strains have an animal source, common in travelers.

Is there an antitoxin for E. Coli?

Yes, a-b toxin

What is the causative organism for Clostridium difficile Associated-disease?

Clostridium difficile

What is the general treatment for C. diff?

fecal transplant in very bad cases

What is the method of transmission for C. diff?

patients on antibiotic therapy

What is the shape of Clostridium difficile?

rod

What is the gram stain for Clostridium difficile?

gram positive

What is the causative organism for Hep A?

Hepatitis A virus

What is the method of transmission for Hep A?

fecal-oral route, principally via fecal-contaminated hands, food or water

What is the general treatment for HAV?

None

Is there a vaccine for HAV?

Yes

What is the causative organism for Hep B?

Hepatitis B virus

What is the method of transmission for Hep B?

Body fluids, such as saliva, blood, blood products and semen.

What is the general treatment for Hep B?

None

Is there a vaccine for Hep B?

yes

What is the causative organism for Hep C?

Hepatitis C virus

The method of transmission of Hep C is:

Blood transmission, sharing of syringes, tattoos and body piercings with unclean instruments have transmitted the disease.

What is the general treatment for Hep C?

A combination treatment of interferon and ribavirin sometimes prevents chronic disease.

Is there a vaccine for Hep C?

No

What's the causative organism for Giardiasis?

Giardia lamblia

Giardia lamblia is:

Flagellated protozoan

What is the method of transmission for Giardiasis?

Fecal-oral route

What is the general treatment for Giardiasis?

Antiprotozoal

What is the causative organism for Meningococcal Meningitis?

Neisseria meningitidis

What is the gram stain for Neisseria meningitidis?

Gram negative

What is the shape of Neisseria meningitidis?

diplococcus

What is the method of transmission for Meningococcal Meningitis?

When someone is exposed to a person with the disease or to an asymptomatic carrier

What is the general treatment Meningococcal Meningitis?

Antibiotic

Is there a vaccine for Meningococcal Meningitis?

Yes

What is the causative organism for Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)?

Mycobacterium leprae

Mycobacterium leprae is:

rod-shaped, acid-fast

The general treatment for Leprosy is:

Antibacterial medications

What is the causative organism for Botulism?

Clostridium botulinum

What is the gram stain of Clostridium botulinum?

gram positive

What is the shape of Clostridium botulinum?

rod shaped

Is there an antitoxin for Botulism?

yes

What is the general treatment for Botulism?

Enemas and stomach washing to remove toxin, cleaning infected wounds of dirt and dead tissue, IV administration of antitoxin and artificial respiration.

What is the causative organism for Viral Encephalitis?

Arboviruses

The method of transmission for Viral encephalitis is:

Birds or rodents by mosquitoes

What is the general treatment for Viral Encephalitis?

None

What is the causative organism for Poliomyelitis?

Polioviruses 1, 2, 3

What is the general treatment of Poliomyelitis?

Artificial ventilation for respiratory paralysis, physical therapy and rehabilitation

Is there a vaccine for Polio?

Yes

What is the method of transmission of Polimyelitis?

Spreads by the fecal-oral route; asymptomatic and nonparalytic cases common

What is the causative organism for Rabies?

Rabies Virus

What is the method of transmission for the Rabies Virus?

the saliva of a rabid animal introduced into bite wounds of the skin

What is the general treatment for the Rabies Virus?

Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water immediately, then apply an antiseptic to avoid any kind of infection.

Is there a vaccine for Rabies?

Yes

What is the causative organism for Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis?

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are:

Spherical yeasts

What is the general treatment for Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis?

Antifungal medication

What is the method of transmission for Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis?

inhalation of material contaminated with the fungus

What is the causative organism for African Sleeping Sickness?

Trypanosoma brucei

Trypanosoma brucei is:

a flagellated protozoan

What is the general treatment for African Sleeping Sickness?

suramin, with central nervous system is involved: melarsoprol or eflornithine

What is the causative organism of Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy?

Prions

What are prions?

Proteinaceous infectious particles

What is the general treatment for Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy?

No treatment, always fatal.

What is the method of transmission for Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy?

Human-to-human transmission by corneal transplantation and by contaminated surgical instruments, probably transmission of cattle prions to humans by eating contaminated beef.

What is the causative organism for Subacute Endocarditis?

Viridans Streptococci and Staphylococcus epidermidis

What is the general treatment for Subacute Endocarditis?

Bactericidal antibiotics given together

What is the method of transmission for Subacute Endocarditis?

People at risk are mainly those with congenital heart defects or with hearts damaged by disease such as rheumatic fever; may develop after dental procedures or other situations that cause bacteremia.

What is the causative organism for Sepsis and Septic Shock?

Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria contains:

Lipopolysaccharide, also referred to as endotoxin

What is the method of transmission for Sepsis and Septic shock?

Sepsis is mainly a healthcare-associated disease, reflecting the high incidence of bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients with impaired host defenses.

What is the general treatment for Sepsis and Septic shock?

Antimicrobial medications effective against the causative organism. Fluid replacement and support for organ dysfunction.

Is there an antitoxin for septic shock?

Yes

What is the causative organism of Brucellosis/undulant fever?

Brucella

What is the gram stain of Brucella?

gram-negative

What is the shape of Brucella?

Rod

What is the general treatment for Undulant Fever?

Antibiotic

What is the causative organism for Black Death/plague?

Yersinia pestis

What is the gram stain of Yersinia pestis?

Gram-negative

What is the shape of Yersinia pestis?

Rod

What is the method of transmission of the Plague?

Transmitted by fleas

What is the general treatment for the plague?

Prompt diagnosis and antibacterial treatment necessary to prevent high mortality.

What is the causative organism for Infectious Mononuclosis?

Epstein-Barr virus

What is the general treatment of Mono?

antiviral medication

What is the method of transmission of Mono?

Spread by saliva

What is the causative organism of Yellow Fever?

Yellow Fever virus

What is the method of transmission of Yellow Fever?

Household mosquitoes that bite humans

What is the general treatment of Yellow fever?

None

Is there a vaccine for Yellow fever?

Yes

What is the causative organism for Malaria?

Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum are the most common

Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum are:

Protozoans

What is the method of transmission for Malaria?

person to person by bite of infected Anopheles mosquito

What is the treatment for Malaria?

Depends on the life cycle of the parasite.