Final Exam

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1

What is the causative organism for Strep throat?

Streptococcus pyogenes

2

What is the shape of streptococcus pyogenes?

Coccus

3

What is the gram stain of streptococcus pyogenes?

Gram-positive

4

What is the general treatment of strep throat?

Antibiotics

5

What is the method of transmission for strep throat?

Respiratory droplets generated by shouting, coughing and sneezing.

6

What is the causative organism for Diphtheria?

Cornebacterium diphtheriae

7

What is the shape of Cornebacterium diphtheriae?

Rod, pleomorphic

8

What is the gram stain of Cornebacterium diphtheria?

Gram positive

9

What is the general treatment of Diphtheria?

Inject with antiserum as soon as possible

10

Is there a vaccine for Diptheria?

Yes

11

Is there an antitoxin for Diphtheria?

Yes

12

What is the causative organism for Pink Eye?

Haemophilus influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae

13

What is the shape of Haemophilus influenzae?

Rod

14

What is the gram stain of Haemophilus influenza?

Gram negative

15

What is the shape of Streptococcus pneumoniae?

Encapsulated diplococcus (pneumonococcus).

16

What is the gram stain of Streptococcus pneumoniae?

Gram positive

17

What is the general treatment of pink eye?

Eye drops or ointment containing an antibacterial medication.

18

What is the causative organism for an Ear Infection?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus

19

What is the organism of the common cold?

Rhinovirus - more than 100 types of strains

20

What is the general treatment of the common cold?

None

21

What is the causative organism for Pharyngitis/Advenoviral Respiratory Tract infection?

Adenovirus - more than 50 antigenic types

22

What is the general treatment for Advenoviral Respiratory tract infection?

No specific treatment. Most patients recover on their own. Secondary bacterial infections may occur which needs treatment from antibacterial meds.

23

What is the causative organism for pnenumococcal pneumonia?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

24

What is the general treatment of pnenumococcal pneumonia?

Antibiotic

25

Is there a vaccine for pnenumococcal pneumonia?

Yes

26

What is the causative organism for Klebisella pneumonia?

Several species cause it, but the best known species is Klebsiella pneumoniae

27

What gram stain is Klebsiella pneumoniae?

Gram-negative

28

What shape is Klebisella pneumoniae?

Rod

29

What is the treatment of Klebisella pneumonia?

Antibiotics

30

What is the causative organism of Mycoplasma pneumonia?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

31

What is the general treatment for Mycoplasma pneumonia?

No treatment, unless bacterial.

32

What is the causative organism for whooping cough/pertussis?

Bordetella pertussis

33

What shape is Bordetella pertussis?

Rod

34

What gram stain is Bordetella pertussis?

Gram negative

35

What is the method of transmission for pertussis?

Spread via respiratory secretions that are suspended in air

36

What is the treatment of pertussis?

Erythromycin

37

Is there a vaccine for pertussis?

Yes

38

What is the causative organism for Influenza?

Influenza A virus

39

Is there a vaccine for influenza?

Yes, short-term

40

What is the general treatment for influenza?

None

41

What is the causative organism for Tuberculosis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

42

Is there a vaccine for TB?

yes

43

What is the general treatment for TB?

antitubercular medications for long period of time

44

What is the causative organism for RSV?

Paramyxovirus

45

What is the general treatment for RSV?

No effective antiviral medications

46

What is the causative organism for Hantavirus?

Sin Nombre and hantavirus

47

What is the method of transmission for the Hantavirus?

Zoonosis; mice feces to humans

48

What is the treatment for Hantavirus?

No treatment

49

What is the causative organism for Valley fever?

Coccidioides immitis

50

What is coccidioides immitis?

Dimorphic fungus

51

What is the general treatment for Valley fever?

antifungal

52

What is the causative organism for Acne vulgaris?

Propionibacterium acnes

53

What shape is propionibacterium acnes?

Rods

54

What gram stain is propionibacterium acnes?

Gram-positive

55

What is the general treatment of Acne vulgaris?

Antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide, which limit the growth

56

What is the causative organism for hair follicle infections?

Staphylococcus aureus

57

What gram stain is staphylococcus aureus?

Gram positive

58

What is the general treatment for hair follicle infections?

May require minor surgery to drain the pus from lesion, and then followed by oral antibiotics

59

What is the causative organism for Staphylococcus scalded skin syndrome?

Staphylococcus aureus; strains that produce a toxin

60

What is the general treatment of Staphylococcus scalded skin syndrome?

Antibiotics called methicillin; and with severe burns you have to remove the skin

61

What is the causative organism of Streptococcal Impetigo?

Streptococcus Pyogenes

62

What is the general treatment of Streptococcal impetigo?

Antibiotic

63

What is the causative organism of Lyme Disease?

Borrelia burgdorferi.

64

What is the gram stain of Borrelia burgdorferi?

Gram negative

65

What is the shape of Borrelia burgdorferi?

microaerophilic spirochete

66

What is the general treatment for Lyme Disease?

Early stages: several antibiotics, late stages: antibiotic less effective

67

What is the causative organism for the Chicken pox?

Varicella-zoster virus

68

What is the general treatment for chicken pox?

Antiviral meds

69

Is there a vaccine for the chicken pox?

Yes

70

What is the causative organism for Measles (Rubeola)?

Rubeola virus

71

What is the general treatment for the measles (Rubeola)?

None

72

Is there a vaccine for the measles (Rubeola)?

Yes

73

What is the causative organism for Rubella (German Measles)?

Rubella virus

74

What is the general treatment for Rubella (German measles)?

No specific antiviral therapy available

75

Is there a vaccine for Rubella (German measles)?

Yes

76

What is the causative organism for Fifth disease?

Parovirus B-19

77

What is the general treatment of Fifth disease?

For most healthy people, no treatment is necessary. If your joints hurt or you have a headache or fever, you may be advised to take acetaminophen (Tylenol) as needed to relieve these symptoms. Otherwise, you’ll need to wait for your body to fight off the virus, which usually takes one to three weeks.

78

What is the causative organism of Warts?

Papillomaviruses

79

What is the general treatment of Warts?

Freezing it with liquid nitrogen, by cauterization or surgically removing it.

80

What is the causative organism for Superficial cutaneous mycoses?

Dermatophytes

81

Dermatophytes are:

fungi

82

What is the treatment for superficial cutaneous mycoses?

Prescription & OTC medications

83

What is the Shape of Staphylococcus aureus?

Cocci

84

What is the shape of Streptococcus pyogenes?

Cocci

85

What is the gram stain of Streptococcus pyogenes?

Gram positive

86

What is the gram stain of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

Gram-negative

87

What is the shape of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

Rod

88

What is the causative organism of Tetanus (lockjaw)?

Clostridium tetani

89

What is the gram stain of clostridium tetani?

gram positive

90

What is the shape of clostridium tetani?

rod

91

Is there a vaccine for Tetanus?

Yes

92

Is there an antitoxin for Tetanus?

yes

93

What is the general treatment for tetanus?

Injecting affected person with human tetanus immune globulin. Muscle relaxants and supportive care. Make sure wound is cleaned out of dead tissue and foreign material.

94

What is the causative organism for Gas Gangrene?

Several species of Clostridium, Clostridium perfrigens is most common.

95

What is the shape of Clostridium perfrigens?

Rod

96

What is the gram stain of Clostridium perfrigens?

Gram positive

97

What is the general treatment of gas gangrene?

Prompt surgical removal of all dead and infected tissues and may require amputations. Antibiotics such as penicillin are given to help stop bacterial growth and toxin production

98

What is the causative organism of Cat Scratch?

Bartonella henselae

99

What is the gram stain of Bartonella henselae?

Gram-negative

100

What is the method of transmission for Cat Scratch (bartonellosis)?

A zoonosis- spread among cats by fleas.

101

What is the shape of Bartonella henselae?

Rod

102

What is the general treatment of Cat Scratch?

Clean with soap and water as soon as possible and treated with antiseptic and antibacterial

103

What is the causative organism of Human Bite Wounds?

Aerobic and anaerobic members of normal mount microbiota, including fusiforms, spirochetes, Bacteroids, species and Staphylococcs aureus.

104

What is the general treatment of Human Bite Wounds?

Opening infected area with scalpel, washing the wound thoroughly with sterile fluid.

105

What is the causative organism for Streptobacillary Rat Bite Fever?

Streptobacillus moniliformis

106

What is the gram stain of Streptobacillus moniliformis?

Gram negative

107

What is the shape of Streptobacillus moniliformis?

Rod, that varies in shape (pleomorphic)

108

What is the method of transmission for Streptobacillary Rat Bite Fever?

It enters the body through a bite or scratch, and sometimes by ingestion.

109

What is the general treatment of Streptobacillary Rat Bite Fever?

Penicillin, given intravenously.

110

What is the causative organism of Sporotrichosis?

Sporothrix schenckii

111

What is Sporothrix schenckii?

Dimorphic fungus

112

What is the general treatment of sporotrichosis?

antifungal

113

What is the causative organism for Tooth Decay?

Streptococcus mutans

114

What is the gram stain of Streptococcus mutans?

Gram positive

115

What is the shape of Streptococcus mutans?

cocci

116

What is the method of transmission for Tooth decay?

Intake of dietary sucrose and access to preventive dental care. Genetics.

117

What is the general treatment of tooth decay?

Drilling out the cavity, filling the defect with material such as amalgam, and restoring the contour of the tooth.

118

What is the causative organism for Periodontal disease?

Microbes in dental plaque. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella (Bacteroides) forsythia.

119

What are the gram stains for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella (Bacteroides) forsythia?

Gram negative

120

What is the method of transmission for Periodontal disease?

Plaque and tartar that accumulates at the gum margin and gradually extends into the gingival crevice.

121

What is the general treatment for Periodontal disease?

Cleaning out the inflamed gingival crevice and removing plaque and tartar. In advanced cases, minor surgery is usually required to expose and clean the roots of the teeth.

122

What is the causative organism for Helicobacter pylori Gastritis?

Helicobacter pylori

123

What is the gram stain for Helicobacter pylori?

Gram negative

124

What is the shape of Helicobacter pylori?

Helical or spiral

125

What is the method of transmission for Helicobacter pylori gastritis?

Fecal-oral transmission. Incidence increases with age.

126

What is the general treatment of Helicobacter pylori gastritis?

Treated with a combination of two antibiotics and a medication that inhibits stomach acid production.

127

What is the causative organism for Herpes Simplex?

Herpes simplex virus (HSV), usually type 1.

128

What is the method of transmission for HSV?

Transmitted by close physical contact. The saliva of asymptomatic individuals can be infectious.

129

What is the general treatment for HSV?

Acyclovir, penciclovir and similar medications that target HSV DNA polymerase can shorten the duration of the symptoms or prevent recurrences.

130

What is the causative organism for Mumps?

Mumps virus.

131

What is the method of transmission for Mumps?

Humans are the only source of the virus & infections are often asymptomatic so the disease can be spread unknowingly.

132

What is the general treatment for Mumps?

None

133

Is there a vaccine for Mumps?

Yes.

134

What is the causative organism for Cholera?

Vibrio cholerae

135

What is the gram stain of Vibrio cholera?

Gram negative

136

What is the shape of Vibrio cholera?

Rod

137

What is the method of transmission for Cholera?

Ingestion of fecally contaminated food or water; sometimes associated with marine crustaceans.

138

What is the general treatment for Cholera?

Replacement of fluid and electrolytes using IV or oral rehydration therapy.

139

Is there a vaccine for Cholera?

Yes, a number of countries other than the US.

140

What is the causative organism for Shigellosis?

S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei.

141

What is the gram stain of the Shigella species?

Gram negative

142

What is the shape of the Shigella species?

Rod

143

What is the method of transmission for Shigellosis?

Fecal-oral route

144

What is the general treatment for Shigellosis?

Antimicrobial medications.

145

What is the causative organism of E. coli gastroenteritis?

Escherichia coli.

146

What is the gram stain of E coli?

gram negative

147

What is the shape of E coli?

Rod

148

What is the general treatment for E coli?

Depends on symptoms and infection strains, but fluid lost from vomiting and diarrhea should be replaced.

149

What is the method of transmission for E. Coli?

Foodborne or waterborne, fecal-oral route transmission, some strains have an animal source, common in travelers.

150

Is there an antitoxin for E. Coli?

Yes, a-b toxin

151

What is the causative organism for Clostridium difficile Associated-disease?

Clostridium difficile

152

What is the general treatment for C. diff?

fecal transplant in very bad cases

153

What is the method of transmission for C. diff?

patients on antibiotic therapy

154

What is the shape of Clostridium difficile?

rod

155

What is the gram stain for Clostridium difficile?

gram positive

156

What is the causative organism for Hep A?

Hepatitis A virus

157

What is the method of transmission for Hep A?

fecal-oral route, principally via fecal-contaminated hands, food or water

158

What is the general treatment for HAV?

None

159

Is there a vaccine for HAV?

Yes

160

What is the causative organism for Hep B?

Hepatitis B virus

161

What is the method of transmission for Hep B?

Body fluids, such as saliva, blood, blood products and semen.

162

What is the general treatment for Hep B?

None

163

Is there a vaccine for Hep B?

yes

164

What is the causative organism for Hep C?

Hepatitis C virus

165

The method of transmission of Hep C is:

Blood transmission, sharing of syringes, tattoos and body piercings with unclean instruments have transmitted the disease.

166

What is the general treatment for Hep C?

A combination treatment of interferon and ribavirin sometimes prevents chronic disease.

167

Is there a vaccine for Hep C?

No

168

What's the causative organism for Giardiasis?

Giardia lamblia

169

Giardia lamblia is:

Flagellated protozoan

170

What is the method of transmission for Giardiasis?

Fecal-oral route

171

What is the general treatment for Giardiasis?

Antiprotozoal

172

What is the causative organism for Meningococcal Meningitis?

Neisseria meningitidis

173

What is the gram stain for Neisseria meningitidis?

Gram negative

174

What is the shape of Neisseria meningitidis?

diplococcus

175

What is the method of transmission for Meningococcal Meningitis?

When someone is exposed to a person with the disease or to an asymptomatic carrier

176

What is the general treatment Meningococcal Meningitis?

Antibiotic

177

Is there a vaccine for Meningococcal Meningitis?

Yes

178

What is the causative organism for Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)?

Mycobacterium leprae

179

Mycobacterium leprae is:

rod-shaped, acid-fast

180

The general treatment for Leprosy is:

Antibacterial medications

181

What is the causative organism for Botulism?

Clostridium botulinum

182

What is the gram stain of Clostridium botulinum?

gram positive

183

What is the shape of Clostridium botulinum?

rod shaped

184

Is there an antitoxin for Botulism?

yes

185

What is the general treatment for Botulism?

Enemas and stomach washing to remove toxin, cleaning infected wounds of dirt and dead tissue, IV administration of antitoxin and artificial respiration.

186

What is the causative organism for Viral Encephalitis?

Arboviruses

187

The method of transmission for Viral encephalitis is:

Birds or rodents by mosquitoes

188

What is the general treatment for Viral Encephalitis?

None

189

What is the causative organism for Poliomyelitis?

Polioviruses 1, 2, 3

190

What is the general treatment of Poliomyelitis?

Artificial ventilation for respiratory paralysis, physical therapy and rehabilitation

191

Is there a vaccine for Polio?

Yes

192

What is the method of transmission of Polimyelitis?

Spreads by the fecal-oral route; asymptomatic and nonparalytic cases common

193

What is the causative organism for Rabies?

Rabies Virus

194

What is the method of transmission for the Rabies Virus?

the saliva of a rabid animal introduced into bite wounds of the skin

195

What is the general treatment for the Rabies Virus?

Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water immediately, then apply an antiseptic to avoid any kind of infection.

196

Is there a vaccine for Rabies?

Yes

197

What is the causative organism for Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis?

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii

198

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are:

Spherical yeasts

199

What is the general treatment for Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis?

Antifungal medication

200

What is the method of transmission for Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis?

inhalation of material contaminated with the fungus

201

What is the causative organism for African Sleeping Sickness?

Trypanosoma brucei

202

Trypanosoma brucei is:

a flagellated protozoan

203

What is the general treatment for African Sleeping Sickness?

suramin, with central nervous system is involved: melarsoprol or eflornithine

204

What is the causative organism of Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy?

Prions

205

What are prions?

Proteinaceous infectious particles

206

What is the general treatment for Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy?

No treatment, always fatal.

207

What is the method of transmission for Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy?

Human-to-human transmission by corneal transplantation and by contaminated surgical instruments, probably transmission of cattle prions to humans by eating contaminated beef.

208

What is the causative organism for Subacute Endocarditis?

Viridans Streptococci and Staphylococcus epidermidis

209

What is the general treatment for Subacute Endocarditis?

Bactericidal antibiotics given together

210

What is the method of transmission for Subacute Endocarditis?

People at risk are mainly those with congenital heart defects or with hearts damaged by disease such as rheumatic fever; may develop after dental procedures or other situations that cause bacteremia.

211

What is the causative organism for Sepsis and Septic Shock?

Gram-negative bacteria

212

Gram-negative bacteria contains:

Lipopolysaccharide, also referred to as endotoxin

213

What is the method of transmission for Sepsis and Septic shock?

Sepsis is mainly a healthcare-associated disease, reflecting the high incidence of bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients with impaired host defenses.

214

What is the general treatment for Sepsis and Septic shock?

Antimicrobial medications effective against the causative organism. Fluid replacement and support for organ dysfunction.

215

Is there an antitoxin for septic shock?

Yes

216

What is the causative organism of Brucellosis/undulant fever?

Brucella

217

What is the gram stain of Brucella?

gram-negative

218

What is the shape of Brucella?

Rod

219

What is the general treatment for Undulant Fever?

Antibiotic

220

What is the causative organism for Black Death/plague?

Yersinia pestis

221

What is the gram stain of Yersinia pestis?

Gram-negative

222

What is the shape of Yersinia pestis?

Rod

223

What is the method of transmission of the Plague?

Transmitted by fleas

224

What is the general treatment for the plague?

Prompt diagnosis and antibacterial treatment necessary to prevent high mortality.

225

What is the causative organism for Infectious Mononuclosis?

Epstein-Barr virus

226

What is the general treatment of Mono?

antiviral medication

227

What is the method of transmission of Mono?

Spread by saliva

228

What is the causative organism of Yellow Fever?

Yellow Fever virus

229

What is the method of transmission of Yellow Fever?

Household mosquitoes that bite humans

230

What is the general treatment of Yellow fever?

None

231

Is there a vaccine for Yellow fever?

Yes

232

What is the causative organism for Malaria?

Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum are the most common

233

Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum are:

Protozoans

234

What is the method of transmission for Malaria?

person to person by bite of infected Anopheles mosquito

235

What is the treatment for Malaria?

Depends on the life cycle of the parasite.


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