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Respiratory Festival Chapter 22

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1

Which parts of the respiratory system function as the main sites of gas exchange?

primary bronchi
trachea
alveoli
terminal bronchioles

alveoli

2

Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?

coryza
pneumonia
tuberculosis
emphysema

emphysema

3

Hypoxia can be caused by ______.

hyposecretion of erythropoietin
having a fever
slightly elevated level of lactic acid in the blood
All of the listed responses are correct.

hyposecretion of erythropoietin

4

The olfactory mucosal lining of the nasal cavity contains the receptors for the sense of smell.

True
False

True

5

What is ventilation-perfusion coupling?

matching the amount of oxygen exchanged for carbon dioxide in the alveoli to the exchange at the tissue level
matching the amount of blood flow through the body to the amount of oxygen in the air sacs
matching the amount of gas reaching the alveoli to the blood flow in pulmonary capillaries
matching the amount of gas reaching the alveoli to pO2 and pCO2 values in the blood

matching the amount of gas reaching the alveoli to the blood flow in pulmonary capillaries

6

During normal quiet breathing, approximately 750 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs with each breath.

True
False

False

7

The alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation.

True
False

True

8

Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?

alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs
alveoli
respiratory bronchioles

Aveoli

9

The __________ is also known as the "guardian of the airways."

epiglottis
glottis
larynx
vestibular folds

epiglottis

10

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.

filtration
osmosis
active transport
diffusion

diffusion

11

What is the most immediate driving force behind pulmonary ventilation?

smooth muscle contraction
air sac contraction
intrapulmonary pressure change
environmental stimuli

intrapulmonary pressure change

12

Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?

partial pressure of carbon dioxide
number of red blood cells
temperature
partial pressure of oxygen

number of RBC

13

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.

concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes
basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes
temperature is lower at higher altitudes

concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

14

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.

respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs
alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts
atria and alveolar sacs

alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

15

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.

trap dust and other debris
secrete surfactant
replace mucus in the alveoli
protect the lungs from bacterial invasion

Secrete surfactant

16

Dalton's law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.

True
False

True

17

_________, the difference between the intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressures, prevents the lungs from collapsing.

Transthoracic pressure
Intraalveolar pressure
Transpulmonary pressure
Atmospheric pressure

Transpulmonary pressure

18

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.

protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations
warming the air before it enters
humidifying the air before it enters
interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

19

Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?

internal respiration
external respiration
blood pH adjustment
pulmonary ventilation

blood PH adjustment

20

Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?

carbon dioxide
temperature
nitric oxide
BPG

nitric oxide

21

Emphysema is distinguished by permanent shrinkage of the alveoli.

True
False

False

22

Which of the following initiates inspiration?

diencephalon
pontine respiratory centers
ventral respiratory group (VRG)
dorsal respiratory group (DRG)

Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)

23

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

solubility in water
the temperature
partial pressure gradient
molecular weight and size of the gas molecule

partial pressure gradient

24

Which of the following pressures rises and falls with the phases of breathing, but eventually equalizes with the atmospheric pressure?

intrapulmonary pressure
transpulmonary pressure
atmospheric pressure
intrapleural pressure

intrapulmonary pressure

25

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.

porous structure of turbinate bones
abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa
action of the epiglottis
ciliated mucous lining in the nose

ciliated mucous in the lining of the nose

26

Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia.

True
False

True

27

Which volumes are combined to provide the inspiratory capacity?

expiratory reserve volume (ERV) + residual volume (RV)
tidal volume (TV) + inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) + expiratory reserve volume (ERV) + residual volume (RV)
tidal volume (TV) + inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) + expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
tidal volume (TV) + inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

tidal volume (TV) + inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

28

Tracheal obstruction is life threatening.

True
False

True

29

Which of the following qualifies as a fully saturated hemoglobin molecule?

hemoglobin is transporting three oxygen molecules
hemoglobin is transporting four oxygen molecules
hemoglobin is transporting two oxygen molecules
hemoglobin is transporting one oxygen molecule

hemoglobin is transporting four oxygen molecules

30

Emphysema can result in an ______.

increased level of carbaminohemoglobin
increased level of deoxyhemoglobin
increased likelihood of the skin of Caucasians developing a slightly blue coloration
All of the listed responses are correct.

All listed answers are correct

31

Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.

getting very cold
taking several rapid deep breaths
obstruction of the esophagus
too little oxygen in the atmosphere

too little O2 in the atmosphere

32

Which muscles are activated during normal quiet inspiration?

diaphragm and internal intercostal muscles
diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, and pectoralis minor muscles
oblique and transversus muscles

diaphragm and external intercostal muscles

33

Which of the following pressures must remain negative to prevent lung collapse?

atmospheric pressure
intrapleural pressure
transpulmonary pressure
intrapulmonary pressure

intrapleural pressure

34

The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.

surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity
the visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs
the smooth muscles of the lung
the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone

surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

35

Which of the following gives the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas?

Boyle's law
Haldane effect
Dalton's law of partial pressures
Henry's law

Boyle's law

36

Why is a patient with tuberculosis often noncompliant with treatment?

TB infection causes damage to the nervous system, resulting in changes in personality and judgment.
Due to the time length of treatment, the patient may stop taking the medication when they start to feel better.
Due to the psychological side effects of the antibiotic used, the patient may stop taking the medication when they start to feel better.
Due to the physiological side effects of the antibiotic used, the patient may stop taking the medication when they start to feel better.

Due to the length of treatment, the patient may stop taking the medication when they start to feel better

37

Which center is located in the pons?

expiratory center
pontine respirator group (PRG)
inspiratory center
pacemaker neuron center

Pontine respirator group (PRG)

38

Intrapleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli.

True
False

True

39

Which of the following is NOT a physical factor that influences pulmonary ventilation?

lung compliance
partial pressure of oxygen in the air
airway resistance
alveolar surface tension

partial pressure of O2 in the air

40

The paired lungs occupy all of the thoracic cavity.

True
False

False

41

Which of the following is NOT a function of the larynx?

to provide a patent airway
stimulation of the "cough" reflex
to act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels
to assist in taste sensation
voice production

to assist in taste sensation

42

Tidal volume is air ________.

remaining in the lungs after forced expiration
exchanged during normal breathing
inhaled after normal inspiration
forcibly expelled after normal expiration

exchanged during normal breathing

43

Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?

Respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus.
Respiratory exchanges are not necessary.
Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.
Because the lungs develop later in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for respiratory exchange.

Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.

44

What part of the larynx covers the laryngeal inlet during swallowing to keep food out of the lower respiratory passages?

epiglottis
thyroid cartilage
vocal folds
glottis

epiglottis

45

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.
Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing.
During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid.
The chest wall becomes more rigid with age.

Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.

46

What determines the respiratory rhythm in the body?

Hering-Breuer stretch reflexes
medullary respiratory centers
pontine respiratory centers
oxygen levels in the blood

medullary respiration centers

47

The major nonelastic source of resistance to air flow in the respiratory passageways is ________.

friction
surfactant
surface tension
air pressure

Friction

48

What type of epithelial tissue forms the walls of the alveoli?

simple squamous epithelium
simple cuboidal epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

simple squamous epithelium


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