PTA Board Exam Review Ch. 4 Musculoskeletal System

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1

Free Nerve Endings

location: Jt. capsule,lig, synovium, fat pads

Sensitivity: non-noxious mechanical stress/ noxious mechanical or boichemical stimuli

All jts.

2

Pacinian Corpuscles

Loction: fibrous layer of jt. capsule

Sensitivity: high frequency vibration, acceleration, and high velocity changes in jt. position

All jts.

3

Golgi Ligaments Endings

location: lig, adjacent to lig bony attachments

Sensitivity: tension or stretch on ligaments

Majority of jts.

4

Ruffini Endings

location: fibrous layer of jt. capsule

Sensitivity: stretching of jt. capsule; amplitude and velocity of jt. postiton

greater density in proximal jts. particularly in capsular regions

5

Golgi-Mazzoni Corpuscles

location: jt. capsule

Sensitivity: compression of jt. capsule

knee jt, jt, capsule

6

Temporomandibular Jt. Depress

lateral pterygoid

suprahyoid

infrahyoid

7

temporomandibular Jt. Elevate

temporalis

masseter

medial pterygoid

8

Temporomandibular Jt. Protusion

masseter

lateral pterygoid

medial pterygoid

9

Temporomandibular Jt. Retrusion

temporalis

masseter

digastric

10

temporomandibular Jt. Side to Side

medial pterygoid

lateral pterygoid

masseter

temporalis

11

Cervical Intervertebral jt. flexion

sternocleidomastion

longus colli

sclenus muscles

12

Cervical intervertebral jt. extensions

splenius cervicis

semispinalis cervicis

illiocostalis cervicis

longissimus cervicis

multifidus

trapezius

13

cervical intervertebral jt. rotation and lateral bending:

sternocleidomastoid

scalenus muscles

splenius cervicis

longissimus cervicis

iliocostalis cervicis

levator scapulae

multifidus

14

Thoracic&Lumbar Intervertebral Jt. Flexion:

rectus abdominis

internal oblique

external oblique

15

Thoracic&Lumbar Intervertebral Jt. Extension:

erector spinae

quadratus lumborum

multifidus

16

Thoracic&Lumbar Intervertebral Jt. Rotation and Lateral Bending:

Psoas major

quadratus lumborum

External oblique

Internal oblique

multifidus

longissimus thoracis

iliocostalis thoracis

rotatores


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