Micro

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Microbiology
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1

Microbiology

the study of small unicellular living things

2

3 techniques used in microbiology

1. Isolate specific populations

2. sterilize media

3. produce pure cultures

3

Microbe

a generic term for any small living things

4

7 type of microbes

1. Archaea

2. Bacteria

3. Protozoa

4. Algae

5. Yeast/Fungi

6. Helminths

7. Viruses

5

Archaea

unicellular, procaryotes, very primitive

6

Bacteria

unicellular procaryotes

7

PROTOZOA

unicellular eucaryotes & heterotrophs

8

Algae

unicellular eucaryotes autotrophs (make their own food)

9

Yeasts/Fungi

eucaryotes heterotrophs & saprophytes (live off dead things)

10

Helminthes

multicellular eucaryotes (parasitic worms)

11

Viruses

noncellular particle NOT ALIVE

12

5 Branches Of Microbiology

1. Bacteriology

2. Mycology

3. Parasitology

4. Immunology

5. Virology

13

Bacteriology

study of bacteria

14

Mycology

study of fungi & yeast

15

Parasiteology

study of parasites

16

Immunology

study of body defenses

17

Virology

Study of Viruses

18

Procaryote Cells

type of cell that does not have a nuclear membrane.

DOES have a cell wall & very few organelles

19

4 examples of prokaryote cells

1. bacterium

2. rickettsias

3. chlamydia

4. mycoplasmas

20

Bacterium

a single from

21

Rickettsias

Procaryotes spread by blood sucking insects

22

Chlamydia

STD

23

mycoplasmas

smallest living things, live inside of other cells

24

L forms

any prokaryote which has lost it's cell wall due to the action of chemicals

25

eukaryote cell

has a nuclear membrane different than procaryotes internally

26

5 types of eukaryotes

1. fungus

2. protozoa

3. algae

4. hemoflagellates

5. helminths

27

hemoflagellates

attack the blood, ex malaria

28

Reasons to study Microbiology #1

Food

29

Food that contains microbes

buttermilk & yogurt (St. thermophiles & lactobacillus bulgaris)

cheese ( lactococcus

hams, bologna & salami (pedicoccus & lactobacillus plantarum)

alcohol (saccharomyces cerevisiae)

Vinegar (acetobacter &gluconobacter)

bread (saccharomyces cerevisiae)

Soy sauce, tofu, sauerkraut, kimchi, pickles olives coffee & miso

30

Reason to study microbiology #2

sewage treatment & remediation

31

sewage treatment & remediation

bacteria breaks down organic molecules in oil spills, converts solid landfill waste to CO2, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates

32

bioremediation

bacteria produce enzymes to break down toxins

(thiobacillus ferrooxidans) converts sulfur to sulfuric acid & lowers h2o ph

33

Reason 3 to study Microbiology

Pest Control

34

Bacillus thurungiensis

attacks larvae of Japanese beetles & cabbage worms

35

Reason 4 to study Micro

biotechnology & research

36

Biotechnology & research

gene therapy to treat ADA, acetone & acetic acid, cellulose to stone wash jeans, biosensors to detect pollutants quickly

37

reason 4 to study micro

produce vital materials

ex: b12 pseudomonas, vitamin k (echoli), vitamin c (cider vinear)

38

Reason 5 to study Micro

Medicine

Ex H1N1,H5N1, MRSA, VRSA,BSE (mad cow)

39

microbial ecology

relationship of microbes & enviroment

40

autotrophs

makes it iwn food by carbon fixation

ex: plants, bacteria & algae

41

heterotrophs

cant make it's own food, cant do carbon fixation

ex humans & bunnies

42

True/False:

Dead organisms must be broken down to return the carbon to the cycle

TRUE

43

saprophytes

organisms that break down dead & rotting material

ex bacteria fungi

44

glycosis

breakdown of glucose to pyruvate to release 2 ATP

45

fermentation

anaerobic breakdown of pyruvate to produce ATP, carbone dioxide & alcohol

46

Citric Acid Cycle

aerobic break down of pyruvate to produce 36 ATP, water & carbon dioxide

47

Nitrogen Cycle

nitrogen is used for amino acids & nucleic acids which are essential for life

48

True/False:

Most of nitrogen is molecular gas and not useable

True

49

True/False:

Nitrogen gas does not need to be fixed into organic compounds

False

50

What are the 3 bacteria that help with nitrogen fixation to turn N2 to ammonium?

Rhizobium, Azotobacter, rhodospirillium

51

Nitrogen cycle in order

Nitrogen gas, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, amiono acids/proteins

52

Sulfur Cycle

Sulfur is essential for the formation of amino acids such as cysteine, methionine & coenzymes

53

Sulfur Cycle in order

hydrogen sulfide, sulfur, sulfite, sulfate, amino acids/ proteins

54

Metric System

mm 103,, um106 (micro), nm 109, A1010

55

Taxonomy

process of grouping things & naming them

56

Purpose of taxonomy #1

Classify

57

Classify

To put things into groups based on their characteristics

58

Purpose of classification

helps you to understand things quicker & easier

59

Purpose of taxonomy #2

nomenclature

60

nomenclature

an organized system of naming things

61

purpose of nomenclature

to prevent confusion

62

Purpose of Taxonomy #3

Identify

63

Identify

putting it into a group based on it's charecteristics so it can be actually named

64

2 methods of organization

1. Phenetic

2. Phylogenetic

65

Phenetic

putting it into groups by phenotypes

ex. shapes, size, morphology, staining cilia, motility, endospores, inclusions or colors

66

Phylogenetic

shows actual relationships between organisms

ex. uses genetic material such as tRNA, rRNa, compositon in DNA, differences in cell membrane lipid structure, cell wall structure, ABT sensitivity

67

True/False:

DNA makes RNA which makes proteins such as enzymes

True

68

Content of DNA

proportion of gunanine and cytosine in the DNA

sequence of nucleic acids in rRNA

results in branching trees

69

Domain

Largest group bigger than a kingdom

70

Eucarya

eukaryotic organisms such a fungi,protista, plantae& animalia

(all have nuclear membranes, cell walls if present are made of carbs,)

71

True/False:

Eucarya are sensitive to antibiotics

FALSE

72

True/False:

Bacteria are sensitive to antibiotics

True

73

Bacteria

prokaryotic organisms that have cell walls which have some peptidoglycan & do not have a nuclear membrane

74

Archaea

Procaryotic organisms that live in extreme enviroments such as methanogens, halophiles and hyperthermophiles

75

Species

strains with stable properties in common and differ significantly from other groups

76

Strains

a subgroup of a species which has a few different traits

usually arises from a single organism

77

3 types of strains

Biovar, morphovar, serovar

78

Biovar

variant of a prokaryotic strain due to biochemical & physiological differences

79

morphovar

variant of a prokaryotic strain due to shape & morphological differences

80

serovar

variant of a prokaryotic strain due to antigen differences

81

8 Levels of Organization

Dumb

King

Philip

Came

Over

For

Good

Sloppy

Sex

82

Domain

Archaea, bacteria and eucarya

83

Kingdom

subdivision of a domain

ex Eucarya has Protista, fungi, plantae,Animalia

84

Phylum

division of a kingdom

85

Class

division of a phylum

86

Order

division of a class

87

Family

division of an order

88

Genus

division of a family

89

Species

small and most specific chromosomal compatibility division of genus

90

Strain

smallest group division of species

91

Binomial

system of naming things using 2 names

92

4 Eukaryotic Kingdoms

1. Protozoa

2. Fungi

3. Plantae

4. Animalia

93

Protozoa

eucaryotes, unicellular, or colonial or filamentous BUT each cell is independent

ex: protozoa algae, slime molds, amoeba, ciliates, flagellates, diatoms

94

Fungi

eucaryotes single or multicellular heterotrophic nonmotile with cell walls

95

plantae

eucaryotes multicellular autotrophic nonmotile

96

animalia

eucaryotes, multicellular heterotrophic motile

97

The 5 I's

Inoculation

Incubation

Isolation

Inspection

Identification

98

Inoculum

a small sample

99

Medium

the material that contains nutrients for growth

100

Culture

any growth of the microbe

101

Colony

growth on a solid medium

102

Turbidity

Cloudiness in liquid medium

103

True/False:

The microbe must have a specific enzyme to break down organic compounds

True

104

Fastidious Heterotrophs

very picker eater with very precise needs

Ex: Legionella, bordetella pertussis, H pylori

105

Saprophytes

break down dead or rotting material

ex fungi & mold

106

Parasite

lives on other living things

107

Obligate parasite

must live in another living thing cant survive outside for long

Ex chlamydia, rickettsia

108

Facultative parasite

this can survive outside the host

ex: staph epidermidis, enterococcus faecalis

109

methanogenesis

another way of making own food using methane

ex algae rhodospirillum rubrum

110

autotrophs

ex algae rhodospirillum rubrum

111

True/False:

elemental nitrogen can be used by some microbes (rhizobium)

True

112

True/False

inorganic nitrogen (ammonia salts & nitrates) can be used by some microbes & plants

true

113

True /False

salt is an ionic compound

true

114

obligate halophiles

must have a high salt concentration

115

Example of obligate halophiles

Halobacterium

116

Haltolerant (Facultative halophiles)

can tolerate salt levels

ex Staph aureus

117

Sacchrophile

needs high levels of sugar

118

Sacchrotolerant

can tolerate sugar levels

ex Staph aureus

119

True/False

Bacteria will not tolerate low ph while fungi do

True

120

2 examples of acidophiles

1. Euglena mutabilis

2. Helicobacter pylori

121

Euglena mutabilis

will spoil pickled products along with molds and yeasts

122

H pylori

can survive the acidity of the stomach, breaks down urea to from ammonium to create alkaline conditions

123

Alkalinophiles

higher ph

ex: alcaligenes faecalis

124

Broth

liquid medium, usually kept in a test tube, easy to store & inoculate BUT DOES NOT ALLOW FOR examination of the colony

125

Solid

agar added to nutrients to make it solid

126

Slant

has 2 areas, good for growing colonies to examine

127

Gel

semisolid medium

128

natural media

this is medium that comes from natural sources

ex blood, tomato, animal extracts & milk agar

129

Synthetic medium

aka minimal medium

this is medium that is completely man made

ex simmons citrate medium has only 1 sugar in it

130

General purpose media

used to grow broad spectrum microbes, nonsynthetic

ex: agar, BHI, TSA

131

Nutrient Medium

contains beef extract not for protein but for peptone which acts as a buffer

132

Enriched media

nonaynthetic used for growing fastidious heterotrophs, are heat labile & must be sterilized by filtration

ex blood agar, milk agar

133

selective media

used for separation of microbes one or more agents added to the media inhibit growth or some microbes but allows others to flourish

134

EMB

adding crystal violet to the media will kill gram + bacterium but not affect the gram (-) bacteria

135

MSA

high salt concentration so staphylococci & other halophiles can grow

136

Differnetial media

provides a visible difference between organisms

137

True/False

E choli & citrobacter are fermenters & will change look metallic green

true

138

True/False

Enterobacter & klebsiella are non fermenters & will appear purple

true

139

True/False

Staph aureus will change yellow in MSA

True

140

True/False

Staph epidermidis will cause the medium to get darker in MSA

True

141

Broths with durham tubes

the durham tube is a small upside capsule in the test tube filled with broth, it will capture any gas produced, specialized for anaerobes

142

Lag phase

no new Microbes the cells are readjusting to the new situation & making cellular components

143

exponential phase

there is a drastict increase in the # of cells, growth is balanced if nutirents remain constant

144

stationary phase

the growth plateaus or evens out, # of deaths equals # of new cells, due to exhaustion of nutrients ph changes wastes build up

145

death phase

another drastic change in the # of cells, nutrients are depleted, wastes build up

146

psychrophiles

likes it 0-15

147

psychrobacter

facultative psycrophile grows at 20-30

ex staph aureus

148

mesophiles

grows around 25-40, causes disease

ex e choli, klebsiella pneumonaie

149

thermophiles

grows over 50

ex geobacillus stereothermophilus

150

aerobes

must have O2 for metabolism

ex Micrococcus, Pseudomonas (turns plate green)

151

Anaerobes

does not use O2 for it's metabolism it has different enzymes

152

Obligate anaerobes

cannot tolerate O2

ex clostridium sporogenes

153

Facultative anaerobes

they don't use O2 but they can tolerate it

ex coliforms such as E choli, fecal streptococci

154

Microaerophiles

uses small amounts of O2

ex treponema pallidum (syphilis)

155

capnophiles

grow best at a higher carbon dioxide tension than normally in the atmosphere

ex Neisseria gonorrhea, N meningitis

156

Pure culture aka Axenic

culture that has only 1 species of microbe in it

157

Mixed culture

2 or more known microbes

158

Contaminated culture

unknown or unwanted cultures

159

colony

growth on any solid medium

160

Streak plates

sperates cells over an area so you can get a pure colony


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