Heredity

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1

allele

one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus (location) on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits

2

heterozygous

having two different alleles for a trait (ex. Tt)

3

homozygous

having two identical alleles for a trait (ex. TT)

4

dominance

An organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. (ex. Bb ---The big B would be dominant

5

recessiveness

the allele that will only exert its effects if no dominant allele is present (2 blonde alleles produce blonde hair)

6

genotype

the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism ex. Bb or BB or bb

7

phenotype

physical characteristics of an organism ex. brown eyes

8

incomplete dominance

one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele
ex. B would be the dominant allele in Bb

9

diploid chromosomal number

the chromosomal number characteristic of an organism, symbolized as 2n: twice the chromosomnal number (n) of the gamete, in humans 2n= 46

10

Diploid number =

46 (23 pairs of homologous chromosomes)

11

1 pair of sex chromosomes determines what?

the genetic sex (XX = female, XY = male)

12

XX =

female

13

XY =

male

14

22 pairs of autosomes guide expression what?

of most other traits

15

karyotype

the diploid chromosomal complement, typically shown as homologous chromosome pairs arranged from longest to shortest (x and y are arranged by size rather than paired)

16

genome

the complete set of chromosomes derived from one parent (the haploid genome): or the two sets of chromosomes ex one set from the egg and one set from the sperm
genetic (DNA) makeup; two sets of genetic instructions (maternal and paternal)

17

What is SS, when it comes to sickle cell?

normal Hb is made

18

what is Ss, when it comes to sickle cell

sickle-cell trait (both aberrant and normal Hb are made); can suffer a sickle-cell crisis under prolonged reduction in blood O2)

19

what is ss, when it comes to sickle cell?

sickle-cell anemia (only aberrant Hb is made; more susceptible to sickle-cell crisis)

20

What is the Punnett square used for?

predicts the possible gene combinations resulting from the mating of parents of known genotypes

21

gametogenesis

formation of gametes (sex or germ cells)

22

independent assortment of chromosomes

during gametogenisis maternal and paternal chromosomes are randomly distributed to daughter cells, the two alleles of each pair are segregated and distributed independently

23

crossover

when genes on the same chromosome are linked, the genes crossover forming a chiasma and exchange segments so that the recombinant chromosomes have mixed contributions from each parent

24

random fertilization

a single egg released from the mother is fertilized by one of the trillions of sperm released from the father

25

dominant-recessive inheritance

reflects the interaction of dominant and recessive allele

26

punnett square

used to predict the possible gene combinations resulting from the mating of parents of known genotypes

27

incomplete dominance

occurs when both parents have a recessive gene
as in sickle cell anemia ss

28

multiple allele inheritance (co dominance)

when two genes exhibit more than two forms - such as ABO blood typing

29

sex-linked inheritance

inherited traits determined by genes on the sex chromosome
X linked traits are usually passed on from mother to son

30

polygene inheritance

many phenotypes depend on several gene pairs at different locations acting in tandem- which results in continuous, or quantitive, phenotypic variations between two extremes and explains many human characteristics, such as skin color, height, metabolic rate and intelligence

31

phenocopies

environmentally produced phenotypes mimic conditions which may be caused by genetic mutations (permanent transmissible changes in the DNA)this also occurs as an effect of poor nutrition and drug use (thalidomide babies - that ended up with flipper like appendages)

32

Blood A

IA IA or IA i

33

Blood B

IB IB or IB i

34

Blood AB

AB

35

Blood O

ii

36

genetic screening

newborns are screened for a number of anatomical disorders - congenital hip dysplasia, imperforate anus, PKU, and other metabolic disorders - thes tests are mandated by law in many states

37

huntingtons disease

Huntington's disease is a disorder passed down through families in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain waste away, or degenerate.
Huntington's disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4.

38

down syndromme

trisomy 21 - a chromosome abnormality with a high incidence in children of older mothers (35 and older)

39

pedigrees

traces a genetic trait through several generations and helps predict the future

40

amniocentesis

Fetal testing when there is a known genetic disorder - fluid in the amniotic sac is tested through the mothers abdominal wall

41

CVS

chorionic villus sampling - suctions off bits of the chorionic villi from the placenta for examination

42

human gene therapy

replacing a defective gene with a normal version -

43

genetics

the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms

44

diploid

(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number

45

haploid

(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes

46

diploid number =

46 - 23 pairs of homlogous chromosomes

47

XX

female

48

So glad your using my cards - I hope they help, pay it forward and help someone else

So glad your using my cards - I hope they help, pay it forward and help someone else

49

XY

male

50

karyotype

the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)

51

genome

genetic DNA make up - two sets of genetic instructions (maternal and paternal)

52

maternal

from the mother

53

paternal

from the father

54

alleles

matched genes at the same location on homologous chromosomes

55

homozygous

term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait

56

heterozygous

term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait

57

dominant

an allele that masks or suppresses its (recessive) partner

58

genotype

the genetic make up ex. BB

59

phenotype

the way the genotype is expressed ex. brown eyes

60

what are the sexual sources of genetic variation

1. independent assortment of chromosomes
2. crossover of homologues
3. random fertilization of eggs by sperm

61

gametogenesis

the development and maturation of sex cells through meiosis

62

meiosis 1

results in 2 haploid daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell, the daughter cells have a set of chromosomes and alleles that are different from each other and from the original diploid cell

63

What happens during segregation and independant assortment

gametogenesis, maternal and paternal chromosomes are randomly distributed to daughter cells, the two alleles of each pair are segregated during meiosis 1, alleles on different pairs of homlogous chromosomes are distributed independently

64

What is meant by crossover and genetic recombination

genes on the same chromosome are linked, chromosomes can cross over, forming a chiasma, and exchange segments, these recombinant chromosomes have mixed contributions from each parent

65

chiasma

an intersection or crossing of two tracts in the form of the letter X

66

recombinant chromosomes

A chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromosome.

67

random fertilization

source of genetic variation caused by the unlimited number of possible sperm & egg combinations

68

an offspring represents one out of 72 trillion zygote possibilities, how is this made possible?

because of independent assortment and random fertilization

69

how are most traits determined

by multiple alleles or by the interaction of several gene pairs

70

types of inheritance include (6)

dominant- recessive inheritance
incomplete dominance
mutiple allele inheritance (co dominance)
sex linked inheritance
polygene inheritance
phenocopies

71

dominant- recessive inheritance

reflects the interaction of dominant and recessive alleles

72

what does the punnett square do

predicts the possible gene cobinations resulting from the mating of parents of known genotypes

73

a dominant allele is represented by what?

a capitol letter

74

Dominant-recessive inheritance

One allele can mask the other allele

75

Incomplete dominance

Heterozygote has a phenotype that is intermediate between the homozygous dominant and recessive phenotypes

76

Multiple-allele Inheritance

Blood types are an example of a trait expressed this way

77

Polygenic Inheritance

Traits that depend on several different genes

78

Sex-linked inheritance

One form is Y-linked, and the other is X-linked

79

Allele

An alternative gene form

80

Genome

The set of all genes

81

Genotype

The actual genetic makeup

82

Homozygous

Two identical alleles for a gene

83

Phenotype

The expression of the genes in form (for example, skin color)

84

What is the chance the offspring will possess these traits or diseases?Albinism, if both parents are heterozygous for the albino gene

25%

85

What is the chance the offspring will possess these traits or diseases? Huntington's, if one parent is heterozygous for the Huntington's gene

50%

86

What is the chance the offspring will possess these traits or diseases? Sickle-cell anemia, if one parent is heterozygous for the sickle-cell gene

0%

87

Polygenic - what type of inheritance (phenotype) occcurs

Height

88

Multiple-allele - what type of inheritance (phenotype) occcurs

Blood type

89

Dominant-recessive -what type of inheritance (phenotype) occcurs

Tay-Sachs disease

90

Sex-linked -what type of inheritance (phenotype) occcurs

Hemophilia

91

A cell from a person with trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) contains _____.

Abnormal chromosome number

92

A sperm cell is produced by _____.

Meiosis

93

A blastocyst is produced by _____.

Mitosis

94

An ovum contains, how many chromosomes?

23 chromosomes

95

A zygote contains, how many chromosomes?

46 chromosomes

96

What will the offspring's blood type be if Mother is type O, and father is type A

Type A or type O

97

What will the offspring's blood type be if Mother is type AB, and father is type O

Type A or type B

98

What will the offspring's blood type be if Mother is type B, and father is type AB.

Type A, type B, or type AB

99

What will the offspring's blood type be if Mother is type O, and father is type O

Type O only

100

Alternative forms of genes are called:
a. alleles.
b. genomes.
c. synonyms.
d. telomeres.
e. autosomes.

alleles.
Alternative forms of genes are called alleles. Many alleles are either dominant or recessive.

101

Humans have ____ pairs of chromosomes.
a. 23 b. 46 c.12 d.55 e.60

23 Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Only the egg and sperm have 23 single chromosomes.

102

What type of allele will be expressed if both dominant and recessive alleles are present for a given trait?
a. Autosomal b. Recessive c. Somatic d. Segregated e. Dominant

Dominant
Dominant alleles will be expressed in the heterozygous or homozygous state.

103

Which process listed below separates linked genes during meiosis?
a. Phenotypic plasticity b. Allelic differentiation c. Chiasma, or crossing over d. Sexual differentiation e. Genomic restructuring

Chiasma, or crossing over
Chiasma, or crossing over, separates linked genes during meiosis and increases genetic variation in the offspring.

104

The form of inheritance in which the heterozygous state is expressed as an intermediate is:
a dominant-recessive inheritance.b incomplete dominance. c multiple-allele inheritance. d polygenic inheritance. e sex-linked inheritance.

incomplete dominance.
In incomplete dominance, the heterozygous state is expressed as an intermediate.

105

person who inherits the A and the O blood type alleles will possess which blood type?
a O
b A
c AB
d B
e Cannot be determined

A
The A blood type allele is dominant and the O blood type allele is recessive. In the heterozygous state, the O blood type allele is NOT expressed.

106

Males tend to inherit more sex-linked conditions because:
a. they have two Y chromosomes.
b. there is no corresponding alleles on their X chromosomes.
c. they have more chromosomes than females.
d. there is no corresponding allele on their Y chromosomes.
e. they have two X chromosomes.

there is no corresponding allele on their Y chromosomes.
Males tend to inherit more sex-linked conditions because any defect in the X chromosome (from the mother) has no counterpart on the Y chromosome.

107

A change in the genetic structure of a gene is called:
a mutation.
b deletion.
c duplication.
d translocation.
e inversion.

mutation.
A change in the genetic structure of a gene is called mutation. This change might affect the functioning of a gene.

108

Extrachromosomal inheritance involves genes passed on by the mother's:
a mitochondria.
b Golgi bodies.
c smooth ER.
d chromosomes.
e cytoplasm.

mitochondria.
Extrachromosomal inheritance involves genes passed on by the mother's mitochondria. Mutant forms of mitochondrial genes cause some rare genetic diseases.

109

The most common form of fetal testing is:
a somatic visualization.
b chorionic villi sampling.
c teratogenic sampling.
d gene therapy.
e amniocentesis.

amniocentesis.
The most common form of fetal testing is amniocentesis, in which fetal cells extracted from the amniotic fluid are tested for abnormalities.

110

The expression of genes is called the:
a genotype.
b autotype.
c phenotype.
d pedigree.
e genome.

phenotype.
The actual genetic makeup is called the genotype, but the expression of the genotype is the phenotype.

111

Traits that display continuous phenotypic variation are usually determined by this form of inheritance.
a Dominant-recessive inheritance
b Incomplete dominance
c Sex-linked inheritance
d Polygenic inheritance
e Multiple-allele inheritance

Polygenic inheritance
Traits that display continuous phenotypic variation are usually determined by polygenic inheritance.

112

What is the probability of having a child with a recessive trait if both parents are heterozygous for the trait?
a 50%
b 25%
c 100%
d 10%
e 75%

25%
Each parent has a 50% chance of donating the recessive allele to the baby. 50% × 50% = 25%.

113

A type of treatment useful in correcting single-gene disorders is:
a genetic dysplasia.
b somatic recombination.
c gene therapy.
d amniocentesis.
e chorionic villi sampling.

gene therapy.
The most common approach involves transferring a correct gene via a virus to the affected cells.

114

Heterozygous individuals that can pass on recessive, abnormal conditions are referred to as:
a zygotic.
b phenotypically challenged.
c deleterious donators.
d carriers.
e recessively compromised.

carriers.
While they don't have the disease, they can pass, or "carry," it to their offspring.

115

Genes that are located on the same chromosome are said to be:
a dominant.
b crossed.
c linked.
d syncopated.
e tied.

linked.
Genes that are located on the same chromosome are said to be linked. They are inherited together unless they are broken up during the crossing over process.

116

In the human blood type AB, the alleles are:
a codominant.
b dominant.
c sex-linked.
d polygenic.

codominant.
In the human blood type AB, the alleles are codominant.

117

Which of the following disorders is NOT inherited as simple recessive traits?
a Cystic fibrosis
b Albinism
c Tay-Sachs disease
d Down syndrome
e Schizophrenia

Down syndrome
Down syndrome is a chromosome abnormality.

118

If a male inherits a sex-linked gene for color blindness:
a it will never be expressed.
b it will be expressed only if two copies are present.
c it will only be expressed 25% of the time.
d it will always be expressed

it will always be expressed.
Males always express X-linked genes.

119

The appearance of freckles is considered:
a the genome.
b the phenotype.
c the genotype.
d sex linked.

the phenotype.
The appearance of freckles is considered the phenotype.

120

A person without a Y chromosome will:
a show both male and female characteristics.
b always show female characteristics.
c always show male characteristics.
d be sterile, but show male characteristics.

always show female characteristics.
The Y chromosome has the SRY gene, which is necessary for male characteristics to develop.

121

The 46 chromosomes of a zygote come from
a the egg.
b the sperm.
c the mother and the father.

the mother and the father.
Both parents contribute equally to the DNA content.

122

A karyotype is a complete:
a display of autosomes.
b haploid complement display of chromosomes.
c display of sex hormones.
d diploid complement display of homologous chromosome pairs.

diploid complement display of homologous chromosome pairs.
A karyotype is a complete diploid complement display of homologous chromosome pairs.

123

Any two matched genes that are __________ are called alleles.
a at the same locus on homologous chromosomes
b found only in the mother
c at the same position on the sex chromosomes
d found only on autosomes

at the same locus on homologous chromosomes
Alleles are genes that are at the same locus on homologous chromosomes whether they are autosomes or sex chromosomes.

124

If the allele for brown hair was represented as "B": would mean that
a the gene for brown hair is carried on the maternal chromosome.
b the gene for brown hair is carried on the paternal chromosome.
c brown hair was a recessive trait.
d brown hair was a dominant trait.

brown hair was a dominant trait.The representation of the brown hair gene by "B" means it is a dominant trait.

125

Most human traits are determined by:
a a single allele.
b nutrition during infancy.
c a single pair of genes.
d multiple alleles.

multiple alleles.
Most human traits are determined by multiple alleles

126

Heterozygous parents who have had one child with a recessive disease will have a ___ chance of having their second child being born with the same recessive disease.
a 50%
b 25%
c 12.5%
d 75%

25%
Heterozygous parents who have had one child with a recessive disease will have a 25% chance of having their second child being born with the same recessive disease.

127

A phenocopy occurs when:
a two individuals have exactly the same genetic composition.
b an individual carries the same copy of the gene at both alleles.
c an individual develops a phenotype that is similar to a condition caused by mutant genes but is actually caused by environmental factors and does not have a genetic basis.

an individual develops a phenotype that is similar to a condition caused by mutant genes but is actually caused by environmental factors and does not have a genetic basis.

128

In females, one of the X chromosomes is inactivated by:
a environmental factors.
b enzymes coded for by mitochondrial DNA.
c epigenetic markers.
d the number of dominant genes present on each X chromosome

epigenetic markers.
In females, epigenetic markers inactivate one of the X chromosomes.

129

True or False Gregory Mendel worked out the basic modes of inheritance during the mid-1900s

False Mendel worked in the mid-1800s.

130

True or False All traits are either dominant or recessive.

False There are other modes of inheritance, such as sex-linked inheritance.

131

True or False It is possible to detect heterozygous carriers of Tay-Sachs, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia

True Blood tests and DNA probes are used to detect carriers for these diseases.

132

True or False Chorionic villi sampling is performed earlier in gestation than is amniocentesis.

True Chorionic villi sampling is performed after 8 weeks, and amniocentesis is performed after 14 weeks.

133

True or False Genes located further apart from one another on a chromosome have a greater chance of crossing over.

True Genes located nearer one another have a greater chance of staying together.

134

True or False Females inherit more sex-linked traits than males

False Males inherit more sex-linked traits, because they don't have corresponding regions on their Y chromosome.

135

True or False Continuous phenotypic variation is characteristic of incomplete dominance or intermediate inheritance

False Continuous variation occurs with polygenic inheritance.

136

True or False Genomic imprinting confers different effects and phenotypes on maternal and paternal genes.

True Imprinting involves methylation of certain genes during gametogenesis.

137

True or False Environmental factors may influence the expression of the genotype.

True Freckles do NOT appear if skin is NOT exposed to sunlight.

138

True or False Genes located on the same chromosome are always inherited together

False Genes are linked if they are on the same chromosome, but may be separated by crossing over that occurs during meiosis I.

139

True or False The two sex chromosomes are considered autosomes.

False They are considered sex chromosomes; the X and Y chromosomes have different genes.

140

True or False A person with blood type A (AO genotype) will be considered heterozygous for the trait of blood type

True One allele is A, and the other allele is O. O is recessive to A and will NOT be expressed. Alleles are different.

141

True or False Genetic information is carried on DNA.

True DNA contains genes.

142

True or False The total number of chromosomes found within a human zygote is 23.

False A zygote receives 23 chromosomes from each gamete, and, therefore, has 46 chromosomes.

143

why are autosomal dominent disorders uncommon

because many are lethal and result in death before reproductive age

144

How is huntingtons disease caused

by a delayed action gene

145

sickling gene SS

normal HB is made

146

sickling gene Ss

sickle cell traint - both aberrant and normal Hb are made can suffer a sickle crisis under prolonged reduction in blood O2

147

Sickling gene ss

sickle cell anemia (only aberrant Hb is made, more susceptible to sickle cell crisis

148

alleles for type A Blood

IA IA or IA i

149

allele for type B Blood

IB IB or IB i

150

allele for type AB blood

IA IB

151

allele for type O blood

ii

152

sex linked inheritance

inherited traits determined by genes on the sex chromosomes

153

X chromosomes bare 2500 genes - many are for what

brain function

154

Y chromosomes carry how many genes

78

155

X linked genes are (3)

1. found only on the X chromosome
2. typically passed from mothers to sons (eg hemphillia or red green color blindness)
3. never masked or damped in males (no Y counterpart)

156

polygene inheritance depends on what

several different gene pairs at different locations acting in tandem

157

polygene inheritance results in what

continuous phenotypic variation between two extremes

158

examples in polygene inheritance

skin color, eye color, height

159

phenocopies

environmentally produced phenotypes that mimic conditions caused by genetic mutation

160

environmental factors can influence genetic expression after birth such as what? (2)

poor nutrition can affect brain growth, body development, and height
childhood hormonal deficits can lead to abnormal skeletal growth and proportions

161

what are some of the things that newborns are screened for

congenital hip dysplasia, imperforate anus, PKU and other metabolic disorders,

162

why would a woman ove rthe age of 35 be tested during prenancy? if it were her first pregnancy?

to see if the baby has trisomy 21 - which is Down syndrome

163

what are the two major avenues for identifying carriers of genes?

pedigrees and blood tests

164

what do pedigrees trace?

a particular genetic trait through several generations - helps predict the future

165

what do blood test and DNA probes detect?

the presence of unexpressed recessive genes

166

what diseases can be identified from pedigrees and blood tests?

tay Sachs and Cystic fibrosis

167

when is fetal testing used?

when there is a known genetic disorder

168

what is amniocentesis

amnioitic fluid is withdrawn after the 14th week and fluid and cells are examined for genetic abnormalities

169

what is CVS

chronic villus sampling - chronic villi are sampled and karyotyped for genetic abnormalities

170

what is human gene therapy

genetic engineering has the potential to replace a defective gene, defective cells can be infected with a genetically engineered virus containing a functional gene, the patients cells can be directly injected with corrected DNA


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