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Anatomy - Blood

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What are the cardiovascular system's three interrelated components

Blood, Heart, and Blood Vessels


How does blood contribute to homeostasis

  • Transportation of respiratory gasses, nutrients, and hormones to and from cells.
  • Regulates pH and temperature
  • Provides protection through its clotting mechanisms and immune defenses

What percent of plasma is water



What is in plasma

Water, dissolved solutes that consist of various proteins, electrolytes, and gasses.


What are the types of white blood cells and how many are there

5 WBC's, known as Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils


What is Thrombopoiesis?

The part of hematopoiesis that deals with the production of platelets.


What is hemopoiesis (hematopoiesis)

The process by which the formed elements of blood develop.


Pluripotent stem cells produce:

Myeloid and Lymphoid


What is Erythropoiesis

This is the part of hematopoiesis that deals with production of RBC's. Kidneys release the hormone.


What is the purpose of RBC's

To carry oxygen and CO2 to and from the tissues of the body


What does the shape of the RBC do for it

The shape increases the cell surface area and gives them a high oxygen carrying capacity. It also allows them to deform and fit in small capillary beds


What is hemoglobin and how many molecules do RBC's have

A protein molecule adapted to carry oxygen and CO2 and each RBC contains 280 million molecules of Hgb


How long do RBC's live and what is the rate of production to maintain normal numbers

120 days and 2 million per second


What are Leukocytes (WBC's) divided into

Ganulocytes - neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

Agranulocytes - monocytes and lymphocytes


What is the most common WBC

Neutrophil (60-70%) and their role is to fight bacterial infections



Large red granules, (2-4%), associated with development of allergies



Large dark blue, histamine granules,

(0-1%), important role in inflammatory responses



Come from myeloid stem cell, 3-8%, act as phagocytes



Very large nucleous, Respond to very specific foreign antigens. 20-30%. Too many of these is called lymphocytosis and often represents an acute viral infection. These are the cornerstone of the specific immune response



Fluid component of blood and contains everything in blood except for the formed elements.


What is the major protein in plasma

Albumin. It contributes significantly to the blood's viscosity and the body's ability to maintain blood pressure and plays an important rule as a carrier molecule for steroids


Two other important plasma proteins are:

Globulins - help attack viruses and bacteria and serve as carrier molecules

Fibrinogens - essential in blood clotting



A sequence of responses that stop bleeding. Response must be quick, localized to region of damage, and carefully controlled in order to be effective.


What are the three mechanisms to reduce blood loss

1. Vascular Spasm

2. Formation of a platelet plug

3. Blood Clotting (coagulation)


What is a vascular spasm

This occurs as damaged blood vessels constrict


What is a platelet plug

When platelets adhere to damaged endothelium to form a platelet plug


What is coagulation

Blood Clotting


What is serum

The blood plasma that is left after formation of the clot


What is clot retraction

The tightening of the fibrin clot


What is the fibrinolytic system?

This dissolves small, inappropriate clots and dissolves clots at a site of damage once the damage is repaired


What is plasmin

The enzyme that actively dissolves clots


What is thrombosis/thrombus

Thrombosis: Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel

Thrombus: the clot itself


What is an embolus

When a blood clot, air bubble, piece of fat, or other debris is transported by the blood stream


What is agglutination

The clumping of blood cells when antisera reacts with an RBC


What is hemolysis

A rapid destruction of donor red blood cells


What is Anemia?

A condition of insufficient RBC's or hemoglobin. Most often the result of low iron intake, hemolysis, autoimmune disease, blood loss, or lack of production in bone marrow


Iron deficiency anemia

Most common in US, affects primarily menstruating women


Hemorrhagic anemia

Result of blood loss and an equal decrease in Hct, Hgb content, and RBC count


Sickle Cell disease(anemia)

A genetic defect in the DNA sequence that leads to production of faulty Hgb chain and RBC's that take on a rigid sickle-shape



A group of red bone marrow cancers in which abnormal WBC's multiply uncontrollably. Causes less oxygen to be carried to body and higher rates of infection, and abnormal blood clotting.

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