Anatomy Lecture - The Heart

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How many times does the heart beat a day



What do the heart and blood vessels transport

Blood, oxygen, and carbon dioxide


How is the heart positioned

The base is tipped up medially and posteriorly while the apex projects inferiorly and laterally


What is the pericardium

The membrane that surrounds and protects the heart and maintains its position.


What is the fibrous pericardium

A dense connective tissue that protects and anchors the heart


What is epicardium

The outer layer of the heart


What is myocardium

The middle layer of the heart, this is composed of cardiac muscle


What is the endocardium

The deepest layer of the heart, lines the chambers of the heart and its blood vessels


What are the four chambers of the heart

The right and left atria and ventricles


What does the right side of the heart consist of and what does it do

It consists of the right atrium and ventricle, and it takes venous blood and pumps it to the lungs


What does the left side of the heart consist of and what does it do

It consists of the left atrium and ventricle, and it takes freshly oxygenated pulmonary blood and pumps it systematically (to the body)


What does the top of the heart consist of and what does it do

It consists of the right and left atria, blood flows passively through these down into the ventricles


What does the bottom of the heart consist of and what does it do

This is a strong pump and it consists of the right and left ventricles. The main pump for the pulmonary and systemic circuits


What are atrioventricular valves

These are valves that open to allow blood to flow from the atria into the ventricles


What are semilunar valves

These are valves that open to allow blood to flow from the ventricles into the outflow vessels


What is the right AV valve called

The tricuspid valve (has three cusps)


What is the left AV valve called

The bicuspid or mitral valve


What is the right SL valve called

The pulmonary valve


What is the left SL valve called

The aortic valve


What are arteries

Vessels that conduct blood AWAY from the heart, usually contain oxygenated blood. Thick walled and exposed to high pressure and friction


What are veins

Vessels that always bring blood back TO the heart, usually contain deoxygenated blood. Thin walled and exposed to low pressures and minimal friction


Major veins of the heart

IVC, SVC, the 4 pulmonary veins, and coronary sinus


Major arteries of the heart

Pulmonary trunk and the arch of the aorta


Systemic circuit

This ejects blood into the aorta, systemic arteries, and is powered by the left side of the heart


Pulmonary circuit

Ejects blood into pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, and into the lungs, and is powered by the right side of the heart


How many many muscle cells form the autorhythmic fibers of the heart

One percent


What is the normal pacemaker of the heart

The sinoatrial (SA) node


What happens at the AV node

The signal is slowed, allowing the atrium a chance to mechanically move blood into the ventricles


What happens after the AV node?

Signal passes through the AV bundle to the left and right bundle branches.


Where is the cardioacceleratory center located

In the medulla.


What do the Purkinje fibers do

They rapidly conduct the action potential throughout the ventricles


What happens during the refractory period?



What is an ECG(EKG)

A recording of the action potentials produced by all the heart muscle fibers during each heartbeat


What is the P wave

Atrial depolarization


What is the QRS complex

Rapid ventricular depolarization


What is the T wave

Ventricular repolarization


What is the systolic BP

The higher pressure measured during left ventricular systole


What is the diastolic BP

The lower pressure measured during left ventricular diastole


What is normal BP?

120 mmHg systolic over 80 mmHg diastolic


What is the mean arterial pressure?

The blood pressure


What does the cardiac cycle consist of?

diastole (relaxation phase), systole (contraction phase) of both the atria and ventricles


What happens during atrial systole

The ventricles are relaxed


What happens during ventricle systole

The atria are relaxed


What is the sequence of events in a cardiac cycle

1. Atrial systole

2. atrial diastole and ventricular systole

3. ventricular diastole


What is the stroke volume

The amount of blood ejected from the left or right ventricle every beat


What is the cardiac output

The volume of blood ejected from a ventricle each minute


What is the cardiac reserve

The difference between the CO at rest and the maximum CO the heart can generate

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