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Anatomy - Blood Vessels

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What are arteries

They carry blood away from the heart, thick and muscular


What are veins and venules

They carry blood towards the heart, venules are small veins


What are the walls of the vessels

Tunica interna, tunica media, and tunica externa


What is the tunica interna

The inner lining that is in direct contact with blood


What is the tunica media

This is mainly composed of smooth muscle and that regulates the diameter of the lumen


What is the tunica externa

Helps anchor vessel to surrounding tissue through use of elastic and collagen fibers


What are conducting arteries(elastic arteries)

The largest arteries (eg. garden hose-sized aorta). Walls are thin compared to overall size, they store mechanical energy during ventricular systole and moves the energy to keep blood moving


What are muscular (distributing) arteries

These are medium sized and have more smooth muscle in their tunica media. They ensure efficient blood flow.


What is an anastomosis

A union of vessels supplying blood to the same body tissue


What are arterioles

These deliver blood to capillaries and have the greatest collective influence of both local blood flow and on overall blood pressure


What is the precapillary sphincter

This monitors and regulates blood flow into the capillary bed


What are capillaries

The sites where gasses, water, and other nutrients are exchanged


What are the three types of capillaries

Continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries, and sinusoids


How much blood is resting in the systemic veins and venules? (%)

About 64%


What is blood flow

The volume of blood that flows through any tissue in a given time (mL/min). Affected by venous return, pressure, velocity of blood flow, and vascular resistance


What is venous return

The volume of blood returning to the heart through the veins


What is the skeletal muscle pump

This uses the action of muscles to milk blood in one direction


What is the respiratory pump

This uses pressure to pull venous blood towards the heart


What is resistance

The sum of many factors which oppose the flow of blood


What is autoregulation

A process that adjusts pressure and resistance to maintain adequate blood flow to vital organs at all times


What is the carotid sinus reflex

This stimulates the baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and it helps normalize blood pressure in the brain


What is the aortic reflex

This stimulates the aortic baroreceptors and it helps normalize the systemic BP


What are chemoreceptors

Found in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies. When they detect low oxygen, high CO2, or high H+, they raise heart beat and respiratory rate to increase BP.


What is the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

An important endocrine component of autoregulation.


What happens in systemic blood vessel walls to make them increase blood flow?

They dilate


What happens in pulmonary blood vessels that ensure that most blood flow is diverted to better ventilated areas of the lung?

The walls constrict


What are the 4 types of shock

Hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive, and vascular shock.


What is the hepatic portal system

This takes nutrient-rich venous blood from the GI tract and transports it to the liver.

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Fetal circulation before birth

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What happens after birth?

The lungs open at birth and expand, and blood flow to the heart increases.

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Fetal circulation after birth

no data


How does the fetus get oxygen?

The placenta

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