College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
Define nutrition and list the types of nutrients
Define metabolism and list its 2 processes
Discuss catabolism and the 2 kinds of energy released in catabolism
Disucss the ATP/ADP system and how it relates to catabolism and anabolism
Discuss metbolism differences in cells
Explain why carbohydrate metabolism really means glucose metabolism.
discuss a basic principle regarding carbohydrates and lipids with respect to catabolism and anabolism
discuss the 2 events that prepare glucose for metabolism
List the 3 process involved in the usual catabolism of glucose
Define gycolysis, summarize the metabolic pathway of glycolysis and duscyss serveral generalizations concerning glycolysis.
Summarize the metbolic pathway of he citric acid cycle and the electron transport system, discuss serval generalizations about both processes, define and discuss the importance of oxidative phosphorylation.
Summary for both processes:
2 pyruvic acids+6 O2----> 6 CO2+ 6 H20+ E(Heat and chemical, 36 ATP)
‑ Generalizations About Both Processes:
1) Both Occur in Mitochondria
2) Each Involves a Metabolic Pathway
4) Has High Energy Yield
‑ Oxidative Phosphorylation:
1) Forms ATP in the Presence of Oxygen
2) Occurs During Processes 2 and 3
Summarize the aerobic pathway of glucose catabolism(aerboic respiration)
Discuss the anarobic pathway of glucose catabolism (anaerobuc respiration(, including definition, when this process occurs, what metabloic pathways are used, why it can sustain cells for short periods only, and the importance of anaerobic pathway.
Disucss the anabolism of glucose (glycogenesis)
Explain 2 reasons hwy the liver plays a vital role in maintaining the homeostasis of blood glucose.
List 2 groups of hormones that control glucose metabolism
List the 2 hypoglycemic hormones and explain what each does to decrease blood glucose. What is the role of TSH?
List the 4 hyperglycemic hormones and explain what each does to increase blood glucose. what is the role of ACTH?
‑ Stimulates Liver Glycogenolysis Primarily
(Also Stimulates Gluconeogenesis)
‑ Stimulates Liver and Muscle Glycogenolysis
c. ACTH AND GLUCOCORTICORDS
‑ Glucocorticords Stimulate Gluconeogenesis
‑ Also, Glucocorticords Stimulate Fat Catabolism and Decrease Glucose Catabolism (Relates to Gluconeogenesis)
d. GROWTH HORMONE
‑ Stimulates Fat Catabolism and Decreases Carbohydrate Catabolism
Discuss the mechaism involved in the catabolism of lipids
‑ Glycerol Catabolized Using Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, and the Electron Transport System
‑ Fatty Acids Undergo Beta Oxidation then Catabolized Using the Citric Acid Cycle and the Electron Transport System
*NOTE: Final Metabolic Pathways of Lipid Catabolism are the Same as the Metabolic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism (Lipid Catabolism Yields More Energy Than Carbohydrate Catabolism)
Define ketogenesisand discuss when and where this process occurs as welll as the dangers of ketogenesis.
Discuss the anabolism of lipids (lipogenesis), including how this process occurs. Explain how stroage of lipids (triglycerides) and stroage of glycogen differs.
ANABOLISM ‑ LIPOGENESIS
‑ Lipogenesis = Formation of Lipids
‑ Triglycerides Anabolized from Glycerol and Fatty Acids,AS WELL AS FROM EXCESS GLUCOSE OR AMINO ACIDS!
‑ Adipose Cells Can Store A Limitless Amount of Triglycerides (Reserve Energy) Compared to Liver and Muscle That Can Store Only a Limited Supply of Glycogen
Discuss the control of lipid metabolism and how the control of lipid metabolism is related to the control of glucose metabolism
Disucss a basic principle realted to protein metabolism
Discuss protein anabolism (protein synthesis)
Discuss the catabolism of proteins
‑ Occurs in Liver Cells; Amino Acids Undergo Deamination ‑‑‑> Ammonia and Ketoacids
‑ Ammonia Converted to Urea, Urea Excreted in the Urine
‑ One of 3 Things Can Happen to the Ketoacid
(Depends Upon Cells Needs)
1) Can be Converted to Glucose (Gluconeogenesis)
2) Can be Converted to Fat (Lipogenesis)
3) Can be Catabolized in the Citric Acid Cycle, Electron Transport System
*NOTE: The Citric Acid Cycle and Electron Transport System Play Central Roles in the Catabolism of All Nutrients
Define portein balance adn when protein balance occurs. Why is protein balance also known as nitrogen balance?
Define negative nitrogen balance and tell when it would occur.
Define postive nitrogen balance and tell when it would occur.
List the 2 groups of hormones that control protein metabolism.
Define portein anabolic hormone and list 2 hormones that are protien anabolic.
Define protein catabolic hormone and list 1 protein catabolic as well as why it is protein catabolic. What is the role of ACTH?
Define vitamins and minerals and explain the major funciton of both. list some additional functions of Ca, P, Fe.
Define metabolic rates and dicuss how metabolic rates are expressed.
Dicuss Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR).
BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR)‑ Rate of Catabolism Under Basal Conditions
‑ Individual is: a) Awake But Resting, b) Postabsorptive(12‑18 Hours), c) in a Comfortably Warm Environment
‑ Basal Conditions are Used to Create a Standard That Can ThenBe Used For Comparison
3. FACTORS INFLUENCING
a. SIZE‑ The Larger the Person, the Higher the BMR (Relates to BSA)
b.SEX‑ BMR is Higher in Males Than in Females (5‑7%)(Relates to Muscle/Fat Ratio)
c. AGE‑ As Age Increases, BMR Decreases
d. AMOUNT OF THYROID HORMONE‑ If TH Increases, BMR Increases (and Vice Versa)
e. BODY TEMPERATURE‑ If Body Temperature Increases (i.e., Fever), BMR Increases (and Vice Versa)
f. DRUGS‑ Stimulants Increase BMR (and Vice Versa)
g. OTHER FACTORS (Miscellaneous)
‑ Emotions, Pregnancy, Lactation All Increase BMR
Discuss Total Metabolic Rate (TMR)
DEFINITION‑ Rate of Catabolism Under Normal Waking Conditions
‑ BMR = 55‑60% of TMR
b. ENERGY USED TO DO SKELETAL MUSCLE WORK
‑ kcals Burned in Exercise/Activity (10‑30% TMR)
c. THERMIC EFFECT OF FOODS
‑ kcals Burned in Metabolizing Foods (10% TMR)
‑ Environmental Temperature (kcals Burned Responding to Temperature Changes)
* NOTE: TMR is Difficult to Determine Because Most of Its Factors Vary From Day to Day
Define energy balance and discuss how it relates to body weight
1.ENERGY BALANCE‑ When Energy Input (kcals in) = Energy Output (kcals burned) in a Given Period
2.RELATIONSHIP TO BODY WEIGHT
* If Energy Input = Energy Output (Energy Balance Maintained)‑‑‑> Body Weight Remains Constant
* If Energy Input > Energy Output ‑‑‑> Body Weight Increases
* If Energy Input < Energy Output ‑‑‑> Body Weight Decreases
* NOTE: Takes 3500 kcals to Synthesize 1 pound of Fat