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Chapter 10: The Muscular System

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Human Anatomy & Physiology Collection of Quizlets

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1

Muscles that guard entrances and exits of internal passageways are ________ muscles.

Circular

2

In a ________ muscles, the fascicles are concentrically arranged around an opening.

Circular

3

The type of muscle whose functional characteristics most closely resemble those of its muscle fibers is the ________ muscle.

Parallel

4

In a ________ muscle, the muscle fibers and fascicles lie in a slanted or oblique position to the tendon.

Pennate

5

Which of the muscles is not one of the forms of fascicle organization?

Perpendicular

6

________ muscle fibers pull in different directions, permitting different actions depending on stimulation.

Convergent

7

Most of the skeletal muscles in the body are ________ muscles.

Parallel

8

A lever consists of

a rigid structure and a fulcrum

9

The most common lever systems in the body are those that have the applied force between the fulcrum and the load. These are called ________ levers.

third-class

10

Contracting the gastrocnemius muscles to elevate the body on the toes involves a ________ lever.

second-class

11

The fulcrum of a lever system is the _______.

joint

12

A(n) ________ is a muscle whose contraction is chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement.

prime mover

13

Which of these phrases most aptly describes "muscle insertion"?

tendon attachment that moves

14

Muscles that insert on the olecranon process of the ulna can act to

extend the forearm.

15

A muscle that assists the muscle that is primarily responsible for a given action is a(n) ________.

synergist

16

The insertion end of the biceps brachii muscle of the anterior upper arm is

at the distal end of the muscle.

17

The names of the muscles can indicate all of the following except

the collagen content of the muscle.

18

A muscle whose name ends in the suffix -glossus would be found within or attached to the __________.

tongue

19

Muscles including the term capitis would be found within or attached to the _________.

head

20

Muscles with fibers that run parallel to the long axis of the body are called ________.

rectus

21

Each of the following terms is a descriptive term for a muscle's action except __________.

sartorius

22

Muscles visible at the body surface are often called __________.

superficialis

23

Muscles located close to the midline of the body may be called _________.

medialis

24

Muscles with fibers that run at an angle to the long axis of the body are called _________.

oblique

25

Muscles with fibers that run perpendicular to the long axis of the body are called __________.

transversus

26

Shelly gives her son an ice-cream cone. The boy grasps the cone with his right hand, opens his mouth, and begins to lick the ice cream. Which muscles does he use to perform these actions?

As the child grasps the ice-cream cone, he uses flexor muscles, principally the flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, and flexor pollicis longus muscles. Opening his mouth requires the contraction of the platysma and digastric muscles and the relaxation of the masseter, temporalis, and pterygoid muscles. The licking action would involve the genioglossus muscle (to depress and protract the tongue) and the palatoglossus muscle (to elevate the tongue).

27

While playing softball, Sid pulls his hamstring muscle. As a result of the injury, he has difficulty extending and medially rotating his thigh. Which muscle(s) of the hamstring group did he probably injure?

Sid probably injured the semimembranosus and/or the semitendinosus, since both of these muscles have these actions.

28

Skeletal muscles in which the fascicles form a common angle with the tendon are ________ muscles.

pennate

29

Each of the following terms is used to describe the shape of a muscle, except

hallucis

30

Superficial muscles that position or stabilize an organ are called _______.

extrinsic

31

Which of the following terms could be used with a muscle that is associated with the chin?

Genio

32

Muscles located entirely within an organ are called _______.

intrinsic

33

Deep muscles are called _______.

profundus

34

Muscles that are long and round in cross section are termed ________.

teres

35

Which of the following is not a pennate muscle?

pectoralis

36

Muscles that insert on the olecranon process of the ulna can act to:

flex the forearm.
extend the forearm.
abduct the forearm.
adduct the forearm.
extend the carpals

extend the forearm

37

A muscle that assists the agonist is responsible for a given action is a(n) ________.

agonist.
antagonist.
synergist.
originator.
levator

synergist

38

The antagonist of the pectoralis major is the ________.

trapezius
levator scapulae
serratus anterior
pectoralis minor
latissimus dorsi.

latissimus dorsi

39

Which pair of muscles is antagonistic to each other in action?

the zygomaticus and the orbicularis oris
the trapezius and the sternocleidomastoid (movement at the neck)
the internal obliques and the intercostal muscles
the latissimus dorsi and the trapezius
the orbicularis oris and the orbicularis oculi

the trapezius and the sternocleidomastoid (movement at neck)

40

The _________ extends the neck.

digastric
mylohyoid
trapezius
rhomboids
sternocleidomastoid

trapezius

41

A muscle that flexes the spinal column is the __________.

semisplenalis
iliopsoas
pectoralis major
external intercostals
rectus abdominis.

rectus abdominis

42

The freedom of movement is greatest in the __________.

pelvic girdle
pectoral girdle
thoracic vertebral column
sacrum
jaw

pectoral girdle

43

Damage to the pectoralis major would interfere with a person's ability to ____________.

extend the forearm.
abduct the humerus.
Flexion of the humerus
elevate the scapula.
rotate the elbow.

Flexion of the humerus

44

The muscle that extends the forearm when doing push-ups is the ___________.

deltoid.
pectorals.
brachialis.
triceps.
biceps.

triceps

45

The muscle(s) that adduct(s) the humerus is/are the __________.

anterior deltoid and posterior deltoid
coracobrachialis and anterior deltoid
pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi
middle deltoid and supraspinatus
coracobrachialis and latissimus dorsi.

coracobrachialis and latissimus dorsi

46

When doing squat exercises, rising up from the squat to an erect position uses the _________.

gluteal muscles.
biceps femoris.
rectus femoris.
semitendinosus.
all of the above

gluteal muscles

47

Each of the following muscles acts to flex the lower leg except the ____________.

semimembranosus.
semitendinosus.
vastus lateralis.
gracilis.
sartorius.

semimembranosus

48

If you bruised your gluteus maximus, you would expect to experience discomfort when ___________.

flexing your hip.
extending your hip.
abducting your hip.
laterally rotating your hip.
extending and laterally rotating the hip.

extending and laterally rotating the hip

49

Jill suffers a severe cut that severs the tendon that attaches the insertion of the flexor carpi ulnaris. As a result of this injury, what action is difficult for her to perform?

flex her forearm
flex her elbow
flex her ulna
flex of her hand
flex her shoulder

flex of her hand

50

Pushing against a locked door is an example of _________.

An isometric contraction
An opposing muscle contraction
An eccentric contraction
A concentric contraction
An isotonic contraction

An isometric contraction

51

The bicep inserts on the ______________ and the quadriceps insert _______________.

Coracoid process of scapula; ischial tuberosity
Radial tuberosity; tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon
Base of the 5th metacarpal; anterior superior iliac spine
Olecranon of ulna; lateral condyle of the femur

radial tuberosity; tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon


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