Anatomy final

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1

A single-celled layer of epithelium that forms the lining of serous membranes is ________.

A) simple transitional
B) simple columnar
C) simple squamous
D) simple cuboidal

C

2

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium ________.

A) lines the respiratory tract
B) aids in digestion
C) possesses no goblet cells
D) is not an epithelial classification

A

3

Hyaline cartilage is different from elastic or fibrocartilage because ________.

A) it is more vascularized
B) it contains more nuclei
C) fibers are not normally visible
D) it has more elastic fibers

C

4

Epithelial tissue ________.

A) is highly vascularized
B) has a basement membrane
C) is usually acellular
D) contains a number of neuron types

B

5

A multilayered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be
classified as ________.

A) simple cuboidal
B) simple squamous
C) transitional
D) stratified squamous

D

6

The reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength to absorb shock
is because they possess ________.

A) hydroxyapatite crystals
B) collagen fibers
C) reticular fibers
D) elastic fibers

B

7

Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than
through ducts are classified as ________.

A) exocrine
B) endocrine
C) sebaceous
D) ceruminous

B

8

Which of the following is true about epithelia?

A) Simple epithelia are commonly found in areas of high abrasion.

B) Stratified epithelia are associated with filtration.

C) Endothelium provides a slick surface lining all hollow cardiovascular organs.

D) Pseudostratified epithelia are commonly keratinized.

C

9

A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?

A) basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum
B) basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
C) granulosum, basale, spinosum, corneum
D) corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale

D

10

Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps?

A) arrector integument
B) arrector pili
C) levator folliculi
D) arrector folliculi

B

11

Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________.

A) absorbing materials applied to the surface layer of the skin

B) utilizing the products of merocrine glands to nourish the epidermis

C) filtration

D) diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis

D

12

The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The
superficial surface has structures called:

A) dermal papillae.
B) hair follicles.
C) ceruminous glands.
D) reticular papillae.

A

13

Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are?

A) Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.

B) Fingernails are derived from osseous tissue.

C) Fingernails are extensions of the carpal bones.

D) Fingernails are a separate tissue from the skin, formed from a different embryonic layer.

A

14

Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play
little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?

A) in all body regions and buried deep in the dermis

B) beneath the flexure lines in the body

C) in the axillary and anogenital area

D) in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet

C

15

The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.

A) primarily uric acid

B) 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C

C) fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins

D) metabolic wastes

B

16

A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.

A) syndesmosis
B) suture
C) synchondrosis
D) gomphosis

D

17

When one is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane, it
is called ________.

A) abduction
B) adduction
C) inversion
D) dorsiflexion

A

18

The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to ________.

A) the hands
B) the feet
C) the arms
D) the hands and the fee

B

19

Using Figure 8.1, match the following:
1) Periosteum.

2) Articular cartilage.

3) Joint (synovial) cavity.

4) Synovial membrane.

5) Fibrous capsule.

Using Figure 8.1, match the following:
1) Answer: A

2) Answer: C

3) Answer: B

4) Answer: E

5) Answer: D

20

The strongest muscle contractions are normally achieved by ________.

A) increasing stimulus above the threshold

B) increasing stimulus above the treppe stimulus

C) increasing the stimulation up to the maximal stimulus

D) recruiting small and medium muscle fibers

C

21

Which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?

A) skeletal
B) cardiac
C) smooth
D) no muscle can regenerate

C

22

Which of the following would be recruited later in muscle stimulation when contractile
strength increases?

A) motor units with the longest muscle fibers

B) many small motor units with the ability to stimulate other motor units

C) large motor units with small, highly excitable neurons

D) motor units with larger, less excitable neurons

D

23

Which of the following is not a usual result of resistance exercise?

A) increase in the efficiency of the respiratory system

B) increase in the efficiency of the circulatory system

C) increase in the number of muscle cells

D) increase in the number of myofibrils within the muscle cells

C

24

Myoglobin ________.

A) breaks down glycogen

B) is a protein involved in the direct phosphorylation of ADP

C) stores oxygen in muscle cells

D) produces the end plate potential

C

25

Immediately following the arrival of the stimulus at a skeletal muscle cell there is a short
period called the ________ period during which the events of excitation -contraction coupling
occur.

A) contraction
B) relaxation
C) latent
D) refractory

C

26

Creatine phosphate functions in the muscle cell by ________.

A) forming a temporary chemical compound with myosin

B) forming a chemical compound with actin

C) inducing a conformational change in the myofilaments

D) storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP

D

27

The major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction is to ________.

A) make and store phosphocreatine

B) synthesize actin and myosin myofilaments

C) provide a source of myosin for the contraction process

D) regulate intracellular calcium concentration

D

28

The striations of a skeletal muscle cell are produced, for the most part, by ________.

A) a difference in the thickness of the sarcolemma
B) the arrangement of myofilaments
C) the sarcoplasmic reticulum
D) the T tubules

B

29

Which of the following are composed of myosin?

A) thick filaments
B) thin filaments
C) all myofilaments
D) Z discs

A

30

During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?

A) myosin filaments
B) actin filaments
C) Z discs
D) thick filaments

B

31

Which of the following surrounds the individual muscle cell?

A) perimysium
B) endomysium
C) epimysium
D) fascicle

B

32

Smooth muscles that act like skeletal muscles but are controlled by autonomic nerves and
hormones are ________.

A) single-unit muscles
B) multiunit muscles
C) red muscles
D) white muscles

B

33

Rigor mortis occurs because ________.

A) the cells are dead

B) sodium ions leak out of the muscle

C) no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules

D) proteins are beginning to break down, thus preventing a flow of calcium ions

C

34

The oxygen-binding protein found in muscle cells is ________.

A) hemoglobin
B) ATP
C) myoglobin
D) immunoglobin

C

35

The contractile units of skeletal muscles are ________.

A) microtubules
B) mitochondria
C) T tubules
D) myofibrils

D

36

One functional unit of a skeletal muscle is ________.

A) a sarcomere
B) a myofilament
C) a myofibril
D) the sarcoplasmic reticulum

A

37

The functional role of the T tubules is to ________.

A) stabilize the G and F actin

B) enhance cellular communication during muscle contraction

C) hold cross bridges in place in a resting muscle

D) synthesize ATP to provide energy for muscle contraction

B

38

The role of calcium ions in muscle contraction is to ________.

A) act as a third messenger

B) reestablish glycogen stores

C) bind to regulatory sites on troponin, changing the configuration

D) initiate the conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen for storage

C

39

In an isotonic contraction, the muscle ________.

A) changes in length and moves the ╩║load╩║

B) does not change in length but increases tension

C) never converts pyruvate to lactate

D) rapidly resynthesizes creatine phosphate and ATP

A

40

The muscle cell membrane is called the ________.

A) endomysium
B) sarcolemma
C) perimysium
D) epimysium

B

41

The mechanism of contraction in smooth muscle is different from skeletal muscle in that
________.

A) actin and myosin interact by the sliding filament mechanism

B) the trigger for contraction is a rise in intracellular calcium

C) the site of calcium regulation differs

D) ATP energizes the sliding process

C

42

Which of the following is true about smooth muscle contraction?

A) Certain smooth muscle cells can actually divide to increase their numbers.

B) Smooth muscle, in contrast to skeletal muscle, cannot synthesize or secrete any
connective tissue elements.

C) Smooth muscle cannot stretch as much as skeletal muscle.

D) Smooth muscle has well-developed T tubules at the site of invagination.

A

43

Smooth muscle is characterized by all of the following except ________.

A) it appears to lack troponin

B) there are more thick filaments than thin filaments

C) there are no sarcomeres

D) there are noncontractile intermediate filaments that attach to dense bodies within the cell

B

44

Muscle tissue has all of the following properties except ________.

A) secretion
B) contractility
C) extensibility
D) excitability

A

45

Which of the following statements is true?

A) Cardiac muscle cells have many nuclei.

B) Smooth muscle cells have T tubules.

C) Striated muscle cells are long and cylindrical with many nuclei.

D) Cardiac muscle cells are found in the heart and large blood vessels.

C

46

Muscle tone is ________.

A) the ability of a muscle to efficiently cause skeletal movements

B) the feeling of well-being following exercise

C) a state of sustained partial contraction

D) the condition of athletes after intensive training

C

47

The sliding filament model of contraction involves ________.

A) actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlap

B) the shortening of thick filaments so that thin filaments slide past

C) actin and myosin shortening but not sliding past each other

D) the Z discs sliding over the myofilaments

A

48

After nervous stimulation stops, ACh in the synaptic cleft is prevented from continuing
stimulation of contraction by ________.

A) calcium ions returning to the terminal cisternae

B) the tropomyosin blocking the myosin once full contraction is achieved

C) acetylcholinesterase destroying the ACh

D) the action potential stopped going down the overloaded T tubules

C


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