BIOL 2333-A Microbiology

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Describe some of the destructive and beneficial actions of microbes.

Destructive: Few are disease-causing (ex: fever, diarrhea) and spoils food.


Describe some of the destructive and beneficial actions of microbes.

Beneficial : produce fermented foods (cheese, bread, vinegar), produces industrial chemicals (ethanol and acetone), decompose organic wastes, are producers in the ecosystem by photosynthesis, produce products used in manufacturing and treatment (insulin)


Distinguish a genus from a specific epithet.

Established by Carolus Linnaeus (1735)

a genus : Capitalized the first letter

a specific epithet (species ): species/specific epithet all lowercase

Need to be italicized or underlined


The scientific name of an organism includes its

  1. family and genus.
  2. first name and last name.
  3. genus and species .
  4. domain.
  5. genus and species AND domain.

genus and species .

Ex: Staphylococcus aureus OR Homo sapiens


In the name Staphylococcus aureus, aureus is the

A) kingdom.
B) genus.
C) domain name.
D) specific name.
E) family name

D) specific name.


What is a Refraction index?

Is the loss of light rays after we passed them through the stained specimen. To avoid we add immersion oil has the same reflation index the glass, the light rays do not refract when passing through.


List the three domains





Differentiate the major characteristics of Bacteria

Prokaryotic, unicellular organism

Lack a membrane-bounded nucleus

Reproduce asexually

Heterotrophic by absorption


Differentiate the major characteristics of Archaea

Prokaryotic, unicellular organisms

Lack a membrane-bounded nucleus

Reproduce asexually

many are autotrophic by chemosynthesis; some are heterotrophic by absorption


Differentiate the major characteristics of Eukarya

Eukaryotic, unicellular to multicellular organisms

Membrane-bounded nucleus

Sexual reproduction

Phenotypes and nutrition are diverse


Which groups of microbes are prokaryotes? Which are eukaryotes? How can you distinguish between them?

Prokaryotes are organisms made up of cells that lack a cell nucleus or any membrane-enclosed organelles.

Eukaryotes are organisms made up of cells that possess a membrane-bound nucleus (that holds genetic material) as well as membrane-bound organelles.


Which of the following is not a characteristic of prokaryotes?

B) Cell membrane

C) Cell wall

D) Endoplasmic reticulum

D) Endoplasmic reticulum


Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. Which would you not find in a prokaryotic cell?
A) Cell wall

B) Plasma membrane

C) Nucleus

D) Ribosomes

C) Nucleus


______using a simple microscope was the first to observe microorganisms

Anton van Leeuwenhoek


The scientist usually considered the first to see microorganisms, which he called "animalcules", was
b) Anton von Leeuwenhoek
d) Tyndall

b) Anton von Leeuwenhoek


Which of the following individuals
is considered to be the
“Father of Microbiology?”
a. Anton von Leeuwenhoek
b. John Tyndall
c. Louis Pasteur
d. Robert Koch
e. Rudolf Virchow

a. Anton von Leeuwenhoek


Koch provided the experimental steps, “Koch’s postulates”, to prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease, what are those steps?

1.The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease
2.The pathogen must be isolated from the diseases host and grown in pure culture
3.The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible lab animal
4.The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original animal


Which of the following is NOT part of Koch's postulates?

  1. A) the microorganism is never found in healthy animals.
  2. B) the microorganisms is always found in diseased animals.
  3. C) The microorganism must cause disease in healthy animals.
  4. D) The microorganism must secrete a toxin in culture.

D) The microorganism must secrete a toxin in culture.


The formal steps (postulates) by which a microbiologist can demonstrate that a particular disease is caused by a particular microbe were first laid down by
a. Louis Pasteur
b. Robert Koch
c. Alexander Fleming
d. Edward Jenner
e. Ignaz Semmelweis

b. Robert Koch


Spontaneous generation:

the hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter; a “vital force” forms life.

Ex: three jars were covered with net and there were no maggots

Three open jars maggots appears


The idea of spontaneous generation postulated that
a. organisms could evolve into the next generation of organisms.
b. organisms could spontaneously combust.
c. organisms could spontaneously arise from other living
d. living organisms could arise from nonliving material.

d. living organisms could arise from nonliving material.



The hypothesis that the living organisms arise from preexisting life


Biogenesis refers to the
A) spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter.
B) development of life forms from preexisting life forms.
C) development of aseptic technique.
D) germ theory of disease

Ex: When the flask is tilted the microorganism are able to enter the broth and they grew in the broth this showed the microorganism did not appear spontaneously

C) development of aseptic technique



heat (below boiling) for short period of time to kill pathogens and reduce bacteria count, does not kill all bacteria- some survive


Pasteurization involves the:.

A) exposure of food to high temperatures for short periods to destroy harmful microorganisms.

B) exposure of food to heat to inactivate enzymes that cause undesirable effects in foods during storage.

C) fortification of foods with vitamins A and D.

D) use of irradiation to destroy certain pathogens in foods.

A) exposure of food to high temperatures for short periods to destroy harmful microorganisms.


Ionic bond=

when it gives up an electron to make the valence electrons stable


Covalent bond=

is when you share electrons to make the valence electrons complete/ balance


Polar covalent bond=

atoms are shared unequally


Non polar covalent bond=

Atoms are shared equally


Atoms that have the same atomic number (are of the same element) but different atomic weights are called______?

isotopes .


Isotopes of the same element must have the same number of
A) neutrons
B) protons
C) electrons
D) both A and B
E )both A and C

B) protons


Isotopes of the same element must have different numbers of
A) neutrons
B) protons
C) electrons
D) both A and B
E)both A and C

A) neutrons


A hydrogen bond exists when a hydrogen atom ______ to one oxygen or nitrogen atom is attracted to another ______.

covalently bonded,

oxygen or nitrogen atom.


Which statement about hydrogen bonding is true?
A) Hydrogen bond is formed by sharing electrons between atoms.
B) Hydrogen bond also requires formation of ions.
C) Hydrogen bond is a weak force between atoms in a molecule but is of enormous importance in physiology.
D) Hydrogen bond is nothing but a different form of hydrogen ion .

C) Hydrogen bond is a weak force between atoms in a molecule but is of enormous importance in physiology.


Example of compound having hydrogen bonding is
A) Chlorine gas
B) neon
C)sodium chloride
D) water

C)sodium chloride


Which of the following is the type of bond
between molecules of water in a beaker of water?

A)Ionic Bond

B)Covalent Bon

C) Hydrogen Bond

D) Disulfide Bond

E) Electrostatic interactions

C) Hydrogen Bond


Endergonic reactions require more ____ than they_____?

energy, release;


Exergonic reactions release more or less energy.



Anabolism =

to build up a new molecule (creating polymers from monomers by dehydration synthesis)


Catabolism =

breaking down molecules in cell (adding H2O to break down the bond, now you have hydrolysis reaction)


Because water is a_______, it is an excellent______ .

polar molecule,solvent


The bond joining glucose and fructose together to form sucrose is

A) A glycosidic linkage

B) dehydration synthesis

C) Dipole-dipole bonds

D) Phosphodiester bond

E) Ester linkage

A) A glycosidic linkage


What bond links the fatty acid tail to the glycerol in a lipid

A) Glycosidic

B) Peptide

C) Ester

D) Phosphodiester

E) Van der Waals

C) Ester


Dehydration synthesis reaction :

removal of water to form a bond



adds a water molecule, breaking a bond


Both glycosidic and peptide linkages result from_____

dehydration synthesis


What happens during a hydrolysis reaction?

A) A protein coils into its secondary structure

B) The bond between two subunits of a macromolecule is broken

C) Saturated fats become unsaturated

D) A bond is formed between two subunits of a macromolecule

E) Water breaks ionic bonds

B) The bond between two subunits of a macromolecule is broken


Monomers usually bond together by _______ that form water and a polymer.

dehydration synthesis


Polymers may be broken down by ______ a reaction involving the splitting of water molecules.



Dehydration reaction is removing______________?

Water + Glucose + Fructose


Hydrolysis is by adding ______?

Sucrose + water


Proteins have four levels of structure:

primary (sequence of amino acids)

secondary (helices or pleats)

tertiary (overall three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide)

Quaternary (two or more polypeptide chains).

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primary (sequence of amino acids)

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secondary (helices or pleats)

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tertiary (overall three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide)

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Quaternary (two or more polypeptide chains).


What is the total magnification of a compound light microscope with objective lens magnification of 40X and ocular lens of 10x


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The DNA found in most bacterial cells___.

is circular in structure.


Gram negative differ from Gram positive in having
A) Thick wall
B) Absence of wall lipids
C) Complex wall
D) Simple wall

C) Complex wall


Lipopolysaccharide is found in cell wall of
A) Gram positive bacteria
B) Gram negative bacteria
C) Both Gram, positive and Gram Negative
D) Algla

B) Gram negative bacteria

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How would you be able to identify streptococci through a microscope?

It would look like a chain of spheres under the microscope


How would you expect the effect of drugs to differ between gram-positive and gram-negative organisms?

Answer: Gram positive have a strong PG so the drugs won't destruct it ex: penicillin

Gram negative- have a thin wall so it is susceptible to destruction of chemicals ex:tetracycline



Long appendages. Made of chains of flagellin, attached to a protein hook.

Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body.


axial filaments=

In bacteria called spirochetes. Its anchored at one end of a cell, and spirals around. When it rotates causing the cell to move



Short appendages that allow attachment ( velcro) not movement

Can be at cell poles/ all over



Facilitate transfer from DNA from 1 cell to another
gliding, and twitching.



cells contain organelles which include mitochondria,chloroplast the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes



powerhouse of the cell.


Smooth ER=

synthesize phospholipids,fats, and steroids

Release glucose in blood stream, detoxify drug-alcohol


Rough ER=

process plasma membrane, process ribosomes



amino acids and fatty acids are oxidized and protects the cell from toxic effect of H202



break molecules, digest bacteria that enter the cell, and phagocytosis WBC contain lysosomes


Golgi apparatus=

Membrane formation and secretion. It is the package house of the cell where macromolecules like proteins and lipids as they are synthesized within the cell.

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What are the three domains of life?

-Bacteria(cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria)

-Archaea(Halophiles and Thermophiles)


  • Protists
  • Fungi
  • Plants
  • Animals

Which groups of microbes are prokaryotes?

Answer: Bacteria and archaea


Which component is not found in the cytoplasm of the majority of prokaryotes?
A) Capsule
B) Ribosomes
C) Granules
E) Nucleoli

A) Capsule


Which are eukaryotes? How can you distinguish between them?

The main difference between the two is the presence of a “true” nucleus: eukaryotes have one, while prokaryotes do not.



Their cell wall has no peptidoglycan layer.

They have no histone

Their cell wall have a peptidoglycan layer

Reproduce usually by binary fusion



Cell wall has peptidoglycan layer

Dna has histone

They have chemically simple cell walls.

They reproduce by mitosis


Summarize in your own words the germ theory of disease

The idea that tiny organisms called microbes cause infectious diseases that are easily passed among humans.


Which of the following is NOT part of Koch's postulates?
A) the microorganism is never found in healthy animals.
B) the microorganisms is always found in diseased animals.
C) the microorganism must cause disease in healthy animals.
D) the microorganism must secrete a toxin in culture.

D) the microorganism must secrete a toxin in culture.


Define normal microbiota and their types

Normal microbiota or normal flora

refers to the organism that colonizes the body’s surfaces without normally causing disease.

Resident microbiota

permanently colonizes the host and is established during the first months of life.

Transient microbiota

May be present for day, weeks, or month


Define resistance=


The ability to ward off diseases through innate and adaptive immunity


Define biofilm =

Microbes attach to solid surfaces and grow into masses such as rocks, pipes, teeth and medical implants


Why are biofilms important?

Important in oil spills and purifying water.


How would you tell it was a virus?

If they contain a protein coat

Have a nucleic acid genome

Have a capsid

Obligatory intracellular parasites ( need a host cell to replicate)

The Virus is smaller than bacteria


True or False

Viruses have a cellular organization.

False(Viruses do not have a cellular organization and are therefore not classified with cellular organisms)


Viruses are classified by ____________.
A) viral size and shape
B) type of nucleic acid, including to whether the nucleic acid is single- or double-stranded
C) presence or absence of an outer envelope
D) all of the above
E) none of the above since viruses are not living organisms and therefore cannot be classified

D) all of the above


Which order below reflects the correct procedure for Gram staining?
A. alcohol/acetone-crystal violet-safranin-iodine
B. crystal violet-alcohol/acetone-iodine-safranin
C. crystal violet-iodine-alcohol/acetone-safranin
D. iodine-safranin-crystal violet-alcohol/acetone
E. alcohol/acetone-safranin-crystal violet-iodine

C. crystal violet-iodine-alcohol/acetone-safranin


Describe the appearance of gram-positive and gram-negative cells after each step.

1) First step use the first stain crystal violet (stains everything purple)

2) Than add the mordant (grams iodine) to help the chemical reaction along

3)Than wash with alcohol to decolorize anything that isn't chemically bonding

4)Than use the last stain: safranin (counterstaining)

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The gram POS+ bacteria retain the purple stain after the decolorization step

Gram NEG- bacteria do not and thus appear pink from the counterstain.


Why is the Gram stain so useful?

Being able to identify the Gram stain also means that in some cases, a clinician can get the patient started on antibiotic treatment even before the actual organism(s) is/are identified.


How would you expect the effect of these drugs to differ between gram-positive and gram-negative organisms?

Drugs directed towards bacteria i.e Gram - because of the peptidoglycan layer (second outer membrane has lipopolysacaride layer which allows it to be resistant to antibiotics).

Gram + have techoic acid, this allows charges to cross into the cell.


How do bacteria move?

Some bacteria have a single, tail-like flagellum or a small cluster of flagella, which rotate in coordinated fashion, much like the propeller on a boat engine, to push the organism forward. The hook: Many bacteria also use appendages called pili to move along a surface.


What is a spore?

A resting structure formed inside some bacteria. They can stay latent under their fixed conditions and activate when their nuclear components are activated.


What is an enzyme?

A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. AN ENZYME IS A PROTEIN, BUT NOT ALL PROTEINS ARE ENZYME


Describe the mechanism of enzymatic action.

Step 1 of mechanisms of enzymatic action surface of the substrate contacts a specific region on the surface of the enzyme called the active site

step 2 of mechanisms of enzymatic action a temporary enzyme-substrate complex forms lock and key

step 3 of mechanisms of enzymatic action substrate is transformed to products

step 4 of mechanisms of enzymatic action enzyme and products separate

step 5 of mechanisms of enzymatic action unchanged enzyme can react with other substrate


Enzymes are capable of recognizing and reacting with a special chemical substance called

A) activator

B) substrate

C) co-factor

D) co-enzyme

B) substrate


Kind of molecules at which enzymes act are classified as

  1. solutes
  2. concentrates
  3. nitrates
  4. substrates

D. substrates


The microbial process of converting sugars to alcohol is known as

A) alcoholism.
B) fermentation.
C) pasteurization.
D) lyophilization.
E) tyndallization.

B) fermentation.


The first step for directly linking a microbe to a specific disease according to Koch's postulates is to

A) inject a sample of blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal into a healthy animal.
B) isolate microbes from the blood of healthy animals.
C) obtain a sample of blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal.
D) culture the blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal using nutrient medium.
E) compare the blood of a sick animal to blood obtained from a healthy animal.

C) obtain a sample of blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal.


In which of the following situations would Koch's postulates be utilized?

A) determination of the cause of a patient's illness in a hospital microbiology lab
B) development of a new antibiotic in a pharmaceutical lab
C) whenever the scientific method is used to investigate a microbiological problem
D) formulation of a vaccine against a new pathogen in a genetic engineering lab
E) determination of the cause of cancer in a patient

A) determination of the cause of a patient's illness in a hospital microbiology lab


Robert Koch identified the cause of

A) diphtheria.
C) anthrax.
D) tuberculosis.
E) smallpox.

C) anthrax


Antibiotics are produced by

A) bacteria.
B) viruses.
C) protozoa.
D) fungi.
E) bacteria and fungi.

E) bacteria and fungi.


Why is enzyme specificity important?

Because the unique arrangement of each enzyme allows it to find the correct substrate from all the diverse molecules in a cell .


List the factors that influence enzymatic activity

Several factors affect the rate at which enzymatic reactions proceed - temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, and the presence of any inhibitors or activators.


What happens to an enzyme below/above its optimal temperature?

The graph shows that as temperature is increased, the reaction rate of an enzyme increases. However, the graph shows that there is an optimum temperature where the reaction proceeds at its maximum. Above that optimal temperature, the reaction rate decreases.


Explain how the type of microbe affects the control of microbial growth.

The presence or absence of endospores has an obvious effect on microbial control.


Why are gram-negative bacteria more resistant to chemical biocides than gram-positive bacteria?

biocides tend to be more effective against gram-positive bacteria- external lipopolysaccharide layer of gram-negative bacteria, makes them resistant;

mycobacteria have a cell wall that is waxy, lipid-rich. viruses resistance depends on the presence or absence of an envelope.


How is microbial growth in canned foods prevented?

Drying is often used to preserve foods (e.g. fruits, grains, etc.). Methods involve removal of water from commercial sterilization: product by heat, evaporation, freeze-drying, and addition of salt or sugar.


Define normal and transient microbiota and their role in our health

Normal microbiota permanently colonize the host

Transient microbiota may be present for days, weeks, or months


What are opportunistic microorganisms?

Opportunistic microorganism: A bacterium, virus, protozoan or fungus that takes advantage of certain opportunities to cause disease. Those opportunities are called opportunistic conditions.They take advantage of a weak immune system.


How are nosocomial infections primarily transmitted?



A hospital acquired infection is








Explain how nosocomial infections can be prevented?

Using aseptic techniques, handling contaminated materials carefully, insisting on frequent hand washing, educate on infection control basics, and use isolation rooms.


The most common of all nosocomial infections are found in the
A. blood
B. reproductive tract
C. urinary tract
D. respiratory tract

C. urinary tract


What are true pathogens?

Cause disease in healthy person with normal immune defenses .


What factors contribute to an organism’s pathogenicity?

Portal of entry:Mucous membranes -respiratory system, GI tract, and skin

Penetration or Evasion of Host Defenses: Capsules, cell wall components, enzymes, antigenic variation

Damage to Host Cell:siderophores, direct damage, toxins (endotoxins and exotoxins), lysogenic conversion

Portal of exit: same as the portal of entry for a microbe


Identify the principal portals of entry and describe how microorganisms gain access through each

Portal of entry:Mucous Membrane most common route for pathogens

Respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, urinary/genital tract, conjunctiva


Identify the principal portals of entry and describe how microorganisms gain access through each

Skin (keratinized cutaneous membrane)

some pathogens infect hair follicles and sweat glands

few can colonize surface

unless broken, skin is usually an impermeable barrier to microbes


Identify the principal portals of entry and describe how microorganisms gain access through each

Parenteral route

penetrate skin: punctures, injections,

bites, cuts, surgery, etc.

deposit organisms directly into deeper tissues


Explain how microbes adhere to host cells?

Adherence specifically"

Tissue tropism: particular bacteria are known to have an apparent preference for certain tissues over others

e.g., S. mutans is abundant in dental plaque but does not occur on epithelial surfaces of the tongue; S. salivarius is in high numbers to epithelial cells of the tongue but is absent in dental plaque

Species specificity: certain pathogenic bacteria infect only certain species of animals

e.g., N. gonorrhoeae,

Genetic specificity within a species: certain strains or races within a species are genetically immune to a pathogen

e.g. (malaria)


Explain how capsules and cell wall components contribute to pathogenicity

Capsule- prevent phagocytosis (examples: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae)

Cell wall components - M protein ( resist phagocytosis ex: Streptococcus pyogenes), Opa Protein ( inhibit T helper cells, promote attachment and uptake of host cell), Mycolic Acid (resist digestion ex:Mycobacterium tuberculosis)


Contrast the nature and effects of exotoxins and endotoxins

Exotoxin: Gram +, By-products of growing cell, Protein, No fever, yes neutralize antitoxins, LD50 small

Endotoxin: Gram -, outer membrane, Lipids, glycolipids, yes fever, not neutralized by antitoxins, LD50 large


Steps of A-B Exotoxins

1.Bacteria produces and releases exotoxin

2.B binding component of exotoxin attaches to host cell receptor

3.A-B exotoxins enters host cells by endocytosis

4.A-B exotoxin enclosed in pinched- off portion of plasma membrane during pinocytosis

5.A-B components of exotoxins separate. A component alters cell function by inhibiting proteins synthesis. The B component is released in the host cell


Describe the role of the skin and mucous membranes in innate immunity

First Line of Defense: Skin ( dermis & epidermis) Epidermis is tightly compacted top layer contains dead cells called keratin protective protein

Mucous Membrane- thick and moist epithelium

  • Less protective than keratinized surface
  • Has goblet cells for mucus production
  • Mucus ( trap microbes)
  • Ciliary escalator- microbes trapped in mucus are transported away from the lungs

Describe the role of normal microbiota in innate immunity (16-5)

Normal microbiota complete with pathogen or alter the environment

More susceptible to infection (presence of normal flora continually challenges the immune system, keeping it active

Normal microbiota complete with pathogen or alter the environment

More susceptible to infection (presence of normal flora continually challenges the immune system, keeping it active


Distinguish microbial antagonism from commensalism

Microbial Antagonism: Normal flora inhibits overgrowth of harmful microbes.Mechanism includes competition for nutrients and affecting environmental factors such as ph, toxic substances and oxygen availability

Commensalism: one organism benefits, the other is not affected

(Many microbes live off secretions and dead cells and do not benefit or harm host cell)


Describe the roles of white blood cells in immunity

Answer: Increase during infection

When activated:

most leukocytes will produce cytokines
intercellular signaling
molecules/hormones that function to

trigger, enhance, and coordinate various defense mechanisms


Define phagocyte and phagocytosis

Phagocyte=From Greek, meaning eat, Cyte: From Greek, meaning cell
Phagocytosis=Ingestion of microbes or particles by a cell,

Phagocyte is an organism. I.e macrophage, basophils that ingest pathogen.

Phagocytosis is the process of ingesting an antigen by a macrophage or other phagocytic cells.


Explain the process of phagocytosis

Step 1
Chemotaxis and adherence of microbe to phagocyte
Step 2
Ingestion of microbe to phagocyte
Step 3
Formation of phagosome
Step 4
Fusion of the phagosome with a lysosome to form a phagolysosome
Step 5
Digestion of ingested microbe by enzymes
Step 6
Formation of residual body containing indigestible materials
Step 7
Discharge of waste materials


What purposes does inflammation serve?

1) Destroy injurious agent and remove byproducts of injury
2) Limit spread of injury
3) Repair damaged tissue


What causes the redness, swelling, and pain associated with inflammation?

Redness-= Because of vasodilation

Swelling=increase in permeability permits fluid to move from blood to tissue spaces
Pain associated=can be because of nerve damage, irritation by toxin or the pressure of edema


Describe the cause and effects of fever?

cause: infection from bacteria and their toxins, or viruses. Gram negative endotoxin cause phagocyte to release interleukin-1
effects: body increases rate of metabolism and shivering which raises temperature vasodilation and sweating: body temperature falls (crisis)

Prostaglandins released by the hypothalamus trigger the fever! Lowering the body tempature.


What is the purpose of complement and interferons?

Complement system:activation aids in destructions of microbes

The antibodies attack the cell which activated the complements to lysis the cell.

Interferons:signals proteins,triggers neighboring cells to produce antiviral proteins


Steps of the Antiviral actions of interferon

1.Viral RNA from an infecting virus enter the cell

2.The infecting virus replicates into new viruses

The infecting virus also induced the host cell to produce interferon mRNA which is translated into alpha and beta

4.Interferons releases by virus infected host cell bind to plasma membrane or nuclear membrane receptors on uninfected neighboring host cells, inducing them to synthesize antiviral proteins. These include oligoadenylate synthetase and protein kinase.

5.New viruses released by infected host cell infect neighboring cells.

6.AVPś degrade viral mRNA and inhibits proteins synthesis and thus interfere with viral infection


Explain the function of antibodies, and describe their structural and chemical characteristics

Special proteins produced by plasma cell ( B cells) recognize and bind to a specific epitope of an antigen via its antigen binding sites

Recognize and bind to specific shape. They have great specificity and each have 2 antigen binding sites

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is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes

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is an antibody isotype that makes up about 1% of proteins in the plasma membranes of immature B-lymphocytes

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is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is synthesised by plasma cells.

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IgG,a monomer, is the predominant Ig class present in human serum

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is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.



reduces number of infectious units to be dealt with



coating antigens with antibodies enhances phagocytosis



Blocks adhesion of bacteria and viruse to mucosa and blocks attack of toxins



dependent cell cell mediated cytotoxins- antibodies attached to target cell causes destruction by macrophages,eosinophils,and NK cells


Activation of complement

Causes of inflammations and cell lysis


Why is the lymphatic system so valuable for the working of the immune system?

The Lymphatic system is the transport method of most pathogens. Bacteria or Viruses will travel to the lymph nodes where the CD4 and CD8 cells are located which then target and kills the pathogens.


List the signs and symptoms of sepsis, and explain the importance of infections that develop into septic shock.

Sepsis is an infection of the blood.


Respiratory rate increases.

Heart rate increases(tarchycardia).

Infections that develop into sepsis c


Why are hyperbolic chambers effective in treating gas gangrene?

Because it contains a pressurized oxygen-rich atmosphere. The oxygen then saturates the infected tissues of the obligately anaerobic clostridia.



  1. Tetanospasmin released from dead cells blocks relaxation pathway in muscles
  2. Prevention by vaccination with tetanus toxoid (DTP) and booster (dT)
  3. Treatment with tetanus immune globulin

Toxin Bacterial

Bacterial toxins are toxic substances that are produced and released by bacteria to target other bacterial or host cells.


How does the skin aid in protection of human body?

  1. It is the first line of defense.
  2. Made up of a cutaneous membrane ( dermis plus epidermis) The epidermis, (outermost layer of the skin) consists of tightly packed cells made up of keratin.
  3. Keratin is a protective protein that protects the skin from abrasions.
  4. Therefore pathogens have a hard time penetrating through the skin unless the skin is damaged. It is hydrophobic

What are the layers of the nervous system?

  1. Meninges- pia mater (innermost layer),
  2. arachnoid mater (middle layer), s
  3. ubarachnoid (contains CBS-cerebrospinal fluid,
  4. dura mater (outermost layer).

What are the characteristic of the blood brain barrier

  1. Hard to penetrate
  2. Protection of the brain
  3. Astrocytes surrounding brain blood vessel

Stages of disease

Incubation phase

period between infection and prodromal.

No signs or symptoms .

Prodromal stage.

Mild symptoms

Period of illness-

most severe signs and symptoms .

if the body’s immune response is unsuccessful deaths can occur.

Period of decline-

signs and symptoms decrease

Convalescence stage

no signs and symptoms .

body returns to normal.


Acquired Immunodeficiency is resulted from what?

Variety of drug, cancers, infectious diseases.


What is considered the point of no return in an HIV infection?

Integration of viral RNA into chromosomal DNA in the cell’s nucleus.


What are the graft complications?

Graft rejection, graft infection, and graft vs host disease.


What are the necessary components needed for an HIV virion to bind to a CD4 cell?

CD4 receptor, Gp120, and Gp41


What is considered the window period for HIV?

Time period between infection and antibody production.


With what drug was P. notatum replaced by and why?

It was replaced by P. chrysogenum because it was a more prolific strain.


What is drug synergism and what is drug antagonism?

Synergism is when two drugs work together to enhance the effect. Antagonism is when two drugs inhibit the effects of each other


Why can you not take Cephalosporins if you are allergic to Penicillins?

Cephalosporins have the same “nucleus”, which is the beta-lactam ring. If you are allergic to penicillins, then you are most likely allergic to cephalosporins.


What does Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim inhibit and why do they not hurt us?

They inhibit folic acid as result inhibiting DNA/RNA and protein synthesis. They do not harm us because we can get folic acid via our diet.


If a drug is selective, what does that mean?

mean that it specifically targets the bacteria cells and not the human cells.


Commensalism -

one benefits, one isn’t harmed/ not affected (+/0) (ex: bacteria lives off dead skin)


Mutualism -

both benefit from living together (+,+) (e.coli synthesis vitamin k and vitamin B)



one organism benefits, the other is harmed (+/-), causing disease in the host.


What is the difference between an acute and latent infection?

Latent is dormant or recessive and chronic is ongoing and long term.

Acute is sudden and severe.

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